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VENTION  OF    THE    Amalgamate 

(Cluthituj  Barken-,  uf  Ainrrira.  HELD 

MAY   13  TO  18,    1919. 





Call  for  Convention   .  . 

st   Session 
Second  Sess 

(I   Session 

rth    Session 

Report  of  General  Executive  Board. 

h  Session  . 
Seventh  Session 
Eighth  Scs> 

;i    Cession    . 

ii    Session 





41'  40 











Delegates  t.»  Thml  I  .ntispiece 

Baby  Carriage  1  ith  Army  Uniforms  to  be  Finished 

in   'lYm'inrnt    li  .    135 

Takin.  -us  on  Baby  Carriage  for 

MJT  at    Iloni'  137 

Child    L»l.i»r    Kmpli»\v<l     in    tlie    Manufacture    of    Army 

,  138 

Call  for  Third  Biennial  Convention 

New  York,  March  6,  1918. 

To  the  l  mcils,  Joint  Boards  and  Local  Unions 

of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America. 

In  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  our  International  Constitution  your 
e  Board  herewith  calls  upon  yon  to  elect  your  representa- 
tives to  th     i  HiKD  BIENNIAL  CONVENTION  to  be  convened  in  Baltimore, 

tO  A    M. 

is  the  third  con  to  be  held  under  the  banner  of  the  Amalga- 

mate ng  Workers  of  Ann  : 

convention,  at  the  end  of  1914,  in  New  York,  was  an  emergency 
meeting,  held  threat  stream. 

At  that  t  a  the  escutcheon  of  the  organized  clothing  workers 

was  cleansed  fmm  tiu>  accumulated  blots  and  stains  of  many  years  of  treason, 

•ffnt  and  disaster;  cleansed  by  the  class  conscious  action  of  the 

rank  and  file,  and  the  name  of  the  Amalgamated    Clothing    Workers    of 

America  was  inscribed  on  it.    As  time  passed  it  added  to  its  lustre. 

Our  second  convention,  in  Rochester,  was,  in  at  least  one  respect,  a  con* 
trast  to  the  first  one. 

While  our  New  York  convention  was  but  a  mobilization  of  forces,  the 

organization  having  its  face  set  to  the  future  and  not  wishing  to  look  back 

o  discouraging  past,  the  second  convention  was  a  reunion  of  a  victorious 

Our  report  to  that  convention  told  of  battles  bravely  fought  and 

brilliantly  won.     For  th-  ;n<>  in  the  history  of  the  organized  clothing 

workers  we  were  able  to  look  back  upon  a  past  with  pride  and  joy  and  draw 

from  it  inspiration,  courage  and  hope  for  the  great  tasks  ahead  of  us. 

The  third  convention,  next  May  in  Baltimore,  will  be  greeted  by  Uie 
greatest  hosts  of  labor  ever  organized  in  the  clothing  industry,  with  a  new 
aspiring  record  of  progress  and  attainments,  including  the  establishment 
of  the  48  hour  week. 

The  world  war  is  still  raging.  While  at  the  time  our  two  previous 
conventions  were  held  the  war  was  confined  to  the  old  world  it  has  sine* 
drawn  into  its  vortex  also  our  own  country.  The  problems  created  by  the 
war  for  the  labor  movement  have  thereby  been  made  more  serious  and 
complex.  Our  organization  has  successfully  met  those  problems  in  so  far  as 
they  concerned  us.  As  a  part  of  the  labor  movement  we  must  be  prepared 

in  in  the  future  as  they  may  arise. 

We  are  coming  to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  with  a  stronger  organ- 
ization,  with  a  greater  record  of  achievements,  with  a  more  powerful 



and  with  a  sense  of  self-reliance  that  will  be  an  inexhaustible  source  of 
courage  in  the  great  task  of  working  out  our  own  salvation. 

Your  local  union  is  entitled  to  send — delegates  for  whom  credentials  are 
herewith  enclosed.  The  duplicates  are  to  be  forwarded  to  the  undersigned 
immediately  upon  the  election  of  the  delegate.  The  originals  are  to  be  pre- 
sented by  the  delegates  to  the  Convention's  Committee  on  Credentials. 

We  hope  that  you  will  select  your  ablest  members  to  represent  you  and 
that  you  will  send  a  full  delegation  to  the  convention.  Let  all  of  us  make 
oar  full  contribution  towards  making  the  coming  convention  even  more 
successful  than  were  the  preceding  ones. 

The  General  Executive  Board  take  this  occasion  to  congratulate  the 
membership  upon  the  splendid  achievements  of  our  Organization  and  to 
express  their  thanks  for  the  trust  reposed  in  them. 

"With  best  hopes  for  a  successful  convention  and  continued  success  there- 
after, and  hoping  to  meet  a  full  representation  of  our  membership  in  Balti- 
more, we  extend  to  you  fraternal  greetings. 



General  Secretary. 


First  Session. 

Baltimore,  Monday,  May   11, 

The  Third  Convention  of  the  Amalgamated  rioth'nf  Worker*  of  America  was 
called  to  order  at  11:15  a.  m..  Monday.  May  13th,  1918.  in  the  Garden  Theatre,  by  Mr. 
Hairy  Elsen,  President  of  the  Dlitrlct  Council  of  Baltimore.  No  3.  The  arrival  of 

man  and  Secretary  Schlossberg  waa  greeted  with  trstaeudB 
errerybody  rising  to  greet  them  with  cheers  and  prolonged  applause. 

Opening  Address  of  Brother   Cleen 
FtOow  Delegate* : 

It  !•  the  great  eat  honor  I  ever  expected  to  hare  to  be  able  to  open  thU 
of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers     Thanking  the  members  of  thla 

or  the  United  States  and  Canada.  I  wiah  to  aay  that  we  are  happy  that 
haa  been  chosen  by  them  for  this  Third   Biennial  CoorenUon  of  the 

!  think  that  Baltimore  deaerres  It  Baltimore  waa.  so  to  aay.  the  cradle  of  the 
Amalgamated.  The  strength  of  the  Amalgamated  was  first  tested  In  Baltimore.  The 
minute  the  Amalgamated  came  to  life  In  Nashville,  in  1914.  that  very  minute  the 
Amalgamated  had  to  begin  the  battle  for  its  existence  in  the  city  of  Baltimore.  At 
that  time  we  had  a  strike  in  the  biggest  factory  of  this  city,  and  one  of  the  biggest  in 
the  United  States — a  firm  that  employed  in  the  neighborhood  of  three  thousand 
tailors  and  cutters.  The  Amalgamated  took  up  the  fight  and  won.  Not  only  did  the 
Amalgamated  fight  its  first  battle  in  Baltimore,  but  even  the  spirit  of  the  Amalgamated 
was  first  born  in  Baltimore.  The  Tailors'  Council,  you  will  remember,  had  its  origin 
in  Baltimore. 

The  Amalgamated  has  made  wonderful  progress  in  Baltimore.  Organisations  that 
have  been  in  existence  for  twenty-five,  thirty  and  forty  yean  have  not  dared  to 
undertake  the  tasks  that  the  Amalgamated  has  undertaken  in  Baltimore.  And  we 
have  succeeded. 

When  the  Amalgamated  was  first  organised  here,  when  the  oflice  was  first 
lished  in  this  city,  our  total  membership  in  Baltimore  was  1  SCO  dues  paying 
and  about  the  same  number  of  non-dues  paying  members.     As  yon  know,  in 

t  we  used  to  have  two  kinds  of  members,  does  paying  and  non-does) 
Today  we  have  in  Baltimore  10.000  full-fledged  does  paying  members  of  the 

Clothing  Workers.      (Loud  applause.)      One  thing  that  we  did  lose  la 
is  the  non-dues  paying  members.    They  all  became  dues  paying  meml 

I  bid  you  welcome,  delegates,  officers  and  guests,  to  this  Third 
tlon  of  tho  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers,  on  behalf  of  the  10.000 
of  the  Amalgamated  army. 

I  shall  now  Introduce  to  you  our  President.  Brother 

President  Hlllman  waa  greeted  with  applause,  everybody  rising  and  cheering. 

At   this   point    the   arrival   of   Judge   Panken   and    Assemblyman    ShtplaeosT   and 
Charles  W.  Ervln.  editor  of  the  New  York  Call,  was  greeted  with  r: 

President    Hlllman's    Address 

Delegates  to  this  Third  Biennial  Convention: 

is  a  privilege  to  meet  here  at  this  Convention.  We  come  here  lepieseiilliig 
every  place  on  the  North  American  Continent  where  clothing  is  made.  We  are 
representing  an  army  of  over  100.000  organised  clothing  workers.  Not  only  do  those 
members  look  to  you  at  this  Convention,  but  every  man.  woman  and  child  who 

he  clothing  industry  looks  to  you.  and  wishes  you  success  in  you 

Upon  your  decisions,  upon  your  work  here,  will  perhaps  depend  the  fotore  of  _ 

>usands  of  men  and  women  who  have  to  labor  in  the  clothing  industry.  Our 
organization  has  a  message  not  only  to  the  clothing  workers— we  bring  a  message  of 
hope,  a  message  of  cheer  to  every  worker  organised  or  unorganised,  in  this  cooatry. 

We  meet  here  now  two  years  after  our  last  Convention,  and  have  a  woaitiful 
record  of  achievement  to  show.  During  those  two  years,  through  she  efforts  of  our 
organization,  the  clothing  industry  that  had  been  a  sweatshop  industry  has  been 
transformed  by  us  into  an  industry  in  which  men  and  women  need  not  he  ashamed 
to  work.  We  have  civlllied  the  Industry.  We  have  humanised  some  of  the  esmaloyett 
in  the  industry  and  we  brought  a  sense  of  dignity  and  self-respect  to  every  ***ff  and 
woman  working  In  this  industry.  My  friends,  it  was  in  the  coarse  of  those  two 


that  the  forty-eight  hour  week  was  made  an  accomplished  fact.  It  was  the 
work  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America..  My  friends,  this  waa 
brought  about  not  by  any  well  wishing;  It  was  bravery  fought  for  by  the  members  of 
our  organiiatlon.  For  weeks  and  months  the  men  and  women  stood  out  on  the 
of  Montreal.  Canada,  at  a  time,  when  the  conditions  made  for  the  most  intense 
Girls  were  on  the  picket  line  In  weather  of  30  degrees  below  zero.  They 
But  they  held  out  and  as  a  result  the  forty-eight  hour  week  is  now 

ion  fought,  and  some  died,  in  the  great  struggle  in  the  city  of 
the  forty-eight  hour  week  waa  the  great  issue  raised  by  our  organization. 
We  hare  raised  the  standard  of  wages  so  that  we  are  coming  near  the  American 
In  the  clothing  industry.  I  want  you,  delegates,  to  grasp  this  point,  that  if 
standards  mean  high  standards  of  living,  that  It  is  the  organization  of 
that  stands  and  fights  for  those  American  standards  of  living. 
Tbe  employers  Introduced  In  the  days  past  Russian  standards,  Chinese  standards, 
rds.  It  was  up  to  our  organization,  the  Amalgamated  Clothing 
Workers  ol  America*  to  fight  and  establish  American  standards.  We  have  time  and 
again  readjusted  and  brought  up  the  wages  so  as  to  meet  changed  conditions.  All 
else  that  waa  accomplished  was  accomplished  through  our  organization.  The  em- 
ployers  throughout  did  not  hesitate  to  throw  the  full  burden  of  the  present  crisis  upon 
Che  workers. 

When  this  country  entered  into  the  war,  a  situation  arose  in  which  unscrupulous 
employers  saw  an  opportunity  to  crush  whatever  there  was  of  labor  organizations; 
they  were  ready,  under  the  cloak  of  patriotism,  to  crush  democracy  at  home,  no  matter 
what  happens  abroad.  In  our  own  industry,  when  the  contracts  were  given  out  for 
army  clothing  and  uniforms  that  the  youth  of  the  nation  is  to  wear — the  uniforms  that 
our  own  members  In  the  thousands  are  wearing  today — the  non-union  employers,  who. 
reason  received  the  contracts,  introduced  the  worst  kind  of  sweatshop  condi- 
the  manufacture  of  army  uniforms.  We  found  at  a  time  when  tens  of 
thousands  of  skilled  clothing  workers  were  out  on  the  streets  looking  for  work,  that 
the  uniforms  went  to  the  tenements — to  be  made  under  the  most  unsanitary  conditions. 
That  may  have  been  the  cause  of  the  great  mortality  among  the  soldiers  in  the  camps 
here  at  the  beginning  of  the  mobilization.  Investigations  have  shown  that  Army 
uniforms  were  made  in  places  where  there  was  actual  disease — contagious  disease. 
These  employers  saw  their  opportunity  to  bring  in  child  labor,  to  replace  men  by 
women,  all.  understand  me,  under  the  cloak  of  patriotism.  I  understand  that  one  firm, 
conspicuous  in  this  market  for  the  brutal  conditions  prevailing  in  its  shops,  appealed 
to  the  women  to  "enlist."  Enlist  for  what?  To  help  this  particular  manufacturer 
profiteer  on  the  Government  of  the  country.  We  have  taken  up  our  grievances  with 
the  representatives  of  the  Government  in  Washington.  We  have  shown  those  em- 
ployers in  their  proper  light.  As  a  result,  changes  were  made  that  improved  enor- 
mously the  labor  conditions  in  the  manufacture  of  uniforms  today. 

We  not  only  won  conditions  for  ourselves,  but  we  have  created  a  situation  where 
this  country  will  be  spared  the  disgrace  of  having  Army  uniforms  manufactured  under 
sweatshop  conditions. 

Men  who  presumed  to  speak  for  labor  made  themselves  the  willing  tools  of  the 
employers  and  fought  against  decent  standards  of  labor  on  Army  clothing.  Fortu- 
y  did  not  succeed.  I  want  to  say  to  you.  delegates,  that  the  brand)  of  tho 
administration  in  Washington  which  has  charge  of  the  manufacture  of  Army  clothing, 
deserves  our  heartiest  thanks  for  its  sincere  and  earnest  attempt  to  protect  labor 
standards.  The  war  has  created  a  condition  where  every  one  must  assume  his  part 
of  the  responsibility. 

It  is  no  more  a  question  as  to  the  causes  of  the  war.  I  feel  today  stronger  than 
at  any  time  that  labor  will  suffer  its  greatest  defeat  if  the  autocratic  power  of  Germany 
will  have  its  way. 

My  friends,  democracy  is  not  confined  to  any  branch  of  our  life.  Democracy 
can  not  really  exist  politically,  if  there  Is  industrial  slavery.  And  if  the  forces  of 
political  autocracy  should  be  victorious  In  this  great  struggle,  it  will  mean  a  victory 
for  Industrial  autocracy. 

My  friends,  the  war  was  started  over  night.  The  peoples  of  the  world  knew 
nothing  about  It.  It  was  done  by  individuals  with  tremendous  power  over  the  lives 
of  the  people.  It  was  in  their  secret  sessions  that  war  was  declared.  Labor  has  a 
responsibility  to  see  that  peace  should  not  be  made  in  the  same  fashion.  The  settle- 



inent  of  this  great  world  struggle  BOA  be  made  by  tae 
Individual  rulers. 

My  friends,  there  are  a  great  number  In  this  country  who 
own  German  rule  la   Issarieaa  industries.     We  hare  paid  a 
-captains  of  industry'.    And  what  do  we  find?    We  flod  that  Industry 
every  instaace  where  the  Mad  for  production  made  Itself  felt  by  the 
gency     The  old  system  of  individual  responsibility  la  not  only  unjust,  but  is 
and  criminal  for  the  country  generally.    We  all  must  look  forward  to  a 
will  abolish  poverty,  unemployment,  and  all  other  •ufTertngs  that  are  caused  by  the 
pratent  Industrial  system. 

I  hope  that  your  deliberations  will  strengthen  still  more  the  power  of  the 
ration,  will  bring  still  greater  unity,  and  make  for  a  better  futuro — a 
a  free  world  politically  and  Industrially      (Tremendous  applauat)). 

After  his  address  President  HlUman  assumed  the  chair. 

Election    of    Committee    on    Credentials 

President  HILLMAN:  According  to  the  rules  laid  down  at 
the  first  order  of  business  will  be  the  election  of  a  Committee  on  Credentials  Yo» 
all  know  the  reason  for  this  procedure.  I  hope  that  you  will  waste  as  little  time  a* 
possible  on  tilt  flection  of  a  Committee  on  Credentials,  so  that  they  can  proceed  with 
the  work  and  that  the  Convention  may  expedite  matters  In  dealing  with  the  great 
number  of  problems  that  are  awaiting  us.  Declaring  this  Convention  open  and 
for  the  transaction  of  business  I  shall  entertain  a  motion  for  niMliiillussl  of  a 
mlttee  on  Credentials. 

Delegate  ALEX.  COHEN:  Mr.  President.  I  more  that  you  appoint  a  committee 
subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Convention. 

Preslden*  HILLMAN  Brother  Cohen.  I  will  have  to  rule  your  motion  out  of 
order.  We  shall  not  start  this  Convention  by  making  possible  the  blunders  of  other 
conventions.  (Laughter  and  applause). 

Several  members  were  nominated  by  the  delegates  to  the  Convention  and  all  the 
nominees  were  asked  whether  they  accepted  or  declined.  The  following  seven 

!..  Well*  Local  116  Montreal 

L   Rerayle  Local      3  New  York 

Jack  Blame  Local       1  Boston 

Stephan  Skala  Local      8  Chicago 

Joseph  Goodman  I /oral      S                                         v  York 

Jos.  Gold  Local  156  New  York 

Hyman  Blumberg  District  Council  No.  3  Baltimore 

President    HILLMAN:     I   forgot  to  announce  that  we  are  to  elect  a  commit  tee 
of  five.    To  save  the  time  of  the  Convention,  we  will  call  this  the  Credential  Committee, 
here  was  no  objection.    President  Hillman  requested  the  committee  to  take  the 
credentials  and  retire  to  another  room  and  report  later  to  the  conrentioiL) 
(The  Credential  Committee  retired  In  accordance  with  his  Instructions): 
President  HILLMAN:    Gentlemen.  I  hare  great  pleasure  to  introduce  to  roe,  a  maa 
who  has  been  a  friend  of  our  organization  in  the  past,  who  has  the  confidence  of  oar 
membership  in  this  city  to  such  an  extent  that  when  they  were  looking  for  a 
of  our  Industrial  court  in  one  of  the  largest  houses  in  this  city,  they 
•elected  him  for  that  position.    I  have  the  pleasure  of  introducing  to  you  the 
of  the  Trade  Board  under  the  agreements  with  the  Henry 
Strouse  Brothers.  Judge  of  the  Juvenile  Court  Jacob  M.  Moses-     (Applause.) 

Address  of  Judge   Moses 

"resident,  delegates,  ladles  and  gentlemen:     I  esteem  It  a  rery  high 
nly  a  great  pleasure,  to  welcome  you  to  our  city.     (Applauae).    As  yo« 
Baltimore  Is  one  of  the  Important  clothing  centers  of  the)  country  and  tta  reputation  ta 
at  least  partially  to  be  placed  to  the  credit  of  the  Amalgamated  deta- 
in* Workers  of  America.    (Applause.)    I  say  this  because  tl 

clothlnp  industry  of  Baltimore,  and  the  rank  and  file  of 

been  looking  forward  with  pleasure  and  hope  to  the  meeting  of  this 



the  muesli  which  you  will  bring  and  which  you  will  leave  with  us,  and  which,  I  am 
•ore,  will  prove  an  inspiration  and  an  incentive  to  still  greater  achievements  in  indus- 
trial freedom  and  Justice.  (Applause). 

This  Convention.  I  believe,  Mr.  President,  is  the  first  which  your  organization  has 
held  aince  our  entrance  into  the  great  world's  conflict  which  is  now  raging.  This  is 
CM  of  the  moat  critical  periods  in  the  history  of  the  world,  and  each  and  every  one  of 
m  trom  our  noble  President.  Woodrow  Wilson  (loud  applause),  to  the  humblest  mem- 
ber of  this  organisation,  must  dedicate  himself  and  herself  to  the  furtherance  of  the 
crest  cause  of  humanity  and  democracy  (applause).  In  this  great  world's  conflict, 
Is  playing  a  leading  part,  and  it  is  universally  recognized  that  the  outcome  of 
struggle  for  freedom  will  mainly  depend  upon  labor  in  the  various  belligerent 
Let  the  keynote  of  this  Convention  be  "Service" — service  not  only  to  our- 
selvesYbut  service  to  others,  and  especially  service  to  our  country  in  this  great  crisis 
(applause).  I  want  it  to  go  forth  from  this  convention  hall  not  only  throughout  the 
dty  of  Baltimore,  but  throughout  this  nation,  that  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers 
of  America  are  wholeheartedly,  loyally  and  unreservedly  supporting  the  President  of  the 
United  States  (great  applause),  and  that  we  are  ready  and  willing  to  dedicate,  not  only 
ourselves,  but  all  that  we  hold  dearest  in  the  world  for  the  purpose  of  winning  thin 
war  (applause).  We  can  not  afford  to  have  any  slackers  in  our  ranks.  Every  man  and 
rrery  woman  must  do  his  or  her  duty.  And  I  fool  ronfidf»nt  that  labor  will  do  its 
duty  and  will  make  all  the  sacrifices  necessary  to  win  the  war  (applause).  All  that  tho 
workers  ask  is  a  square  deal.  All  that  labor  demands  Is  justice.  An  honest  day's  work 
Is  worth  an  honest  day's  pay.  And  it  is  the  duty  of  this  great  nation,  which  Is  fighting 
for  Justice  and  democracy,  to  say  to  us  that  the  profiteers  of  the  country,  no  matter  how 
rich  or  how  influential  or  how  powerful  they  may  be,  shall  not  exploit  the  toiling  masses 
of  our  people  (applause),  and  shall  not  rob  the  worker  of  the  Just  share  of  the  products 
of  his  own  industry.  The  ideals  of  justice  and  democracy  for  which  we  are  fighting 
abroad  should  be  put  into  practice  here  at  home  (applause),  and  our  government  and 
our  people  must  realize  that  the  unfair  and  rapacious  employer  of  labor  is  an  enemy  to 
the  peace  and  the  freedom  and  the  democracy  of  the  world  no  less  than  the  political 
autocrat  wtoo  is  conspiring  to  deprive  the  people  of  thoir  liberties  (applause).  Our 
President  has  said  that  "this  is  a  war  to  make  the  world  safe  for  democracy."  But 
let  us  remember  that  democracy  is  not  an  end  in  itself.  Democracy  is  only  a  means 
to  a  certain  end.  And  the  aims  of  democracy  are  the  conservation  of  life — the  safe- 
guarding of  the  liberty  and  the  promotion  of  the  happiness  of  the  people  (applause). 
As  your  distinguished  chairman  said,  political  democracy  alone  can  not  accomplish 
these  ends.  Political  democracy  must  go  hand  in  hand  with  democracy  in  Industry. 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  can  not  close  thf^  '  marks  without  reference  to  an  address 

which  was  delivered  in  the  city  of  Baltimore  in  November  last.  On  that  occasion  the 
National  Consumers'  League  met  here  in  an  annual  convention  and  the  Honorable 
Secretary.  Newton  D.  Baker  (applause)  who  is  the  President  of  that  organization, 
delivered  an  address  on  industry  in  war  time. 

I  want  to  read  a  few  words  from  this  address  because  this  organization  especially 
is  Interested  in  some  of  the  things  Mr.  Baker  said.  He  said:  "It  will  do  us  no 
good  whatever  to  send  our  sons  to  France  to  fieht  for  our  political  rights  if  while 
they  are  waging  the  battle  we  surrender  our  industrial  and  our  social  rights  here  at 
home.  ...  It  does  us  no  good  to  be  able  to  vote  for  people;  it  does  us  no  good 
to  be  able  to  call  ourselves  free  and  to  describe  our  land  as  the  land  of  the  free  unless 
we  have  all  the  component  parts  of  real  freedom.  And  that  means  the  political  liberty 
to  recast  our  industrial  life  so  that  it  will  really  be  a  life  of  opportunity  to  the  least 
person  who  lives  under  it. 

"Now,  our  sons  are  going  to  France — many  of  them  to  stay — many  of  them  to 
return,  and  when  they  come  back  they  will  see  the  Statue  of  Liberty.  They  will  sail 
Into  New  York  harbor  proud  of  their  victories,  proud  of  their  honor?.  And  I  am  filled 
with  an  exalted  state  of  enthusiasm  about  the  kind  of  armies  we  are  sending  to 
France.  It  Is  just  such  an  army  as  a  free  people  ought  to  send,  an  army  that  has 
Ideals  in  its  individuals  as  well  as  In  Its  collective  mass,  an  army  that  is  going  upon 
no  selfish  quest,  is  not  seeking  to  take  something  from  somebody,  Is  divorced  from 
all  ancient  notions  that  used  to  bring  about  wars  of  prestige  or  of  conquest.  It  is 
going  upon  a  purely  idealistic  basis.  In  a  certain  sense  they  are  material  warriors  In 
a  spiritual  warfare;  and  when  they  have  finally  done  the  thing  which  they  must  do, 
when  they  have  finally  established  on  the  frontiers  of  France  the  eternal  dominance  of 



free  over  autocratic  institution*,  when  they  hare  done  that,  they  will  come  1 
And  when  they  come  I  want  them  to  find  not  a  dissipated  aad  depressed  life 
I  do  not  want  them  to  find  that  th.-y  hare  been  chasing  one  corner  of  freedom 
the  others  have  been  utterly  lost,  but  I  want  them  to  come  back  to  wives 
and  mother*  and  brothers  aad  children  filled  with  robust  health,  people  who  hare 
worked  in  Industry  aad  commerce,  people  who  hare  produced  the  goods  upon  which 
life  depends,  people  who  hare  filled  the  workshops  and  the  factories  and  the  fields  with 
labor,  done  under  wholesome  conditions.  Let  them  find  that,  as  they  were  fighting 
•»  end  of  the  frontier  and  winning  one  corner  of  freedom's  fields,  we  st  boms) 
were  enlarging  lea  of  Industrial  liberty,  that  we  wore  laying  out  now  bovn- 

daries  of  real  freedom  hare  among  ourselves,  that  we  were  enlarging  the  lessons  we 
bad  hitherto  learned  of  the  value,  the  Indlspenslbleness  of  wholesome  OuMHIOiis  for 
people  who  do  the  labor  for  the  world,  and  establishing  condition*  which  It  will  be  a 
iiege,  for  them  to  come  back  to  rather  than  a  gr 

And.   In   closing,   he   referred   to  one   moro   significant   matter  which  I   want   to 
call  to  your  attention,  and  of  which  this  Convention  should  be  told.    He  said: 

•The  privates'  uniforms  of  the  Army  of  the  United  States  are  not 
in  sweatshops;  not  one  of  them  Is  being  made  In  sweatshops.     Under  i 
which  have  been  made  for  the  manufacture  of  the  clothing  of  the  Army.  It  is 
substantially  :•.  -lor  sanitary  conditions,  not  in  the  homos  of  people 

to  lire  in  congested  places:  under  suitable  restrictions  as  to  hours  of  labor 
and  u:i  J.  r  proper  wage  scales,  so  that  for  once  at  least  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  assumes  the  character  of  a  model  employer  In  a  vital  Indus' 

(Loud  applause). 

Now.  delegates,  who  Is  responsible  for  the  fact  that  for  the  first  time,  st  least 
In  my  recollection.  &  cabinet  officer  Is  able  to  get  up  before  the  country  aad  boast 
fact   that  the,  United  State*  I*  a  model  employer     It   I*  due  to  the  untiring 
efforts— to  the  in*1  strength  of  Sidney  Hlllman   (loud  applause).     In  his 

modest  way  he  gave  credit  for  this  achievement  to  the  entire  membership  of  your 
organization,  when  It  was  thla  quiet  man  with  the  still,  small  rolce.  who  in  lesion 
and  out  of  season,  who  almost  wore  out  the  railroad  ties  between  her**  aad  Wash- 
ington, going  over  to  in  high  place— those  In  power— and  with  his  quiet 
•istinle  insistence  forced  the  Gor eminent  to  have  the  uniforms 

made  In  decent  shops      J  Applause).     And  so.  through  the  efforts  of  your  executive 
officers,  you  hare  enal  i  State*  Government  to  take  the  proud  position 

that  it  now  boast*,  to  be  "a  model  employer  In  a  rital  Industry"    (Applau* 

So.  ladle*  and  gentlemen,  in  welcoming  r<  city  of  Baltimore,  aad  I 

much  int.  hear  the  opening  speech  of  Mr.   Risen  who  aald  that   Baltimore 

was  the  cradle  of  the  Amalgamated—well,  gentlemen.  It  might  be  the  cradle,  bnt 
the  Amslgamated  1*  not  asleep  h  -r  and  applause).  In  welcoming 

you.  therefore,  to  our  city,  and   to  pltality.   I  also  want  to  extend 

to  you  our  congratulations  upon  the  great  achierement*  which  hare  been  rtrlewod 
In  the  address  of  your  President,  and  to  expre!*  the  hope  and  the  conviction  that 
the  deliberations  and  the  discussion!  of  this  Convention  will  add  new  hope  and 
new  cheer  and  new  inspiration,  not  only  to  the  workers  of  thl!  organization  or  of 
this  city,  but  to  all  the  worker*  of  America  (applau* 

President    HIM  •  Delegates,    our    organisation    prides    itself   upon    bavin* 

a  great  numb>  nles.     But  those  who  sre  our  friend*  are  real  friends,  and  as 

one  of  the  officers  of  the  organization.  I  can  hardly  distinguish  between  the)  otleatl 
elected  by  you  for  your  daily  work,  and  a  number  of  others  who  hare  glren  up  all 
the  time  they  could  snare  from  other  work  to  help  In  the  building  of  our  organixa- 
tion.  The  one  I  am  going  to  present  to  you  was  one  of  our  officer*:  for  s  while  la 
New  York  city  our  membership  elected  him  as  manager  of  their  joint  board.  And 
they  thought  so  well  of  his  work  that  they  hare  elected  and  re-elected  him  to  the 
State  Assembly.  I  take  pleasure  in  Introducing  to  yon  Brother 

Assemblyman  Abraham  ShlplacofTs 

I  don't  know  whether  our  worthy  President  realised  what  a  compliment  ho  paid 

me  just  now.    It  Is  said  that  the  successful  teacher  Is  one  who  makes  himself  useless 

(laughter),  and.  to  a  certain  extent.  I  can  show  the  same  accomplishment,  Mr.  PrenV 

I  was  the  manager  of  the  Joint  Board  of  New  York,  and  in  a  very  short  while 



I  brought  the  organization  to  such  a  successful  stand  that  I  made  myself  useless  in  It 

FrUnds.  I  am  mindful  of  your  Ume,  and  I  feel  that,  at  least  for  me,  this  Is  no 
place  and  no  Umo  for  making  any  Ion*  speeches,  so  I  am  going  to  spare  you.  I 
Inflict  it  occasionally  upon  the  rank  and  file,  and  you.  as  the  representatives  of  tht 
rank  and  file,  hare  to  take  In  the  dose  anyhow.  So  If  I  have  anything  of  an  extensive 
nature  to  tell  you.  I  will  reserve  it  for  such  time  as  you  will  have  to  listen,  whether 
you  like  It  or  not.  (Laughter.) 

To-day  I  want  to  express  Just  one  thought,  chiefly  for  my  own  satisfaction,  and 
I  want  to  say  the  following: 

There  are  times  In  the  life  of  every  Individual,  as  well  as  in  the  history  of  groups 
of  Individuals  and  of  organizations  when  they  face  certain  situations — certain  prob- 
lems, certain  tasks  in  life  which  they  cannot  measure  themselves  at  the  time  when 
they  approach  those  situations.  And  I  think  that  it  Is  a  very  fortunate  thing  that 
things  happen  that  way. 

I  feel  to-day  that  four  years  ago,  when  this  organization  was  at  its  incipient 
stage,  that  If  those  men  and  women  who  have  been  at  the  helm  of  this  organization 
for  the  last  four  years,  and  who  have  been  steering  it  so  beautifully  and  successfully, 
I  feel  that  if  some  of  the  men  and  women  had  at  that  time  realized  what  a  tremendous 
{ft*  they  had  before  them,  the  amount  of  work  they  had  to  accomplish,  the  acuteness 
of  the  struggle  that  they  were  to  engage  In,  the  possibilities  are  that  some  of  them 
would  have  lost  courage  and  would  not  have  tackled  the  proposition.  Fortunately, 
we  do  not  always  figure  out  carefully  beforehand  Just  what  is  facing  us — I  say  "for- 
tunately" In  this  particular  case.  And  I  want  to  say  to  you,  delegates,  to-day  that 
tome  of  you  probably  don't  quite  realize  what  you  are  here  for — I  mean  not  to  the 
fullest  extent  to  which  I,  as  an  observer,  not  as  a  co-worker,  can  see  it.  What  I  say 
to-<iay  Is  not  subject  to  the  rules  of  the  Credentials  Committee.  I  am  not  even  subject 
to  the  rules  that  may  be  laid  down  by  the  President.  I  happen  to  be  a  free  lance 
today.  I  don't  know  just  whom  I  represent,  except,  maybe,  the  firm  known  as 
"Ship."  Some  of  you  know  it.  And  I  am  happy  to  say  that  around  that  "Ship"  in 
the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  I  have  built  up  both  a  friendship  and 
a  comradeship  of  which  I  am  quite  proud.  (Loud  applause.) 

Tou  will  no  doubt  in  the  next  few  days  be  deliberating  upon  questions  of  material 
importance  to  your  members,  and  not  for  one  moment  would  I  urge  you  to  do  any- 
thing else.  You  have  plenty  of  problems  to  solve  yet.  I  would  ask  you — I  would 
ask  you  that  at  least  in  your  subconsciousness  you  remember  this  fact — and  I  want 
to  repeat  again  that  what  I  am  going  to  say  no  one  but  I  myself  am  responsible  for. 
At  least  in  your  subconsciousness  you  must  remember  that  organized  labor  In  this 
country,  while,  relatively  speaking,  It  has  accomplished  a  great  deal,  In  my  humble 
opinion  It  has  not  quite  succeded  in  its  highest  mission,  for  if  it  had,  this  organiza- 
tion would  be  part  and  parcel  of  the  organized  American  labor  movement.  (Applause.) 

I  have  not  come  here  to  quarrel  with  anybody,  but  I  want  to  tell  you  something 
which  occurred  a  few  days  ago  In  the  city  of  Paris.  At  the  conference  of  the  Inter- 
Allied  Labor  Organization  of  the  Allied  countries,  the  delegates  of  the  official  labor 
organization  of  the  United  States  have  had  the  experience  of  being  told  that  which  they 
should  probably  have  been  told  long  ago.  And  when  I  say  it,  I  say  it  not  only  with 
the  profoundest  respect,  but  with  the  love,  with  the  wannest  feelings  toward  the  two 
and  a  half  millions  of  the  rank  and  file  of  the  American  Federation  of  Labor.  Un- 
fortunately,  I  cannot  feel  the  same  way  toward  some  of  their  leaders,  and  It  Is  these 
leaders  who  were  told  something  which  you  may  as  well  know  to-day,  as  you  are 
going  to  start  on  the  deliberations  of  your  Convention. 

Mr.  Thomas,  one  of  the  greatest  statesmen  of  Europe  and  recently  a  member 
of  the  Cabinet  of  France,  said  something  to  the  gentlemen  who  represent  that  little, 
funny,  stout  gentleman  of  American  organized  labor,  when  they  tried  to  bring  his 
spirit  Into  conditions  abroad.  They  told  the  American  delegation,  "We  are  very 
sorry.  We  should  very  much  like  to  have  you  in  our  company,  but  if  your  point  of 
•Hew  is  as  narrow  as  It  is,  why,  it  is  not  very  essential.  The  British,  the  French, 
and  the  other  countries  who  are  represented  at  the  Allied  conference  will  somehow  or 
>ther  manage  to  get  along  without  you."  (Enthusiastic  applause  and  laughter.)  I 
have  not  for  one  moment  given  up  the  hope,  the  sincere  and  ardent  hope  to  see  the 
day  when  this  apparent  estrangement,  apparent  estrangement — not  real — apparent 
estrangement  between  this  organization  and  part  of  the  rest  of  labor  of  this  country 



will  be  a  thing  of  the  past.  But  at  the  aame  time.  I  not  only  hope,  but  I  am 
if  I  understand  the  mettle  of  which  you  men  and  women  art  made,  that  It  will  not 
be  done  by  the  bending  of  yoor  knee  Nor  will  H  have  to  be  done  by  the  coaHssj 
of  the  great  forces  of  American  labor.  It  will  simply  have  to  be  done  sot*  in  or 
later  by  putting  aside  those  few  individuals  who  stand  between  you  and  the  rest  of 
the  workers  of  the  United  Stale*  (Loud  and  prolonged  applause.)  to  I  today, 
not  responsible  to  any  one.  not  even  to  the  President,  until  he  Ulls  me  to  sit  down 
(Laughter),  will  say  right  here  that  I.  for  one.  would  very  much  btke  to  see  that  part 
of  organized  labor  which  has  official  recognition  represented  here  to-day. 

But  In  the  words  of  that  great  statesman,  mttered  a  few  days  ago.  In  Part*.  1 
will  say  that  for  the  present,  at  least.  It  seems  to  me  that  it  Is  not  absolutely  easen- 
tlal  (Laughter  and  applause.)  And  I  assure  you.  my  friends,  that  I  would  not  feel 
that  way— I  would  not  say  ao  if  I  thought  that  the  great  number  of  members  of  the 
American  labor  movement  had  any  111  feeling  toward  you.  I  would  not  say  so  If  I  did 
*nd  I  think  that  1  have  a  right  to  say  that  I  know  eemettlng  about  the 
attitude  of  the  rank  and  file  of  the  workers  of  the  United  State*  toward  this  organ- 
tsation.  because  I  happen  to  be  the  "Wandering  Jew"  that  keeps  on  moving  from 
one  part  of  the  country  to  another.  (Laughter  )  I  have.  In  fact  within  the  last  two 
or  three  years,  covered  some  seventeen  or  eighteen  thousand  miles  in  this  country,  and 
I  don't  usually  stop  at  the  Millionaires*  Club  when  I  come  to  a  city.  (Laughter  )  It 
Is  usually  rubbing  elbows  with  worklngmen  and  worklngwosaen.  and  I  And.  and  I 
assure  you  that  I  am  not  mistaken  in  that  respect,  that  not  only  I*  there  no  ill 
In  the  hearts  of  the  great  mass  of  American  worker*  toward  the 
ing  Workers  of  America,  but  much  further  than  that,  thousand*,  ten  of 
are  beginning  to  look  with  an  eye  almost  of  envy  toward  your  organization.  (Ap- 
plause.) They  may  not  be  allowed  in  some  places  to  say  it  loud  enough,  but  they 
aro  beginning  to  thtnk  It  pretty  loud.  (Lauprhtpr  and  applma-  )  They  are  beginning 
to  point  a  finger  and  say,  "that  seems  to  be  the  real  stuff."  (Langhter.)  And  I  want 
yon.  my  friends,  to  bear  that  in  mind.  It  is  Important  that  you  should  bear  It  In 
mind  all  the  while,  while  you  are  deliberating  upon  wages  and  hours  and  conditions 
of  work  which  are  absolutely  important,  which  are  the  foundation  and  basis  of  an 
economic  organization. 

It  Is  Important  that  you  should  remember  that  the  imilgntinftil  nothing  Work- 
era  of  >f  the  organizations  outside  of  the  pale  of  the 
American  labor  movement,  which  Is  becoming  the  beacon  light  for  the 
labor  movement  (applause),  and  because  of  that— because  I  hope  that  I  am  not  mis- 
taken in  my  views.  I  feel  spontaneously  like  congratulating  you  from  the  rte»(l»s  of 
my  heart  upon  your  achievements  ever  since  that  convention  in  Nashville.  Teen. 

Presld-  MAN:     Brother  Shiplacoff.  or.  rather.  Brother  Ship— the  ship,  by 

the  way.  that  has  never  been  shipwrecked— warned  us  that  he  Is  personally  reeponafbit) 
for  what  he  would  say.  Not  knowing  what  he  might  say.  I  knew,  though,  that  he  wttl 
never  succeed  In  making  us  not  love  him  no  matter  what  he  says. 

When  I  waa  elected  president  of  this  organization  in  the  city  of  Nashville,  1 
happened  to  be  in  the  city  of  New  York,  connected  with  another  organiiatloi  : 
received  the  Information  by  wire  that  I  was  elected  president  In  a  few  hours  I 
received  another  wire  directing  me  what  to  do.  You  understand  the  power  of  the 
President  (laughter),  and  this  wire  was  signed  by  one  whom  we  need  to  can  Jacob 
or  Jack  Panken  (applause).  I  don't  brin*  this  to  vonr  notice  as  a  matter  of 
mendatkm.  You  know  Panken  better  than  I  do.  Brother  Panken  has 
with  our  organization  from  Its  :  York  members  and  the 

of  other  labor  organizations  listening  to  his  speeches  about  justice  decided 
all  to  test  him  and  let  him  show  what  justice  translated  Into  court 
and  elected  him  judge.    I  am  glad  to  present  to  you  now  one  who  used  to  be  Jacob 
Panken.  but  to-day  I*  Judge  Panken. 

(Judge  Panken  received  an  ovation  and  tremendous  cheering.      The 
so  loud  and  prolonged  that  he  could  not  apeak  for  several  minutes). 

Judge  Panken'*  Address 

Mr.  President.  Delegates)  to  the  Convention.  Ladles  and  Gentlemen: 
that  some  time  ago.  in  t  of  Baltimore,  the 

rnited  States,  about  six  weeks  ago.  1  think,  delivered  a  speech.      And 
things  the  President  said,  "we  have  got  to  make  the  world  a  safe  place  to  live  In 
heartily  concur  and  agree  with  that  sentiment  that  this  world  has  got  to  be  made  a 
safe  place  to  live  in.      And  It  does  appear  to  me.  my  friends,  that  we  have  always 
attempted  to  moke  this  world  a  safe  place  lo  live  in.      Not  only  the  labor 



which  holds  1U  convention  this  morning,  but  labor  throughout  the  world  has  ever 
fought  to  make  the  world  a  safe  place  to  live  in.  (Applause.)  There  is  no  other 
purpose  and  no  other  end  to  which  labor  can  consecrate  Itself  than  to  make  the  world 
a  safe  place  to  lire  In. 

A  great  many  people  who  are  not  connected  with  the  labor  movement  believe 
that  there  is  a  selfish  motive  that  springs  from  the  heart  which  brings  the  people 
in  myriads  into  the  folds  of  the  labor  movement.  A  great  many  people  believe  that 
it  is  the  desire  for  material  comfort,  for  material  goods  that  brings  men  and  women 
Into  the  ranks  of  labor.  A  great  many  people  believe  that  men  and  women  are 
attracted  to  the  trade  unions  and  to  the  radical  labor  movement  tho  world  over  simply 
because  they  expect  something  in  return  which  can  be  measured  in  dollars  or  which 
can  be  measured  in  hour*.  But  there  is  nothing  more  untrue  than  that  theory  and 
than  that  idea.  Men  and  women  do  not  go  on  the  picket  line,  men  and  women  do 
not  spend  their  nights,  men  and  women  do  not  open  the  gates  of  the  prisons  and 
enter  them  because  they  want  more  bread,  because  they  want  a  few  more  minutes' 

Men  and  women  do  not  brook  the  club  of  a  policeman  upon  their  heads  in  order 
to  get  another  cent— in  order  to  get  another  half  hours'  time,  in  order  to  get  a  bigger 
piece  of  meat,  In  order  to  get  a  bigger  piece  of  bread.  Oh.  no,  my  friends!  The 
labor  movement  has  a  soul,  and  it  is  the  soul,  the  spirit  of  the  labor  movement  that 
calls  you  and  calls  me  and  calls  the  millions  to  work,  aye,  and  fight,  aye,  and  die,  so 
that  the  labor  movement  may  live  and  may  realize  its  great  ideal!  (Applause).  To 
make  the  world  a  safe  place  to  live  in,  not  only  live  physically,  but  live  spiritually; 
not  only  feed  the  stomach,  but  feed  the  soul;  not  only  feed  yourselves,  but  feed  the 
generations  that  are  to  come;  not  only  live  now,  but  to  make  the  world  better  for 
posterity.  That  is  the  aim,  that  is  the  mission  of  the  labor  movement,  my  friends. 
We  ask  for  an  increase  in  wages,  but  we  are  not  satisfied  with  an  Increase.  We 
ask  for  a  reduction  in  our  time  of  labor,  but  we  are  never  satisfied  with  that  reduc- 
tion; in  our  hearts  and  In  our  souls  there  is  something  stirring  which  makes  us 
discontented,  which  makes  us  dissatisfied  with  the  things  that  we  get  to-day,  with 
the  things  that  we  got  yesterday.  It  is  that  motive  force,  that  motive  power  that 
Impels  us  into  the  future  and  tries  to  get  from  the  future  the  things  that  belong  to 
human  beings,  the  things  that  belong  to  the  workers!  (Loud  applause.)  And  It  is, 
as  your  President  said.  Justice  that  we  are  looking  for.  It  is  justice  that  we  are 
beckoning.  It  is  justice  that  we  are  aiming  for.  It  is  justice  that  we  are  striving 
to  capture. 

And  it  is  not  a  justice  that  is  to  be  given  to  us!  That  is  the  point  that  I  want 
to  make  clear.  I  want  every  man  and  every  woman  within  the  reach  of  my  voice 
to  understand  this  fact — It  is  not  a  justice  that  is  to  be  given  to  us  that  we  want — 
It  is  a  justice  that  is  our*  that  we  want,  a  justice  that  belongs  to  us!  (Great  ap- 

Of  course,  the  Amalgan^ted  Workers  of  America  have  made  a  horrible  mistake 
In  electing  me  a  judge,  you  know,  because  I  have  got  to  give  you  Justice.  (Laughter.) 
But  it  cannot  be  done.  I  cannot  give  you  any  Justice.  You  see,  I  have  got 
to  be  a  jvdge  because  you  fellows  wanted  me  to  be  a  judge.  That  is  all  there  is  to 
Hut  Judge  Moses  told  me  a  secret  a  moment  ago — he  said,  "What  you  have 
got  to  do  is  to  resign  long  before  you  become  for  did  that,  too.  TIo 

resigned.  I  don't  know  whether  I  am  going  to  resign,  friends.  I  expect  to  see 
Socialism  established  before  my  time  is  up!  (Applause.) 

We  are  on  the  threshold  of  a  new  system.  We  are  on  the  threshold  of  new  and 
big  thinps.  The  President  has  referred  to  industrial  democracy— to  Individual  respon- 
sibility as  compared  with  collective  responsibility  mo  direct  your  attention  to 
this  fact.  Mr.  Baker  says  In  a  speech  that  the  United  States  Govemmont  can  now 
boast  of  being  a  model  employer  in  the  garment  industry.  Let  me  just  add  one 
thing  to  that  —  that  United  States  Government  has  convicted  and  sentenced  private 
management  and  individual  control  of  big  business.  The  railroads  of  the  United 
States  are  now  in  the  hands  of  the  United  States  Government.  And  it  Is  only  a  little 
while  when  the  mines  in  thin  country  will  be  turned  Oypr  into  the  hands  of  the 
Government  And  it  Is  only  a  short  while  when  the  steel  business  will  be  turned 
over  into  the  hands  of  the  Government.  The  shipping  trade  has  already  been  ap- 
propriated by  the  United  States  Government.  And  let  me  tell  you  that  the  spirit 
that  is  prevailing  in  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  is  being  spread 


throughout  the  country,  and  the  railroads  and  the 
industry  asd  the  other  industries  that  the  United  States  Govf 
over  will  never  be  returned  to  private  ownership.  They  are 
hands  of  the  United  States  of  America,  (Great  applause.) 

The  English  Labor  Party  has  put  out  a  program  which  is  magnificent  in  its  en- 
tirety. English  labor  la  not  satisfied  with  a  fair  day's  wages  for  a  fair  day's  work. 
English  labor  asks  its  Government  at  this  moment  that  the  Osverisunt  tnrn  over 
to  the  trade  unions  the  railroads  so  that  the  trade  unions  shall  operate  and  JimoBfeJ 
ically  manage  the  railroad.  (Applause.)  Things  are  beginning  to  move  and  are  mov- 
ing much  more  rapidly  than  we  think  They  are  moving  orach  more  rapidly  than  we 
can  see— so  swiftly  we  cannot  see  the  rapid  movement  that  to  going  on  through- 
out the  world,  aa  tb«  President  said  In  a  letter  to  the  New  Jersey  Democrats  some 
time  ago  He  said.  "When  the  boys  return  from  the  other  aid*,  they  will  not  be  saUe- 
fled  with  economic  serfdom  any  more."  The  President  is  a  big-ganged  man  with  a 
great  big  outlook  upon  affairs,  and  be  realizes  that  when  the  boys  come  back  from 
the  trenches  they  will  not  be  willing  to  go  back  Into  economic  serfdom.  They  win 
want  Industrial  freedom  and  they  will  know  how  to  get  It!  (Great  applause.) 

human  hlatory.     Hlatory  is  being  made  right  In  front  of  us  from  day  to 

o  hour,  and  from  moment  to  moment    And  permit  me  to  tell  you.  lUlanfis  to 
the  Convention,  that  you  gentlemen  and  you  ladles  are  making  history 
tory  which  will  be  written  In  capital  letters  and  Inscribed  in  gold,  for  yon 

'rom  the  tailor  shops,  you  men  and  you  womei 
the  Ironing  boards,  you  men  and  you  women  are  just  like  the 
through  the  Desert  of  Sahara,  showing  the  way  to  labor,  to  final 
liberty.  That  la  the  thing  that  we  are  doing,  that  is  the  great  and 
the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America.  You  men  and  you 
Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  divorced  from  the 
labor  movement,  not  hampered  by  tradition,  not  shackled  by 
you  women  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  into  your 
been  entrusted  the  banner  of  Industrial  freedom,  the  banner  of  industrial  liberty. 
Remain  loyal,  remain  faithful  to  the  task  that  has  been  put  Into  your  hands!  (Loud 
and  prolonged  applause.) 

President   HILLMAN:       I  always  knew  that  Brother  Panken  Is  reedy  to 
all  sacrifices  for  labor.      Now  we  know  that  the  greatest  sacrifice  be  has  made  so  Car 
was  by  becoming  Judge  In  the  Interests  of  labor. 

Our  organization,  finding  so  much  opposition,  while  making  such  wonderful 
ress  in  spite  of  so  much  opposition,  is  greatly  indebted  to  the  labor  press  I 
that  we  have  not  with  us  at  this  opening  session  of  the  Convention  Comrade) 
ham  Cahan  of  the  "Forward"  (applause).  He  has  always  stood  by  our 
But  not  only  the  "Forward."  a  great  number,  all  tbe  rest  of  the  real  labor 
helped  our  organisation  In  the  difficult  struggles  of  the  past  I  am  glad  that  we  have 
us  at  this  session  the  editor  of  the  "New  York  Call"  fApptausM.  labor's 
mouthpiece  In  the  city  of  New  York,  which  has  always  stood  ready  to  help  us  since 
Comrade  Enrin  has  been  in  charge  of  the  editorial  policy  of  tbe  paper.  I  take  great 
pleasure  in  presenting  to  you  Comrade  Charles  W.  Ervln. 

Address  of  Charles  W.  Ervin 

I  am  glad  to  be  Introduced  as  the  editor  of  the  "Call."  but  I  fee!  that  the 
dent  has  not  given  me  the  honor  that  he  should  have  given  me.      I  have  had  the 

lege  of  having  been  an  organizer  In  the  needle  trades.     (Applause.)     My 
in   your  movement   comes  entirely  from  the  fact  that  you  recognize  that 
citizenship  amounts  to  nothing  unless  you  have  industrial  citizenship     (Applause.) 
all  you  are  Interested  in  is  to  get  a  little  less  poverty  by  a  little  more  wages— a  II. 
better  conditions,  a  little  shorter  hours,  your  organization  would  not  interest  me 
the  least      If  any  organisation  of  men  and  women  has  so  little  spine  as  to  be 
to  organize  Just  for  a  little  less  poverty,  that  organization  is  not  worth 

It  is  because  the  Amalgamated  baa  not  been  content  to  do  this  that   It  c . 

real  historic  position   In  the  organized  labor  movement        If  you  win  examine  Its 



itution  yon  will  find  it  entirely  different  from  most  of  the  constitutions  of  the 
older  labor  organizations.  And  because  your  constitution  is  so  different,  because 
you  act  upon  it,  your  organization  is  loved  by  you  and  damned  by  the  capitalist 
class.  (Applause.)  Take  the  entire  history  of  the  Amalgamated  movement  and  yon 
will  find  that  every  endeavor  has  been  made  through  lack  of  publicity,  through  libel- 
ous  statements,  through  abuse,  to  keep  you  from  growing.  But  in  spite  of  it  all  you 
are  growing,  growing,  growing.  And  it  is  up  to  you  to  put  the  Declaration  in  prac- 
tice in  this  country.  We  hear  very  much  about  this  Declaration  that  gave  us 
political  rights.  We  hear  piffling  politician?  talk  about  it.  We  hear  them  recite  about 
gtnrernment  by  the  consent  of  the  governed,  about  life,  liberty  and  happiness.  But 
you  will  never  secure  those  things — the  Declaration  will  stay  only  proclaimed — until 
the  workers  through  industrial  citizenship  put  that  Declaration  into  practice.  (Ap- 

Knowing  that  you  are  tired,  and  having  the  misfortune  to  follow  speakers  who 
exhausted  almost  the  whole  field  of  human  endeavor  and  human  thought,  I 
will  close  by  just  wishing  that  you  keep  alive  the  same  noble  discontent  that  is  now 
found  in  your  ranks — that  great  discontent  that  will  never  be  satisfied  until  you  re* 
ceive  a  real  living  wage — the  best  of  everything  for  those  who  make  everything.  1 
you.  (Loud  applause). 

President  HILLMAN:  Delegates  to  the  Convention,  we  are  going  to  devote 
session  to  addresses  of  welcome.  The  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 
is  different  in  many  respects  from  other  labor  organizations.  We  have 
it  our  aim  not  only  to  satisfy  our  economic  needs,  but  also  those  which  will 
tually  uplift  the  men  and  the  women  in  the  ranks  of  labor.  And  so  we  have 
amongst  our  friends,  not  only  such  as  are  directly  connected  with  the  labor  move* 
ment,  but  also  such  as  are  interested  in  the  promotion  of  progress  generally.  We 
find  our  friends  amongst  the  artists  who  see  in  our  organization  tho  beautiful 
soul  of  the  labor  movement.  We  have  one  of  our  friends  of  this  class,  as  I  may  say, 
with  us.  I  have  now  the  great  pleasure  of  calling  upon  one  who  is  known  to  every 
one  who  reads  the  Jewish  literature  and  a  great  number  who  have  the  opportunity 
to  be  conversant  with  his  work  in  other  languages.  Our  friend  David  Plnski  will 
address  the  Convention  in  Yiddish. 

Address  of  David   Pinskl 

(Mr.  Pinski  spoke  in  Yiddish.  The  following  is  a  translation:) 
Twenty-five  years  ago,  I  began  the  song  of  the  Jewish  people,  of  the  Jewish 
workers.  It  is  said  that  at  that  time  there  were  almost  no  Jewish  workers,  but  I 
have  discovered  them  intuitively,  by  a  holy  spirit.  For  twenty-five  years  I  have  been 
writing,  while  the  Jewish  workers  were  very  scarce  and  few  between.  I  feel  happy 
that  I  can  now  greet  a  part  of  the  Jewish  workers'  labor  movement,  a  strong  labor 
union,  the  majority  of  which  are  Jewish  workers,  a  union  that  counts  the  Jewish 
members  in  the  tens  of  thousands,  Jewish  workers,  Jewish  fighters.  I  feel  happy 
on  this  occasion.  I  also  feel  that  as  a  poet  I  have  in  you  at  present  material  for 
further  writing. 

I  see  in  you,  not  only  fighters  for  daily  brea }.  not  only  fighters  for  shorter  hours 
of  labor — I  also  see  in  you  that  which  Judge  Panken  said:  "The  spiritual  power, 
fighters  for  a  better  spiritual  life." 

I  greet  you,  therefore,  not  only  as  those  who  carried  through  a  victory  of  forty- 
eight  hours  a  week  and  shortened  your  hours  of  Inbor,  I  greet  you  for  the  manner 
in  which  you  fought  for  the  forty-eight  hour  work,  for  the  motives  behind  your  fight 
It  was  not  a  fight  of  beggars.  You  did  not  apj-'vir  as  beggars  and  merely  say  that 
the  work  is  too  hard  for  you  and  that  you  must  inter  hours  in  oni»-r  to  ease 

your  life.      You  appealed  in  the  name  of  those  unfortunate  ones  on  the  other  side  of 
the  Atlantic  who  will  have  to  come  o*ver  to  this  country  and  join  your  ranks. 
this,  I  greet  you.      I  greet  you  because  of  the  fart  that  you  are  the  first  in  all  fights, 
not  only  for  your  own  betterment,  for  tho  Impr  f  your  own  conditions,  but 

also  because  you  are  the  first  to  help  others.       You   were  first  in  the  relief  work 
for  the  war  sufferers.      There  was  will  in  your  work— real  will. 

As  a  Jewish  poet,  I  also  want  to  greet  you  specially  for  your  attitude  on  the 



questions  which  are  of  purely  a  Jewish  nature.      I  greet  you  and  wish  you  to  flftlMI 

continuance  on  that  road,  and  I  call  upon  you:       You  hare  done  much;  k»ep  on  doing 
•till  more.      (Applauae.) 

President    HILLMAN: 

from  the  ouulde  but  some  of  our  members,  to 
mission  to  leave  our  trad*  and  represent  ui  In  the 
gamated  Clothing  Workers  of  the  city  and  the  State  of  New  York  !•  represented  ftp 
:<ber  of  these  members.  In  their  legislative  branches.  One  of  them,  who  Is  a 
member  In  good  •  Landing  of  Local  No.  3.  Preaaers*  Local  Union  of  New  York,  has 
been  sent  to  the  Board  of  Aldermen  of  New  York.  He  is  going  to  address  the 
Con  rent  Ion  I  take  great  pleasure  In  Introducing  to  yon  Brother  Vladeclc. 

Address  of  B.  Chsrney  Vladeck 

(Mr.  Vladeck  spoke  In  Jewish.    The  following  is  a  translation:) 

If  It  IB  true,  what  Judge  Panken  said,  that  Socialism  will  be  realised  before  nil 
term  will  expire,  then  I  will  have  to  look  for  another  party.  I  believe  that  it  will 
be  the  most  uninteresting  thing  to  have  a  convention  of  the  Amalgamated  after  the 
Socialist  order  of  things  will  be  realized.  The  most  beautiful  within  us.  the  finest 
within  us.  the  noblest  within  us  Is  brought  out  not  In  contentment,  but  In  discontent; 
not  in  truce,  but  In  fight  The  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  would 
never  be  what  it  is  if  it  did  not  have  to  make  its  history  through  a  bitter  but  beauti- 
ful and  glorious  fight  (applause)  It  In  only  because  yon  have  to  come  in  conflict 
with  walls  that  were  In  your  way  that  the  instinct  of  fight  was  awakened  In  yon.  and 
you  proved  that  there  is  no  wall  where  there  is  a  way.  that  there  is  no  tenon  where 
there  Is  a  real  desire  to  break  the  fence. 

I  come  today  as  one  of  you,  in  the  most  humble  manner,  to  greet  yon.  to  con- 
gratulate you  upon  this  spirit  that  the  Amalgamated  brought  into  your  industry  and 
into  the  Jewish  labor  movement. 

What  is  the  spirit  of  the  Amalgamated?  Is  It  a  big  membership?  There  are 
unions  that  have  bigger  membership  than  that  of  the  Amalgamated.  Is  it  the  big 
treasury?  There  are  unions  with  bigger  treasuries  than  the  Amalgamated  has  It 
is  not  the  membership  and  it  is  not  the  treasury,  but  it  Is  that  soul,  that 
that  internal  bond,  that  psychological  condition.  I  will  say.  which 
mated  what  it  is. 

What  Is  that  condition?      It  is  the  condition  that  makes  the 
he  must  not  wait  f  -ganlzatlon  to  pull  him  to  help  him 

that  he  is  willing  to  volunteer  at  any  moment  the  situation  might  demand  of  1 
do  things.  It  is  this  spirit  of  the  Amalgamated  that  made  it  possible  for  this 
iation  to  become  what  It  Is  and  to  play  the  role  that  It  has  played. 

I  can  tell  you  that  In  the  district  from  which  I  come  the 
forces  are  the  members  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  (ap- 
plause). Seventy  or  eighty  per  cent  of  the  members  of  the  Socialist  party  in 
Williamsburg— Wllltamsbnrg  is  the  best  organized  district  of  the  Socialist  party  in 
New  York  and  has  a  membership  of  twelve  hundred— at  least  seven  hundred  or  eignt 
hundred,  are  members  of  the  Amalgamated  locals.  (Applause). 

The  most  active  members  of  the  Workmen's  Circle  are  members  of  the 
gamatod.      In  every  enterprise  that  is  undertaken  by  the  progressive  labor 
the  executive  committee,  the  active  men.  are  members  of  the  Amalgamated.     We 
undertook    to   purchase   the   finest   building    that   our   neighborhood   has   as   a 
temple,  and  I  tell  you  now  that  the  first  in  the  hall.  In  the  temple  of  tabor. 
in  under  their  flag,  will  be  members  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 

It  was  this  spirit  that  made  It  possible,  and  It  Is  for  that  reason  thai  I 
It  an  honor  to  come  to  you  and  say  a  few  words  to  you  on  this  occasion       It  is  that 
spirit  that  is  necessary,  not  only  for  the  Amalgamated,  but  for  the  entire  labor 
ment  and  for  the  entire 


The  trouble  with  the  world  baa  been  tbat  while  it  has  a  great  many  engines  it 
baa  proportionately  still  more  beavy  freight  car«  that  could  not  be  moved.  Did  you 
ever  tee  the  way  a  beavy  freight  train  tries  to  pull  out?  The  engine  pulls,  and  one 
ear  strikes  the  other,  and  It  stops.  The  engine  pulls  again  and  the  cars  strike  each 
otber  again  and  they  remain  still  again.  And  the  engine  continues  pulllnr  and  pulling 
and  pulling  until  it  begins  to  move  slowly  ir  .  vory  worker  and  every  union  1s  loaded 
like  a  heavy  freight  train  wltb  petty  and  little  things  and  it  has  to  be  pulled  and  led 
by  two  or  thre*  people  who  are  the  engines,  you  cannot  travel  very  far.  I  r 
the  spirit  of  the  Amalgamated  because  I  know,  and  I  know  what  I  am  talking 
tbat  the  Amalgamated  Is  probably  the  only  organization  In  which  the  members  don't 
feel  like  freight  cars  loaded  with  dead  weight,  but  like  engines  that  are  ready  at  any 
time  to  j>ull  tbe  train  ever  further  and  further  (applause). 

Brothers  and  friends,  in  our  great  world  a  horrible'  tragedy  is  being  enacted. 
Something  is  burning,  something  is  blazing,  and  heavy  clouds  of  smoke  are 
from  the  earth.  And  under  the  earth  are  currents  of  poison.  The  whole  world  Is 
shaken  up  in  the  terrible  upheaval  caused  by  the  war.  My  friends,  no  matter  how 
tbe  war  will  end.  the  world  will  come  out  diseased  from  this  war.  The  world  will 
come  out  of  this  terrible  furnace  so  weak  and  exhausted  that  it  will  be  necessary 
to  exert  all  of  our  spiritual  and  physical  efforts  to  put  the  world  on  Its  feet  again. 

I  greet  you  as  a  member  of  Pressers'  Local  3.      I  greet  you  as  a  fellow  man.      But 
more  than  anything  else  do  I  greet  you  a*  a  citizen  of  the  world,  as  a  human  being. 
I  greet  you  as  the  representatives  of  a  powerful  and  progressive  organization,  r 
tentatives  and  brothers  of  a  big,  mighty  body,  a  division  of  that  great  army  which 
Is  now  going  to  free  the  world.      (Loud  applause.) 

Pre?Mont  HILLMAN:  The  hour  is  Dotting  late  and  we  will  not  call  upon  all  of 
our  friends  who  came  here  to  greet  this  Convention.  We  will  take  the  opportunity 
to  call  upon  tbem  at  the  later  sessions.  I  will  at  this  time  present  to  you  a  man  who 
is  known  to  every  member  of  our  organization — one  who  Is,  I  may  ?ay.  the  guiding 
spirit  of  our  organization,  one  of  the  officers  of  the  organization  with  whom  I  have 
bad  tbe  privilege  of  working.  Delegates,  you  understand  that  our  path  Is  not  always 
a  rosy  one,  and  If  the  officers  of  the  organization  find  always  the  courage  to  go  ahead, 
It  Is  because  of  tbe  splendid  and  wonderful  spirit  of  co-operation  that  prevails  among 
us.  I  shall  now  present  to  you  one  who  is  always  ready  to  supply  courage  and  hope. 
I  will  introduce  to  you  the  General  Secretary  of  our  organization,  Brother  Joseph 

(Secretary  Schlossberg  was  given  an  ovation,  everybody  rising  and  enthusiastically 
cheering  and  applauding.) 

General  Secretary  Schlosaberg's  Address 

Mr  President  and  fellow  delegates,  Including  our  representatives  from  the  Army 
and  Navy,  and  our  fellow  workers  In  the  balcony: 

The  balcony  has  occupied  a  very  distinguished  position  In  the  history  of  our 
organization.  That  was  the  place  from  which  we  wore  driven  out  when  we  cams 
down  to  the  distant  Southern  city  of  Nashville  *<••  «penk  for  the  tens  of  thousands  of 
clothing  workers  whose  voices  were  choked  in  their  own  organization.  Every  time 
we  come  to  a  convention  and  look  at  the  balcony  we  s«»  in  1t  the  symbol  of  the  prog- 
ress that  we  bave  made.  Friends,  fellow-workers,  occupy  that  place  now.  They  are 
fighting  witb  us  and  alongside  of  us.  They  come  to  greet  us,  not  to  curse  us. 

I  greet  you  as  the  Industrial  parliament  of  th<  in  our  industry  and  as  the 

foundation  of  tbe  parliament  of  civilization;  of  thp  parliament  through  which  the 
people  as  a  whole  will  legislate  for  themselves,  and  which  will  take  the  place  of  the 
one  through  which  private  Interests,  plutocracy,  autocracy,  and  all  other  sorts  of 
ruling  and  oppressing  interests  in  this  and  othpr  countries,  are  now  legislating  for 
themselves  and  against  the  people.  We  here,  through  this  convention,  issue  a  call 
to  the  workers  In  all  other  industries:  "Make  your  conventions  a  parliament  of  the 
people  In  your  industries!  Make  your  conventions  the  place  from  which  decrees 
ahould  go  forth  In  the  Interests  of  the  people;  make  your  conventions  that  source  of 
power  that  will  constitute  in  this  country  what  the  Trades  Union  Congress  at  this 



time  constitutes  In  England;  where  industrial  democracy  will  be  carried  out  and  will 
become  the  guiding  principle,  the  determining  principle  of  the  people1!  life." 

ill  be  that  parliament  the  foundations  of  which  are  laid  here,  that  wllj 
the  people  in  the  making  of  laws  ft*  themselves.      The  political  parliame 
now  presume*  to  speak  for  (he  people.  does  not  represent  the  people. 
have  shown  repeatedly  that  erery  group  of  powerful  Interests  U  repi 
parliament.      When  a  railroad  matter  is  up.  It  Is  the  railroad  lobbylat 
destinies  of  this  nation  in  that  branch  of  our  life.      When  a  steel  question  la  up.  It  !• 
the  steel  lobbyist  who  doea  ft-not  the  people. 

of  Industrial  democracy,  we  mean  something  definite  am 
crete.      With  us  it  Is  not  an  empty  phrase.      U  Is  not  a  dream.      It  Is  just  this  thine 
that  we  are  doing  now. 

When  we  pasted  the  48-hour  week  resolution  two  yean  ago  we  legislated  for  the 

Industry.      It  was  then  up  to  us  to  carry  out  that  piece  of  legislation,  and  we  did  carry 

When  we  legislated  It.  It  became  the  law  of  the  Industry,  and  wherever  our 

ice  prevails  that  law  la  being  enforced.    When  a  political  legislature  adopt*  an 

eight  hour  day.  It  usually  remains  a  dead  letter.      It  is  the  power  of  organised  labor 

that  determines  what  the  legislation  In  the  Industries  should  be  or  should  not  be. 

My  friends,  this  convention  represents  more  than  may  be  visible  to  1 
observer.      It  Is  not  only  a  convention  representing  tens  of  thousands  of 

t  Is  a  convention  representing  a  new  society,  the  rUlng.  the  making  of  a 
new  society. 

of  us.  with  few  exceptions,  have  come  here  from  other  parts  of  the  world, 
•'  where  oppression  and  suppression  were  the  order  of  the  day.  We 
have  come  here  seeking  an  asylum,  freedom,  and  opportunities.  And  when  those 
many  thousands  of  immigrants  from  the  other  side  of  the  world  came  here,  Iporant 
of  the  language  of  the  country.  Ignorant  of  Its  institutions,  of  its  cuitoma.  and  of 
its  ways,  the  employers  whom  they  found  here  took  advantage  of  their  Ignorance 
and  hoiplcssnesa  and  imposed  upon  them  that  very  system  of  which  Presides]'. 
man  sp<  :ng  system  in  our  industry,  similar  systems  of 

tlon  in  other  industries. 

But  those  downtrodden  men  and  women,  who  ran  away  from  misery  and 
slon  In  the  countries  of  their  birth  only  to  find  sweatshop  slavery  here,  availed 
selves  of  the  opportunities  accorded  them  by  the  American  institutions,  and  literally 
themselves  by  their  own  bootstraps  from  helplessness  Into  power.      They  made 
•mselves  intelligent  men  and  women,  fighting  men  and  women,  built  up  their 
own  organized  power,  and  are  now  in  a  position  to  legislate  for  their  industry,  and 
legislate  in  a  spirit  which  spells  the  overthrow  of  capitalist  exploitation.      There  were 
hosts  to  h  MI.  and  no  one  to  help  them.    They  fought  their  way  through  by 

their  own  united  power.  They  are  now  in  a  position  to  deliver  a  message  to  many 
of  their  fellow  workers  and  teach  them  how  labor  should  be  organised  and  what 
labor's  true  mission  Is. 

After  a  short  period  of  three  and  a  half  years— that  is  all  the  time  that  has 
•ince  we  have  raised  the  banner  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  Am 
we  have  succeeded  In  the  teeth  of  all  prejudice,  in  the  teeth  of  all  opposition,  in  the 
teeth  of  all  prosecution  and  persecu:  mere  strength  of  our  conviction,  by 

the  mere  power  of  our  determination,  in  removing  a  great  deal  of  the  antagonism  and 
prejudice  artificially  raised  against  us  in  the  ranks  of  organised  labor,  in  f*»n*nsT  the 
confidence  of  many  thousands  of  worklngmen  in  this  country,  and  they  begin  to  see 
that  our  message  Is  right,  that  our  form  of  organization  Is  right,  that  our  "H'-fif* 
goal  is  right. 

I  shall  now  read  to  you  some  messages  that  we  have  received.  There  Is  one  which 
Is  particularly  interesting  and  inspiring.  It  Is  a  message  to  this  Convention  by  Eugene 
V.  Debs. 

(After  reading  a  large  number  of  letters  and  telegrams,  which  are  given  later, 
the  speaker  continued.) 

Now.  delegates.  Brother  Hillman  has  taken  the  occasion,  on  introducing  me  to 
you.  to  throw  a  few  bouquets  at  me.  I  shall  be  Indiscreet  enough  to  ask  Brother 



Hlllman  to  yield  with  mo — and  I  know  he  will  agree  "with  me — the  proper  share  of 
credit  to  all  those  who  have  worked  with  us.  We  are  all  happy  to  report  to  yon 
that  there  haa  been  full  co-operation  all  along  the  line  among  the  General  Officers 
and  Local  Officers  and  the  members  generally.  Otherwise  our  success  would  hare 
been  Impossible. 

Tbe  success  of  this  organisation,  the  victories  that  we  have  achieved,  the  praise 
that  has  been  won  by  as  from  our  co-workers  in  other  industries,  and  in  other  parts 
of  the  labor  movement,  are  big  and  great  enough  for  all  of  us. 

Every  officer  and  every  member  has  contributed  his  and  her  full  share  to  th« 
co-operation,  to  the  spirit,  and  to  the  success. 

Every  sneaker  has  referred  to  the  present  conditions,  to  the  present  particular 
situation.  I  shall  not  enlarge  upon  that.  I  shall  only  say  this:  It  will  be  the  duty 
of  organized  labor  in  this  country  to  see  to  it  that,  wh»-n  this  war  Is  ovrr.  th^  army 
that  Is  now  being  organized  by  this  country  to  particpiate  In  the  war  on  the  other 
side  of  the  ocean,  shall  not  be  used  as  a  means  for  the  establishment  of  militarism  In 
this  country.  We  are  happy  to  have  in  this  particular  respect,  as  well  as  in  other 
respects,  the  fall  support  of  the  President  of  the  United  States. 

Many  thousands  of  our  members  are  either  in  the  camps  waiting  to  be  sent  to 
Prance  or  are  already  there.  Many  more  thousands  will  be  called  later,  if  the  war 
long  enough.  When  those  members  return  from  the  front  the  fighting  spirit 
conditions  there  will  have  developed  in  them,  if  any  new  fighting  capacity  is 
for  a  member  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  will  be 
by  them  here  to  protect  this  country  from  that  scourge  which  has  ruined  and 
laid  waste  all  of  Europe  within  the  last  three  and  a  half  years. 

I  wish  to  quote,  in  conclusion,  a  few  words,  which  are  a  part  of  a  message  sent 
by  the  British  labor  movement  to  the  workers  of  the  world.  In  our  country  this 
message  has  so  far  been  confined  only  to  the  radical  labor  movement.  The  official 
labor  movement,  unfortunately,  has  shut  its  door  against  it,  and  there  is  no  means  of 
reaching  the  rank  and  file,  except  in  a  very  limited  way. 

"We  need  to  beware  of  patchwork,"  say  our  British  brethron. 

Remember  that  this  Is  a  part  of  a  program  proposed  by  the  British  Labor  Party 
for  the  reconstruction  of  Great  Britain  after  the  war. 

"We  need  to  beware  of  patchwork.  No  bungling  reforms  will  do.  Radical 
changes,  revolutionary  changes,  are  necessary.  The  view  of  the  Labor  Party  is  tiiat 
what  Is  to  be  reconstructed  after  the  war  is  not  this  or  that  government  department, 
or  this  or  that  piece  of  machinery,  but,  so  far  as  Britain  is  concerned,  society  itself." 

All  we  have  to  do  Is  to  use  the  words  "United  States"  for  "Britain",  and  substi- 
tute the  word  "France"  for  "Britain",  and,  for  that  matter,  insert  the  name  of  "Ger- 
many" for  "Britain",  and  the  aim  of  the  British  Labor  Party  will  apply  with  the  same 
force  to  every  other  country.  Not  any  part  off  the  government  has  to  be  changed 
or  modified  or  reformed,  but  society  Itself  must  be  rebuilt,  reconstructed. 

That  is  the  message  that  the  British  Labor  Party  has  sent  to  the  working  classes 
throughout  the  world.  That  must  be  the  keynote,  that  must  be  the  guiding  spirit, 
for  every  piece  of  work  we  undertake,  so  that  everything  we  do  may  be  in  harmony 
with  It  and  may  promote  this  great  cause. 

I  have  no  doubt  that  our  organization  will  contribute  Its  share  towards  this  great 
task.  I  hope  that  all  of  the  delegates  present  here  realize  that  what  we  are  doing 
now  is  not  only  adopting  resolutions  and  expressing  wishes  for  a  free  world,  a  free 
society,  a  reconstructed  society,  but  that  we  are  actually  reconstructing  society. 

At  this  very  minute  industrial  democracy  is  being  made,  right  here;  and  along 
with  us  at  every  ottier  convention  of  labor  that  is  held  In  the  same  spirit.  This  we 
must  understand.  It  puts  upon  us  a  new  responsibility.  If  we  are  always  aware  of 
it.  If  we  always  bear  it  in  mind,  we  shall  not  blunder,  and  shall  do  Just  what  the 
Interests  of  the  working  class  require. 

The  times  are  the  greatest  In  human  history.  Perhaps  still  greater  times  ars 

Capitalism  is  bankrupt  as  a  social  system.    Whatever  its  mission  in  the  past,  it 



has  now  become  a  stumbling  block  to  progress  and  a  menace  to  tae  welfare  ot  Us 

Labor  must  now  do  the  big  Job.  Not  aa  a  blind  tool  in  the  hands  of  Capitalism, 
heretofore  the  master.  bt*  consciously,  deliberately,  independently,  directed  by  its 
own  Intelligence  and  enlightened  Interests.  Let  us  see  that  aa  tar  aa  o«r  section  of 
the  labor  movement  is  concerned;  as  far  as  we  are.  aa  an  organlialion.  responsible 
for  conditions  In  the  Industry,  la  society,  for  the  IrtsJiajsjaal  development  and  all  elae 
that  goes  with  the  making  of  a  human  being,  a  higher  human  being,  that  the 
to  deoe  right,  that  it  la  done  perfectly  and  completely. 

If.  when  the  great  change  eosam  when  at  the  end  of  the  war  the 
menu  of  the  world  are  called  upon  to  fully  carry  ovt  the  HBUssMfaaUun  of 
the  proletariat  of  the  world  Is  prepared  to  apply  itself  to  it 
and  understanding,  the  job  will  be  done  right,  and  will  be  done  so  that 
of  a  free  society  that  we  will  construct  will  stand  forever.       Let  oa  see  that  we  do 
our  share, 

Let  us  take  from  thla  Convention  the  message  to  our  constituents  to  go  right  ahead 
with  renewed  spirit  and  renewed  determination.       The  labor  movement  la 
to  understand  us.      It  will  not  take  long  before  they  will  all 
shall  then  have  one  united  labor  movement  In  this  country. 

Report  of  Arrangements  Committee 

President  HILLMAN:       Brother  Elsen  of  Baltimore,  on  Hsliltf  of  the 

ments  Committee,  will  make  a  few  announcements. 

Delegate  KI8HN:      The  Baltimore  members  of  the  Amalgamated  have  tried 
utmost  to  make  It  as  comfortable  for  the  delegates  as  possible,  and  for  this 
they  have  arranged  several  entertainments  for  the  delegates  during?  the) 

This  afternoon  there  will  be  automobiles  ready  to  take  all  the  delegates  for  a 
trip  around  the  city  to  show  you  Baltimore  and  Its  vicinity  (applause)  I  will  ask  all 
the  delegates,  those  who  want  to  participate  in  this  trip,  to  please  give  their 
the  committee  at  the  door  when  they  leave  the  hall.  For  Tuesda 
arranged  a  mass  meeting  in  the  biggest  hall  In  the  city.  In  the  Lyric 
we  will  have  the  best  speakers  that  we  can  possibly  get.  from  amongst  the 
and  members  of  the.  Amalgamated.  On  Wednesday  night  a  ball  will  be  given  by  the 
District  Council  No  3  of  Baltimore  In  honor  of  the  delegates  to  the  Convention,  at 
the  same  pin  ;\tre  (applause).  For  Thursday  afternoon  we  hare 

nrs  to  Washington  (applause*.       I  win  also  ask  all 

•>  go  to  Washington  to  please  give  their  names  to  the  second  committee.    There) 

••  two  committees  at  the  door.       For  Thursday  evening,  the  Bohemian  Local, 

"        '  ' -.lalffarnated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  has  arranged  an 

invite  all  delegates  to  be  present  there.      (Applause).      Friday 
the  C  nlon.  Local   US.  A.  C.  W      '          ill  give  a  smoker  for  the 

(applause).      For  Saturday  evening  the  District  Council  has  arranged  a  banquet  at 
the  Lyric  Theatre  (applause). 

President  HILLMAN:      I  shall  now  call  on  Brother  Crystal  of  the  Arrangements 
Committee,  who  will  give  us  tho  rest  of  the  program.      (Applause). 

Delegate  HARRY  CRYSTAL:  Mr.  Chairman,  there  1s  practically  nothing  left  for  me 
to  an;  Risen  has  announced   the  whole  program   for  th«  week.     But 

I  want  to  add  this:  Thin  afternoon's  trip  through  the  city  will  start  out  from  Balti- 
more and  Front  Streets,  where  the  headquarters  of  the  Amalgamated  are 
When  yon  are  through  with  your  lunch  you  will  please  come  there.  The 
will  ho  waiting  for  you  T  will  also  announce  that  the  Cutters'  Union.  Local  115  of 
Baltimore,  invites  sll  the  delegates,  not  only  men.  but  women  too.  all  the 

%   have  arranged  a  smoker  for  the  men  and  tea  cream.  I  suppose,  for  the 
so  we  want  the  ladles  to  be  there  too. 

President  HILLMAN:     Before  adjourning  this  session  I  shall  call  on 



Meyer  Senter,  who  It  here  m  tne  uniform  of  the  United  States  Navy,  to  address  the 

(Delegate  Senter  appears  on  the  platform  and  Is  given  an  enthusiastic  ovation.) 

Address  by   Meyer  Senter 

Mr.  Chairman  and  Delegates: 

This  invitation  to  me  to  speak  Is  rather  a  surprise.  I  had  no  intention  to  speak 
from  the  platform  this  morning.  I  consider  myself  a  full-fledged  delegate,  and,  what 
is  more,  in  the  camp  I  hare  two  meals  by  this  time  and  today  I  have  only  had  one 
meal  so  far  (laughter). 

Delegates.  I  don't  know  whether  I  can  say  very  much  at  the  present  time.  I 
am  in  the  service  and  I  feel  very  happy  at  the  fact  that  I  can  be  present  at  the  Con- 
vention of  our  organization.  I  have  tried  at  all  times  to  do  whatever  was  in  my  power 
In  order  to  build  up  a  strong,  powerful  and  successful  organization.  I  don't  know 
whether  I  can  say  very  much  more  than  this:  I  hope,  that  when  this  war  is  over, 
when  the  enemies  of  our  nation  will  be  completely  defeated  (loud  applause),  and 
the  workers  will  return,  those  who  will  be  fortunate  enough  to  return,  the 
Union  will  be  ready  to  receive  them,  and  that  organized  labor  will  make  such  progress 
between  this  time  and  then  that  when  the  soldiers  return  from  the  front  they  will 
come  back  home  to  find  a  world  of  freedom — freedom  in  the  full  sense  of  the  word 
(applause),  industrial  freedom  as  well  as  political  freedom,  and  that  they  will  find 
a  new  life. 

I  call  upon  you  who  remain  here  while  we  are  away:  Go*  right  ahead  with  the 
great  struggle  for  the  uplifting  of  mankind  and  for  the  abolition  of  the  slavery  of 
today.  I  hope  that  you  will  be  successful  with  your  battles  over  here  as  I  hope  to 
be  with  mine  over  there  (prolonged  applause). 

The  chair  announced  that  the  Credentials  Committee  was  not  yet  ready  to  report 
The  session  adjourned  at  2.20  p.  m.  to  reconvene  at  10  o'clock  the  next  morning. 



Letter  from  Eugene  V.  Deba 

Terre  Haute,  Ind.,  May  I,  1918. 
Mr.  Joseph  Schlossberg. 

General  Secretary  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers, 
New  York,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Comrade  Schlossberg: — 

Your  communication  of  the  6th  Inst.  Is  at  hand  and  I  appreciate  fully  your  kindly 
interest  In  wishing  me  present  at  your  approaching  convention  in  Baltimore,  a  privi- 
lege I  should  enjoy  more  than  could  be  expressed  In  words.  I  have  the  pleasure  of 
knowing  a  number  of  your  members  and  hold  them  In  high  esteem  as  comrades,  and 
If  circumstances  permitted  me  to  visit  Baltimore  at  the  opening  of  your  Convention 
I  would  certainly  take  advantage  of  the  opportunity  of  addressing  the  delegates  and 
enjoying  an  hour  or  two  of  fellowship  with  these  progressive-minded  and  loyal- 
hearted  proletarians. 

Please  do  me  the  kindness  to  extend  my  hearty  greetings  to  the  Convention  and 
to  assure  the  delegates  that  my  heart  will  be  with  them  during  their  deliberations. 
The  Convention  meets  at  a  crucial  time  and  the  one  thing  now  needed  to  be  emphasized 
by  this  and  every  other  convention  of  organized  workers  is  the  solidarity  of  their 
class.  Everything  now  depends  upon  the  ability  of  the  workers  to  unite  their  forces 
and  to  hold  them  Intact  during  these  trying  days. 

The  principle  upon  which  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  are  organized  Is 
the  right  one  and  If  adhered  to  will  result  1n  the  Industrial  unity  of  all  the  workers 



in  that  trade  and  line  them  up  In  one  solid  mass  not  only  for  defensive  action  bat 
for  initiative  and  constructive  work  looking  to  the  abolition  of  the  slavish  and  degrad- 
ing  wage  system  and  the  ttlaH^h "»«•*•  of  the  new  Industrial  order  In  which  the 
workers  shall  be  their  own  masters  and  shall  themselves  enjoy  in  full  measure  the 
fruit  of  their  lat 

I  have  watched  with  special  pride  the  progress  made  by  the  •milgims* 
ing  Workers,  for  I  know  under  what  difficulties  it  struggled  into  existence, 
reactionary  Influences  it  was  resisted,  and  what  persistent,  courageous  and  I 
work  has  been  required  to  keep  it  true  to  its  course. 

The   delegates   who  meet   in   Baltimore  on   Monday   nut   will   have 
for  congratulation  as  they  survey  the  past  but  this  will  serve  only  as  a  hlgt 
live  to  stick  manfully  to  the  task  In  the  future  and  to  unite,  comrade  to 
head  and  heart  and  soul,  in  the  resolute  determination  to  remove  every 
the  path  and  to  push  the  organisation  forward  and  ever  forward,  withot 
ias  reached  the  shining  goal  of  its  high  aspiration, 

Thanking  you.  my  dear  comrade,  for  your  words  of  MlUlnees  which  toech  me 
deeply  and  with  love  and  heartfelt  greeting  to  yourself  and  all  of  the  aslegifss  and 
visitors  at  Baltimore,  I  am  In  the  cause  of  the  workers. 

Yours  truly, 

(Signed)  EUGENE  V.  DB8. 

Toronto.  Ont.  May  It. 

Greetings  on  behalf  of  Locals  221.  212.  216.  219.  222  and  Joint  Board  of  Toronto. 
Canada  We  desire  to  convey  our  heartiest  wishes  and  our  joy  at  the  sieeses  of 
the  Amalgamated.  We  look  forward  to  the  future  with  unbounded  sKhielejai  and 
hope  this  convention  will  attain  Us  purpose  for  greater  Ideals  in  these  momentous 

Bee*y  Local  212.  Toronto. 

Brooklyn,  N.   Y.,   Maj   12. 
Congratulations  to  Third  Convention.       Wish  you  success.      We  want  44 

January  First.  1919. 

LOCAL  175.  A.  C.  W.  OF  A,  Samuel  Bemoan.  Sec'y. 

Md  .  Mar 

•etlngs.  Hearty  congratulations  upon  your  past  achievements.  May  the  delib- 
eration! of  the  Convention  be  §uch  as  to  make  our  fighting  organisation  an  Inspira- 
tion to  the  entire  organised  labor  movement. 


Dr.  S.  M.  NelsUdt.  Secretary. 

Atlanta.  Ga..  (Army  Headquarters).  May  12. 
May  success  crown  third  convention  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A. 

of  Local  161.  New  York. 

Chicago.  111..  May  12. 

Please  convey  to  the  delegates  our  greetings.      We  hope  their  deliberations 
be  of  great  benefit  to  the  members  at  large. 

MEMBERS   OF   LOCAL  39.   A.   C.  W.   OF  A^ 

Factory  M.  Hart,  Schaffner  4  Marx. 

New  York,  N.  Y..  May  It. 

-etlngs  and  slncerest  congratulations  to  all  delegates  of  the  Third  Biennial 
OonYenUon  and  beat  wishes  for  the  attainment  of  unity  and  strength  of  the  A  C  W. 
of  A  Success  In  the  campaign  for  44  hour  week. 



Chicago,   111.,   May   i:.'. 

We   take   this   opportunity   to   extend   to  you  our  heartiest   congratulations   upon 
the  victories  your  organization  has  met  with  in  the  past  year  and  the  firm  foundation 
you  hare  succeeded  In  establishing.      We  trust  that  your  efforts  in  the  future  will  be 
as  successful  as  in  the  past 


Hamilton,   Ontario,   May    12 

Very  sorry  I  cannot  be  with  you  this  year  but  am  sending  you  hearty  congratu- 
lations and  best  wishes.  May  everything  you  undertake  be  crowned  with  success. 
May  our  beloved  Amalgamated  continually  grow  in  power.  Let  our  slogan  now  be 
forty-four  hours  a  week,  which  1  hope  will  soon  be  established. 


New  Yorl<.  N    V  .  May  12. 

Success  and  sincerest  congratulations  to  all  our  representatives  at  the  Third 
Hionnial  Convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America.  We  hope 
that  our  future  undertakings  for  the  forty- four-hour  campaign  v.-tn  prove  a  success. 

THE     PANTS     MAKERS'     UNION     OF     NEW     Y( 

63   Ludlow   Street. 

Boston,  Mass.,  May  12. 

We  wish  you  good  luck  and  success  in  all  your  undertakings. 

Boston,  Mass.,  May  13. 

Greetings:  Determination,  -harmony  in  our  ranks  and  the  justice  of  our  cause 
brought  such  wonderful  success  for  our  organization.  Proceed  with  your  delibera- 
tions in  the  same  spirit.  March  on  forward  on  the  path  of  victory.  In  solid  ranks 
we  shall  follow  and  assist  you. 

Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America. 

Boston,  Mass.,  May   13. 
With  best  withes,  from  victory  to  victory. 

LOCAL  1,  A.  C.  W.  OF  A., 

J.  Blume,  Pres. 
F.  Lerman,   Sec'y. 

New  York,  N.  Y.,  May  13. 

Greetings  from  Children's  Jacket  Pressers*  Union,  Local  Eleven,  Amalgamated 
Clothing  Workers  of  America.  Congratulations  from  all  members  to  your  Third 
Biennial  Convention.  Heartiest  wishes  for  success. 

JACOB  HORN,  Secretary. 

Boston,  Mass.,  May  13. 
Greetings.      Regards  to  all  delegates  at  the  convention. 

M.  DANISHEFSKY,  Local  25. 

Baltimore,  Md.,  May  13. 
Congratulations  to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention. 

LOCAL  NO.  170,  A.  C.  W.  OF  A. 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  13. 

Greetings  to  ail  delegates  to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention.  Best  wishes  for 
the  future. 

H.  ROBERT,  Secretary,  Local  7. 

Hamilton,  Ont.,  May  12. 
We,  the  members  of  Local  210,  of  Hamilton,  Ontario,  send  our  greetings  to  you. 



You  have  undertaken  a  BBJMsai  work  and  attained  iucc*«*       We  ere  proud  to  be  ai 

tne  banner  of  the  A    <      vs .       Yom  AT*  la*  pride  of  the  American  werklnc  claas. 
as«ur«  juu. 


Md  .    Mtj    13 

.     our  heartiest  greetUi**  and  congratulations.       May  your  deliberation* 
crowned   with  success.  for  your  success  U  the  success  of  tne  Labor  Movement 
world  over. 
TiUB    WORKERS    OF    TUB     AijgmrAM     UNIFORM     SHOP.  A.  C.  W.  OF  A, 

Now  York.  N.  Y.f  May  U.  1911 

Accopi  beet  wiahM  for  •uccciaful  convention.      Our  next  coal  will  bo  tbo  forty. 
-h(.ur  wrnk       LJIL  u>  hooo  that  the  meetlnc  of  our  fourth  annual  oonveadoa  will 

four-hour  wee*.      Let  us  hope  that  the  me«Un<  of  our  fourth  annual 
be  a  time  of  peace  and  prosperity. 

JACKET      MAKERS'   LOCAL      12,   A.   C    W.  OF  A, 


New  York.  N.  Y  ,  May  12.  1911. 

New  York  Ceat  Preatert*  Benerolent  Association  sends  you  beat  wishes  and 
hopes  that  you  will  succeed  In  conquering  all  your  enemies.  Proceed  with  your  won- 
derful  work  for  the  people  In  the  clothing  industry. 

O.  I3ROWN8TEIN,  Financial  Secretary. 


Greetings  to  all  delegates  of  the  Third  Biennial  Contention  and  wishing  yom 
continued  success  in  the  future. 

J.  WBUMAN.  General  Organlxer.  A,  C.  W.  of  A. 

Philadelphia.  Pa.  May  12.  1318 

The  Officers  of  Philadelphia  District  Council  No.   2  wish  success  to  the  Tail* 

Convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America. 



Baltimore.  Md..  May  12.  ItU. 

We  beg  to  extend  our  heartiest  support  and  beat  wishes  for  your  accomplish- 
ments and  we  sincerely  hope  that  the  coming-  year  will  be  crowned  with  further 



Baltimore.  Md..  Msy  12.  1918. 

Congratulations  to  the  opening  of  the  national  convention  in  Baltimore  City  from 
EXAMINERS     AND     BUSHELMEN'S     LOCAL     62.  A    C.  W.  OF    * 

Chicago.  111..  May  12.  1918. 

Accept  beat  wishes  that  your  deliberations  may  lead  to  great  advancement  of  our 
cause  and  organisation. 

LOCAL  NO.  144 

Chicago.  111..  May  12.  1118. 

*  cept  heartiest  congratulations  upon  the  achievements  of  the  organitation  dur- 
ing the  past  years.  May  we  march  ever  onward  until  every  man  and  woman  in  In- 

y  is  organized.     Allow  me  to  congratulate  our  officers  upon  their  great 
ability.      Sorry  I  am  not  with  you. 



New  York,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1918. 

Pressers'  Branch.  Local  3,  A.  C.  W.  of  A.,  wishes  you  success  and  hopes  and 
trusts  that  the  convention  will  succeed  In  establishing  a  44-hour  w 

M.    PKIUANSKY,    Treasurer, 
L.  RABCHLNSKY,  Trustee. 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1918. 

The  Wllllamtburg  Labor  Lyceum  Anociation  greets  most  heartily  and  sincerely 
the  convention  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  la  the  strength  and  progress  of  your  orgnnl- 
tation  lies  the  destiny  of  nearly  every  big  undertaking  of  labor. 

JOS.   A.  WHTTEHORN.   Treasurer. 
B.   C.  VLADECK,   Chairman. 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1918. 

To  all  Delegates  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.:  Greetings!  I  bid  you  welcome  from  th« 
depth  of  my  heart  May  your  work  be  crowned  with  success  and  may  our  next  step 
be  the  establishment  of  the  44-hour  week.  Long  live  the  Amalgamated  Clothing 
Workers  of  America. 

S.  LEVY,  Recording  Secretary,  Local  213. 


Second  Session. 

Tuesday  Morning,  May  14,  1118. 

The  Convention  WM  called  to  order  at  10  a.  m..  Tuesday.  May   Hih. 
Hlllman  presiding.      Secretary  Scbtoeaberg  read  the  following  tilitflMii. 

Now  York.  N.  Y..  May  IS.  Itlfl. 

Heartleat  congratulations,  best   wlihes  and   success  to  the  Amalgamated  Cloth- 
ing   workers  lea   from   the   Civilian    Clothing   Cutters   of   Munvea   * 

716  Broadway.  New  Y<    > 


New  York.  N.  Y..  May  13.  It  IS. 
To  the  Officers  and  Delegates  of  the  Third  Biennial  Convention: 

Accept  our  hoar'  .-ratulatlon  and  may  your  work  be  crowned  with  MCC 


M  Hubinsky,  PrssjMSjBf* 
V-T.VI.  .-      r-'.arjr. 

New  York.  N.  Y..  May  13.  1*1S. 

In  the  name  of  the   fifteen   thousand   members  of  oar  military   unifor 
ment  we  extend  heartiest  congratulations  to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention 
that  our  organization,  with  the  aid  of  the  entire  progressive  labor  mo 
help  bring  about  a  world  peace  and  true  democracy. 


Jos,  Margone.  Manager. 

Chicago,  ill..  May  13.  !»!§. 

Tho  Dally  World   of  Chicago  greets  you   and   pledges   itself  to  co-operate  with 
you  in  all  your  work  in  the  interest  of  the  clothing  ind  May  all  yo«r 

eratlons  be  successful. 

MORRIS   SU8SKIND.   Manager   Daily   World. 

New  York.  N.  Y..  May  13.  lilt. 
Greetings  and  best  wishes  for  a  44-hour  week. 

SCHWARTZ  &  JAFFEE  SHOP.  28  Bleecker  SL, 
Morris  Moskowltx. 

New  York    N    Y.  M..   U    mg. 

To  th*»  Officers  and  Delegates:  Greetings!  The  Third  Convention  in  the  history 
of  our  organization  marks  Its  wonderful  progress.  Wishes  for  IU  continued  sinruM 
Long  live  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  Am. 


New  York.  N.  Y.  May  1$.  Itlf. 

Cr^tinc*     W*.  th?  workers  of  Schwarts  £  Jaffee.  extend  our  jieeHiji  to  the 
1  Biennial  Convention  and  pledge  our  full  fledged,  unrestricted  cooperatio 
loyalty  and  trwt 

HERMAN  HERKUB.  Chairman. 


New  York.  N.  T.,  May  13,  1918. 

Congratulations  to  the  3rd  convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers 
of  America,  from  the  employees  of  Rugoff  &  Co.,  85  Canal  St.,  New  York  City. 

SAM   PALULO,  Chairman. 

New  York,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1918. 

Heartiest  greetings.  May  your  efforts  be  spent  in  directing  the  cause  of  our 
organization  to  travel  on  the  road  which  leads  to  the  emancipation  of  the  tailors  in 
particular  and  toller*  in  general. 


L.  Goldstein, 
I.  Rappaport, 
Roinlsh,  Committee. 

New  York.  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1918. 

I  extend  to  you  my  heartiest  congratulations  and  earnest  wishes  that  your  delib- 
eration in  behalf  of  the  great  clothing  Industry  may  be  crowned  with  success  and  tht 
results  of  your  efforts  be  of  mutual  benefit  to  all  concerned  and  to  our  glorious 

JOSEPH   S.   MARCUS,   President  the  Bank  of  United   States. 

New  York,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1918. 

Accept  the  hearty  congratulations  of  one  who  is  proud  of  being  an  officer  of  the 
Amalgamated  which  has  known  success  In  no  short  a  time  as  the  four  years  of  Its  lift. 


Philadelphia,  Pa.,  May  13,  1918. 

Local  153  Shirtmakers'  Union  of  Philadelphia  send  greetings  to  the  Third  Bien- 
nial Convention.  Remember  that  the  eyes  of  all  the  workers  in  the  needle  industry 
are  centered  upon  your  convention.  Make  good  as  in  previous  conventions,  and  go 
on  with  the  good  work  for  better  conditions.  We  hope  that  in  this  convention  you 
will  nail  the  banner  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  over  on* 
grand  industrial  union  comprising  the  whole  needle  industry 

W.   K.  LINMAN, 

Philadelphia,  Pa.,  May  13,  1918. 

The  Philadelphia  uniform  department  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  and  the  Cloak  and 
Skin  Makers'  Union  are  extending  to  you  and  the  delegates  to  the  Third  Biennial 
Convention  their  heartiest  congratulations.  We  hope  that  the  present  convention  will 
on  the  pedestal  of  the  splendid  past  outline  the  work  for  the  future  and  energetically 
carry  it  to  a  successful  issue. 

B.  KARP, 


Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1918. 
We  send  you  our  best  wishes  and  congratulations. 


Chicago,  111.,  May  13,  1918. 

Third  Biennial  Convention,  A.  C.  W.  of  A.:  Greetings:  Accept  our  best  wishes 
and  felicitations.  May  your  efforts  and  deliberations  be  crowned  with  success.  The 
Operators'  Branch,  Loral  156,  extends  Its  greetings  to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention 
of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  and  best  wishes  for  a  successful 
campaign  for  the  44-hour  working  week. 

OPERATORS,  LOCAL  156.  A.  C.  W.  OF  A., 
A.  M.  Winner,  Secretary, 

Montreal,   Quebec,  May  13,  1918. 
Hearty  congratulations  to  our  Third  Convention.     We  are  proud  of  the  achieve- 



ment  of  the  Amalgamated  in  the  past.       Let  the  work  of  the  future  aland  out  at  a 
shining  example  to  ail  organized  labor. 

K8E.  Secretary  Montreal  Joint  Board.  A.  C  W  o' 

New  York.  N.  Y..  May  13.  1918. 

our  heartiest  congratulation*.  May  your  deliberation  result  in  a  forty- 
four  hour  week.  The  Children'!  Clothing  Trades  will  lend  their  efforts  to  be  the 
vanguard  in  bringing  this  happy  result  to  realization.  Fraternally  your*. 


••rs  and  Trimmers'  Local  116  extend  their  hearty  greetings  to  our 
Wishing  you  success  In  all  your  undertaking. 

A.  PAYDTTE  and  L.  MORRIS.  Secretary. 

Chicago.  Ill .  May  IS.  1918. 

Third  HIennlal  Convention.  A.  C.  W.  of  A.:     Greetings!      Accept  our 
and  felicitations.      May  your  efforts  and  deliberations  be  crowned  with 
that  you  may  add  laurels  to  our  past  accomplishments.      May  there  be  a 
the  laboring  msstes  will  follow  the  path  that  has  been  paved  by  you. 

VB8T  MAKERS'  LOCAL  1S2.  A.  C.  W.  OP 
Joseph  G  lick  man. 

Boston.  Msts..  May  IS.  1918. 

May  this  meeting  be  the  Inspiration  for  renewed  and  fruitful  activity. 


York.  N    Y  .  May  IS.  1*18. 

The  employes  of  Dauman  send  their  hearty  greetings  to  the  Third  Biennial  OoaV 
ventlon  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  and  wish  you  success  in  every  enterprise, 

i.KRNKR.  Chairman 

N>w  York.  N    T     May  IS.  111*. 

Heartiest  congratulations  to  the  3rd  annual  convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clotav 
ing  Workers  of  America.  May  success  crown  your  efforts.  Our  boys  are  with  you 
one  and  all. 


Chicago.  HI .  May  IS.  1918. 

The  United  Hebrew  Trades  of  Chicago,  the  body  representing  the  organized  Jew- 
lab  laborers,  send  heartiest  greetings  to  your  Third  Biennial  Convention.   We  ar 
you  in  your  noble  struggles  not  only  for  a  living  but  for  a  decent  living.      We  bleas 
you.  gigantic  child  of  labor. 

R    YOUKELSON.  President, 

New  York.  N.  Y..  May  IS.  1918. 

Heartiest    congratulation?.       May  your  deliberations   result   in   a   forty  eight -how 
wok  and  the  ultimate  emancipation  of  the  working  class.      Sorry  cannot  be 
but  my  heart  and  soul  are  with  you.          Fraternally. 


Brooklyn.  N.  Y..  May  IS.  1918. 

The  Buttonhole  Makers'  Union.  Local  245  of  Brooklyn  extend  heartiest 
tions  and  best  wishes  for  a  successful  convention.      We  hope  that  your 
will  bring  us  more  economic  advantages  and  also  the  establishment  of  the  1 1  BOW 
BUTTONHOLE  MAF.  •  MON.  LOCAL  245.  A.  C.  W.  OP 


Chicago.  111.  Mar  IS.   1918 
May  the  accomplishment  of  your  efforts,  our  representatives,  be  such  that  through 



we  shall  real  lie  our  aspiration  for  the  building  of  our  ideal  industrial  democracy. 

Chicago,  111.,  May  13,   1918. 

Campaign  initiated.  Employers  trying  to  suppress  our  movement  by  cauaing  dis- 
tributors of  pamphlets  to  be  persecuted.  Aggression  not  diminishing  our  enthusiasm. 
1  fonee  third  convention  affirm  eight-hour  day. 


Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1918. 

We,  the  workers  of  Milton  Simpson  &  Co.,  2041  Pitkln  Avenue,  send  our  best  wishes 
and  congratulation* 

NERENBERG,    Chairman. 

New  York,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1918. 

Greetings.  With  pride  do  I  extend  the  greetings  of  the  New  York  Joint  Board 
to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America, 
at  whose  past  achievements  for  the  clothing  \\orkers  whom  you  represent  we  look 
upon  with  much  glory.  We  hope  that  this  convention  will  continue  to  enlighten  the 
labor  movement  upon  the  path  of  human  emancipation  until  we  reach  the  goal  of  true 
democracy  and  equality  for  all  those  who  labor  and  produce.  With  best  wishes  for  a 
•uoceuful  convention. 

M.  BLUMENREICH,  Secretary  Board  of  Directors, 

New  York  Joint  Board,  A.  C.  W.  of  A. 

President  HJLLMAN:     Is  the  Credential  Committee  ready  to  report? 

(The  Chairman  of  the  Credential  Committee  read  his  report.  At  the  conclusion 
of  hit  report,  Assistant  Secretary  Potofsky  named  the  following  delegates  as  those 
who  were  recommended  to  be  seated  with  a  voice  and  vote  at  the  Convention.) 

1,    Boston,  Mass.— Jack  Blume,  Frank  Lerman,  Jos.  Pennini,  Samuel  Zorn. 

2      New  York  City. — David  Goldstein,  Joseph  Goodman,  Isaac  Levlnaon,  Morris  Rappa- 

port,  Harry  Schepps,  Nathan  Slegel,  Max  Schultz. 
5,     New  York  City.— Alex    Cohen,    Morris    Goldin,    L.     Nirenberg,    L.     Rerayle,     S. 


4,    New  York  City. — Abr.  Beckerman,  J.  P.  Friedman,  Harry  Jacobson,  Meyer  Sentar. 
I.     Chicago,  111. — Stephan  Skala. 

7.  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. — Isador  Axelrod,  Louis  Berger. 

8.  New   York   City.— Hyman   Goldoft,   Abr.   Miller.   D.   Nirenberg,   Nathan   Sosnlck, 

David  Weiss. 

9.  New  York  City. — Abraham  Silverman,  Louis  Feinberg. 

10,  New  York  City.— Louis  Adler,  Sam  Katz,  Philip  Waldman. 

11,  New  York  City.— Sam  Leder. 

12,  New  York  City.— Bennie  Horowitz,  Jacob  Gutterman,  Saul  Rlger,  Sam  Scheir. 

15,  Baltimore. — Aaron  Feldman. 

16,  New  York  City.— Morris  Goldstein,  M.  Nitzberg,  Samuel  Stein,  Louis  Zuckerman. 
It,    New  York  City,— Max  Yudelowitz. 

24,  Newark,  N.  J.— Eugene  BuccI,  Philip  Berkowiti. 

30,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.— Julius  Powers. 

31,  Baltimore.  Md.— Bonnie  Bernstein,  Harry  Crystal,  Sarah  Katzen,  Morris  Zafran. 
S8,  Chicago. — Victor  Wybraniec. 

XI,  Chicago — Bennie   Brandzal,  A.   N.   Fisher,  David   Goldberg,   Rubin  Morse,   Mary 

Resbeck,  Tom  Uzarskl. 

40,  New  York  City. — Jos.  Newman,  Hyman  Novodvor,  Bernard  Weiss. 

43,  New  York  City.— David  Isaacs,  Louis  Schaplro,  Jacob  Yelowlts. 

51,  Baltimore.— Philip  De  Luca,  Ulisse  De  Dominicis. 

K2,  Baltimore. — Frank  Dvorak. 

64,  Brooklyn.N.  Y.— Frank  Vaitukaitis,  John  Zubauca. 

It  New  York  City.— Harry  Bender. 

18,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.— Wm.  Cernowsky. 

19,  Baltimore. — Bennie  Hurowlti. 



Chicago.— Samuel  Oeier.  Jacob  Kroll.  Frank  P*rtek 
63.    New    York    city.— Paul    Arnone.    Frank    Bellanca.    Dominick    Di    Nardo. 

Romano.  Gabriel  Vastano. 
69.    Baltimore.— Frank  J.  Bar 
72.    Brooklyn.  N.  Y  —Joseph  Cohen, 
idelphia.— Harry  Goldstsdm. 

85.    Brooklyn.  N.  Y— Frank  Marrone.  Louis  Mairola 
Brooklyn.  N.  Y.— Tbeo.  Pilger. 
Cleveland.— Victor  Foreman. 
114.    Baltimore.— Harry  Elsen.  Louis  Lederman.  Max  Prossinsn.  Morris  Slrkln. 

116.  Montreal      A.  Wrlls. 

117.  Baltimore.— Harry  Nelstadt.  Max  Roslnsky 

188!    Philadelphia.' Pa.— Jobn  Bender. 

140.    Philadelphia^-*.  Lerner 
Ml.     rhlladelpbla—  Hyman  Greenberg. 
142.    Brooklyn.  N.  Y.— Harry  Taylor, 
iladelphie,  Pa.-Isaac  Kesaler. 

Chicago.  Ill  —Jacob  8.  Pot  of  sky.  Morris  Rabinowlti. 

Boston.— John  Palalma, 
150.    Boston.— Thomas  Mot 

162.    Chicago. — Samuel  Diamond.  Joseph  Goldmsn. 
Mladelphla,  Pa.— Leah  Gaibln 

166.  New    York    City.— Morris    Adlnskr.    Chas.    Bnglander.    Jos.    Gold. 

Jacob  Pollack. 

167.  New  York  city— -Morris  Gunt.  Emma  Shapiro. 

158.  New  York  City.— Harry  N   Greenberg. 

159.  Brooklyn. — Harry  Rubin. 

161.    New  York  City.— BenJ.  Indyke. 
165.    Brooklyn.  N.  Y.— Sam  Hassner. 
167.    Montreal.— Max  Kes.v 

169.  New  York. — Louis  Posner. 

170.  Baltimore. — Msmie  Santorn.  alternate  for  Dorothy  Jacobs 
Boston.— David  Oilman. 

172.    Boston.— Leon  Lebovltz. 

Boston.— Nathan  Biller.  David  Goldstein. 

174.  Worcester.— Harry  8t ' 

175.  Brooklyn. — J.  Blume.  Simon  Haas.  J.  Zuckennan. 

176.  Brooklyn.— Frank  Caneellleri. 
178.    New  York  —Abraham  Kronick. 

186,  New  York.— Hyman  Mitnitsky.  Harris  Yanofsky. 

207,  Woodbine.  N.  J.— M.  Gin. 

209.  Montreal.— Frank  Wl 

218.  Brooklyn.  N.  Y  — Sol  Friedman,  H.  Heller. 

i'l4.  Brooklyn.  N.  Y,— Harry  Kalushkin. 

Brooklyn.  N.  Y.— Max  Alexander.  Jack  Perlman. 

218.  Baltimore.— John  J.  Denkevks, 

280.  Baltimore.— John  Drasel 

Baltimore.— Samuel  Basstn.  Abraham  Sykes 

244.  New  York  City.— B.  Goldsholl. 

247.  Baltimore.— Morris  Fisher. 

248.  New  York.— Max  Steinberg.  Sam  Drabkin 

249.  Philadelphia.— Sam   < 

259.     Brooklyn.  N.  Y.— Louis  Brodsky.  B   Jackson. 

262.    Brooklyn.  N  >rv  Dotio.  Peter  Monat.  David  Wolf.  Jacob  J.  Y< 

269.    Chicago.— Peter  Galfkls 
77.    Montreal.— Ellas  Rabkln. 

280.    New  York.— Thomas  Frlsa,  Lorento  De  Maria. 
Joint  Board  of  Rochester— Jacob  J.  Levin. 
Joint  Board  of  Boston— Laxarus  Marcovitx 
Joint  Board  of  Chicago— Hyman  Isovtta, 
Neir  York  Joint  Board— Wm.  Drubin 


Children's  Clothing  Trades  Joint  Board,  New  York— Harry  Cohen. 

Joint  Board  of  Toronto— Jas.  Blugerman. 

Philadelphia  District  Coun  —Nathan  Bunin. 

Baltimore  District  Council  No.  3.— Hyman  Blumberg. 

Fraternal  Delegate— Jos.  P.  Barry,  Boston  Clothing  Cutters  and  Trimmers'  Union. 

As  there  was  no  objection,  these  delegates  were  declared  seated  as  delegates  to 
the  Convention,  and  so  ordered 

Brother  Tttafsky  then  made  an  additional  report  for  the  Credential  Committee 
as  follows: 

"Your  Committee  on  Credentials,  elected  at  the  first  session,  beg  leave  to  report 
that  we  have  examined  all  credentials  submitted  by  the  delegates.  In  accordance 
with  the  constitution  the  committee  ruled  that  each  delegate  must  be  a  member  of 
the  Local  Union  he  or  she  was  elected  to  represent,  and,  therefore,  recommends  that 
Brother  Thomas  Morelll,  who  is  a  member  of  Local  1,  Boston,  and  an  elected  delegate 
of  the  Boston  Overall  Workers,  Local  150,  shall  have  a  voice  but  no  vote." 

Delegate  Zorn  suggested  that  Delegate  Morelll  be  seated  with  a  vote  inasmuch  as 
Local  150  is  a  new  local  and  did  not  know  of  this  particular  clause  of  the  constitution. 
and  that  if  they  were  not  allowed  a  vote  it  would  create  a  bad  Impression  among  the 
members  of  the  local. 

Delegate  Goodman  stated  as  follows: 

We  act  in  accordance  with  the  constitution  and  we  know  that  no  member  can 
represent  a  Local  Union  of  which  he  is  not  a  member.  Therefore  we  think  that  this 
cannot  be  decided  by  the  Convention  because  the  membership  voted  on  the  constitu- 
tion. The  Convention  cannot  overrule  the  membership. 

President  HILLMAN:  The  call  for  the  Convention  sent  out  by  the  General 
Secretary  from  the  General  Office  had  the  clause  of  the  constitution  inserted.  The 
clause  of  the  constitution  reads:  "Delegates  shall  be  elected  at  a  special  meeting 
of  the  local  union  by  ballot  not  later  than  March  31st  preceding  the  Convention,  and 
a  plurality  vote  shall  constitute  an  election.  No  person  shall  be  eligible  to  election 
as  a  delegate  unless  he  is  a  member  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  Amer- 
ica who  shall  have  been  a  member  in  good  standing  of  the  local  union  he  represents 
at  least  one  year  immediately  preceding  the  day  on  which  said  election  Is  held." 

Delegate  ZORN:     This  does  not  specify  that  he  must  be  a  member  of  that  local. 

President  HILLMAN:  I  am  reading  to  you  that  which  was  passed  by  the  Web- 
ster Hall  Convention.  I  have  no  objection  if  the  Convention  wishes  to  use  a  technical 
excuse  for  violating  the  constitution.  I  believe  it  would  be  a  very  unfortunate  step 
to  establish  such  precedents.  We  have  laws  so  that  they  may  be  enforced,  no  matter 
who  may  be  affected.  The  report  of  the  Committee  on  Credentials  is  that  Delegate 
Morelll  should  be  seated  with  a  voice  but  without  a  vote.  The  vote  is  on  the  question. 

The  recommendation  of  the  Committee  was  unanimously  adopted. 

Delegate  Potofsky  then  read  the  following: 

"The  committee  is  of  the  opinion  that  no  one  delegate  may  represent  more  than 
one  Local  Union,  and  therefore  recommends  that  the  delegate  sent  from  Locals  244 
and  245  of  New  York  may  represent  Local  244  only,  of  which  local  he  is  a  member; 
likewise  the  Locals  249  and  281,  Philadelphia.  The  committee  recommends  that 
Brother  Goldscholl  represent  Local  244,  and  Brother  Flicker  be  seated  as  a  delegate 
from  Local  249.  of  which  he  is  a  member." 

Delegate  Levine  of  Rochester  opposed  the  recommendation,  because  it  takes 
away  the  risht  of  on*  local  to  be  represented  He  stated  that  inasmuch  as  the 
delegate  has  only  one  vote,  to  take  away  from  him  the  right  to  represent  one  of  the 
locals  would  be  unfair.  He  said  that  this  was  particularly  true  of  Rochester  where 
one  delegate  represents  four  locals. 

Delegate  ALEX.  COHEN  (of  New  York):  I  don't  see  the  reason  why  that  should 
be  recommended  by  the  Credential  Committee.  I  understand  that  a  man  can  talk 
In  the  name  of  two  or  three  or  four  local  unions.  I  don't  see  how  the  Convention  is 
going  to  produce  anything  in  any  way  by  preventing  a  delegate  from  speaking  on  be- 
half of  three  or  four  local  unions  instead  of  one.  I  understand  the  reason,  why  a 
man  cannot  be  elected  as  a  delegate  from  another  local  union  to  represent  his  local, 
but  when  three  or  four  local  unions  send  one  representative  I  don't  see  why  this 



Convention  should  have  any  objections,  and  therefore  1  feel  that  there  is  no 
for  concurring  with  the  recommendation  of  the  Credential  Committee  in  this 

Delegate  GOODMAN  (of  the  Credential  Committee):  I  wish  to  say  that  the 
Credential  Committee  decided  In  that  manner  because  we  do  not  wish  to  permit  one 
delegate  to  represent  a  whole  town.  We  do  not  want  to  establish  a  priniisnt 
Later  on  we  may  have  a  whole  city  sending  one  delegate,  and  we  want  every  local 
union  to  have  Its  own  representation,  and  not  have  one  delegate  represent  an  entire 

Delegate  JACKSON  (Local  259):  If  a  local  is  poor  and  has  no  money  to  send 
n  delegate,  have  they  not  a  right  to  combine  with  another  local  and  jointly  send 

fill   %    fl»«I  « aft  f  **  ^ 

Presidt  MAN:     Thnt  the  Convention  will  decided  this  morning       I  cannot. 

Delegate  ALEX  COHEN  (Local  3):  I  want  to  be  Informed  whether,  by  letting 
oo«  delegate  represent  two  local  unions.  It  will  mean  that  be  will  have  two  votes? 

President  HILLMAN:  No.  It  would  not.  It  would  simply  mean  that  local  unions 
may  combine  to  send  a  delegate.  I  wish  to  say  that  the  delegates  may  take  Into  con- 
sideration thnt  It  may  work  a  great  hardship  on  some  of  our  local  organisations.  We 
have  organisations  in  small  towns  that  are  not  sufficiently  strong  to  finance  their 
own  representatives,  and  so  two  or  three  local  unions  will  have  one  business  agent 
as  their  representative.  By  Isying  down  a  law  against  It  we  may  simply  deprive 
those  local  unions  from  being  seated  at  future  conventions.  While  this 
may  be  seated  here  now.  you  realise  that  the  local  unions  will  not  pay  his 
In  the  future  if  he  will  not  represent  them.  It  would  be  wrong  for  a  la 
onion  to  send  proxies,  but  it  may  work  a  *rav.*  'njusttce  to  the  smaller  unions  if  yon 
will  deprive  them  of  the  opportunity  to  «en<1  joint  delegates.  (Applause). 

ve  motion  was  then  placed  before  the  house.       The  vote  was  33  In  favor  of 

accepting  the  Committee's  report,  and  59  opposed). 

President    m I LMAN       We  will   now  vote  on  the  motion  that  the  delegates  be 
seated  as  representing  two  local  unions  each. 
(This  was  unanimously  carried.) 

Pr.  n. LMAN:     The  chair   wishes  to  announce  that   this  action   of  the 

Convention,  as  I  understand  it.  applies  only  to  local  unions  that  are  financially 
to  send  representatives.      It  is  not  the  sense  of  this  Convention  that  joint 
be  permitted  In  the  case  of  local  unions  financially  able  to  send  separate 

(Delegate  Potofaky  then  continued  reading  his  report  ) 

In  the  case  of  Local  24.  Newark,  which  tent  in  two  delegates  while  this  local 
is  only  entitled  to  one.  lacking  only  three  members  to  be  entitled  to  two.  The  Com- 
mittee recommends  that  both  delegates  be  seated  with  one  vote,  a  half  vote  for 

Delegate  EHSEN:     There  are  two  delegates  and   If  you  seat  the  two  . 
and  give  them  only  one  vote,  suppose  the  delegates  disagree  on  a  question,  how  will 

that  vote? 

President  HILLMAN:     Each  will  have  half  a  vote. 

Delegate  BHSEN:     I  would  much  rather  see  that  the  one  delegate  that  received 

the  largest  number  of  votes  from  the  local  union  should  be 

Delegate   COHEN:      I   move  that   the   recommendation   of  the   Credential 

be  accepted. 

The  recommendation  of  the  Committee  was  carried. 

The  full  report  was  accepted  as  amended  In  the  one)  case  above  mentioned. 

President    HILLMAN:      I   shall   ask   the  delegates  to  hand   in   their   resolutions. 
While  we  are  taking   up  some  of  our  time  with  the  Assistant   Secretary  receiving 
the  resolutions  I  wish  to  announce  that  we  will  have  the  pleasure  of  listening  this 
oon  to  the  Chairman  of  the  Board  of  Standards  of  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment. Professor   Ripley    (applause).     Professor  Ripley  was  made  chairman   of  that 


Board  when  Mr.  Louis  Klrsteln  resigned.     He  will  address  the  Convention  at  three 

I  am  sure  that  the  delegates  will  be  glad  to  hear  now  from  one  of  our  friends 
who  Is  with  us  and  haa  always  been  with  us.  I  understand  that  lie  was  also  at  the 
conrention  from  which  I  was  unfortunate  enough  to  be  absent,  the  convention  in 
Naahvllle.  I  take  pleasure  in  introducing  to  you  Comrade  H.  Rogoff.  (Prolonged 

Address  of  Harry  Rogoff 

I  am  very  sorry  that  Mr.  Cahan,  the  editor  of  the  Forward,  has  not  been  able  to 
come  to  address  you  aa  he  intended.  He  haa  not  been  feeling  well  and  is  unable  to 
come.  The  greetings  of  the  Forward  to  the  delegates  of  the  Amalgamated  don't 
hare  to  be  rendered  In  person  by  anybody.  I  think  that  the  delegates  to  this  Con- 
vention who  are  able  to  read  the  Forward  know  enough  about  the  feelings  of  the 
Forward  for  this  organization.  It  has  been  an  Amalgamated  newspaper — an  Amal- 
gamated organ  ever  since  this  organization  has  been  started,  and  probably  many 
months  or  years  before,  in  spirit.  The  Forward  is  certainly  over  happy  to  see  this 
result  of  Its  agitation,  to  find  that  all  its  predictions  and  all  its  hopes  have  been  more 
than  realized  with  regard  to  the  Amalgamated  organization.  There  Is  no  special 
message  that  the  Forward  and  myself,  as  its  represntatlve,  at  this  moment  can  bring 
to  you. 

I  heard  many  addresses  yesterday.  Many  of  the  delegates,  or  many  of  the 
men  who  spoke  to  you,  made  all  kinds  of  predictions  about  war  times,  after  th« 
war  et  cetera.  I  am  unable  to  say  anything  about  the  future.  But  I  should  like 
to  say  one  thing  about  the  present  that  was  said  yesterday  by  Comrade  Shlplacoff. 
I  certainly  endorse  his  sentiment  on  one  particular  point,  that  this  Convention  con- 
fine itself  to  the  business  of  the  Convention,  to  the  business  of  the  Amalgamated, 
to  the  problems  that  confront  your  organization,  and  try  to  keep  out  from  the  other 
problems  that  may  involve  you  in  controversies  and  in  disagreements  in  the  organi- 
zation. If  there  Is  anything  that  I  wish  to  impress  upon  your  minds  It  is  this.  And 
I  am  sure  that  in  this  respect  I  voice  the  sentiment  of  all  the  people  who  stand  At 
the  head  of  the  Jewish  Daily  Forward.  I  thank  you.  (Applause.) 

President  HILLMAN:  I  am  asked  to  introduce  a  representative  of  the  Los 
Angeles  Sanatorium,  Mr.  F.  Flanzer,  who  will  address  the  Convention  for  a  few  minutes. 

Mr.  Flanzer  congratulated  the  Amalgamated  upon  its  progress  and  concluded  in  an 
to  the  Amalgamated  for  help  as  follows:  I  have  been  traveling  for  the  last 
three  years  for  the  Los  Angeles  Sanatorium,  which  is  recognized  as  a  radical  institu- 
tion. Wherever  I  come,  in  every  city  of  the  United  States,  it  always  happens  that 
some  one  asks  me  who  is  back  of  it,  because  they  understand  there  must  be  some  big 
man  back  of  the  institution.  They  cannot  make  It  out  that  it  is  possible  for  any  In- 
stitution to  be  carried  on  without  any  particular  one  backing  it  up,  but  all  of  the 
people  should  be  In  back  of  It.  So  I  hope  and  trust  that  the  Amalgamated  Clothing 
Workers  at  this  Convention  will  give  sufficient  support  to  this  institution  so  that  I 
shall  be  able  to  tell  those  who  ask  me  that  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 
America  is  in  back  of  it.  (Applause).  I  hope  your  Resolutions  Committee  will 
recommend  proper  action.  I  thank  you  for  all  you  have  already  done.  (Applause). 

President  HILLMAN:  I  wish  to  announce  that  tomorrow  at  ten  o'clock  sharp 
Congressman  London  will  address  the  Convention  (applause).  I  shall  ask  the  dele- 
gates to  be  on  time  as  Congressman  London  has  to  go  back  to  Washington  imme- 
diately on  account  of  some  bills  that  are  coming  up.  I  understand  that  the  Com- 
mittee on  Credentials  wishes  to  make  a  further  report. 

Delegate  POTOFSKY:  The  chairman  of  the  Credentials  Committee  requested  me 
to  announce  that  this  credential  was  presented  this  morning  and  was  voted  upon 
favorably  by  the  Credential  Committee,  Brother  Harry  Goldstein  of  Local  75  of 

The  report  was  unanimously  accepted. 

President  HILLMAN:  I  am  sure  that  the  delegates  would  like  to  listen  to  one 
who  is  from  our  own  ranks,  a  member  of  our  New  York  Cutters'  organization,  a 



member  of  its  Executive  Board,  a  member  of  the  Board  of   M<tr»ea  of  New  York, 
Brother  Abraham  Beekerman     (Applause). 

'  -  '  -«*\       •        •  •       * 

*  Address  of  Delegate  Beckerman 

AM  BBCKERJCAN:     Brother  Chairman  and  Brothers:     I 

to  say  that  I  did  not  expect  to  bo  called  upon  to  make  any  special 

don't  happen  to  be  a  sort  of  invited  alderman  or  invited  guest,  bat  happen  to  be  a  duly. 

regularly  elected  delegate  to  this  Convention.      (Applause). 

Mr.  8HIPLACOFF:    We  will  shut  you  up  for  the  real  of  the  CnsjfsjrtlaB.  (Laughter) 

Delegate  DECKER  MAN:  Over  my  dead  body.  (Laughter)  I  want  to  aay  that  It 
id  unfurl unate  that  on  thia  platform,  at  thia  particular  time.  1  am  being  aided  alone 
by  oommenta  from  Aaaemblymen.  from  Judge*  and  from  other  eelebrftiea.  I  want 
to  aay.  brothers,  deapite  the  fact  that  I  did  not  expect  to  be  called  upon.  1  am  very 
happy  to  be  given  this  opportunity  to  get  a  few  things  off  my  heart,  or  a  few  thing* 
that  were  very  near  to  my  heart.  1*  was  a  delegate  to  the  convention  two  years  ago 
•cheater,  and.  from  the  general  appearance  of  the  present  Convention,  I  think 
that  we  are  going  to  live  up  to  the  fine  convention  that  we  had  there,  and  I 
that  in  the  next  two  years  we  will  make  such  progress  aa  we 

The  world  has  moved  since  two  years  ago  In  Rochester.  The  world  has 
considerably  And  that  particular  part  of  the  world,  known  as  the 
Clothing  Workers  of  America  has  in  no  sense  lagged  behind  the  rest  of  the  world. 
The  great  struggle,  which  must  some  day  come  to  an  end.  will  probably  bring  about 
a  new  relationship  of  the  working  class  in  this  world.  There  1«  no  doubt  that 
the  war  is  over  the  working  class  everywhere  will  be  a  good  deal  more 
than  it  was  before  we  began.  And  it  is  our  duty,  it  is  the  duty  of  our 
to  set  a  pace  In  this  country  and  show  the  light  for  the  labor  movement  in 
Over  in  Europe  a  few  months  ago  there  was  a  convention  of  organised  labor  of  the 
Entente  conutries:  England.  France  and  the  other  allied  countries.  A  fine  pro- 
gram for  reconstruction  was  drawn  up  at  that  conference  of  Inter-allied  labor. 

Unfortunately  American  labor  was  not  represented  there.  And  it  was  not  repre 
seated  because  In  this  country  we  are  cursed  with  the  most  reactionary  labor 
ment  in  the  world.  (Applause).  It  is  our  duty,  as  the  leading  labor 
America:  it  is  our  duty,  for  we  opened  the  path  three  years  ago  and 
emancipated  ourselves  from  an  autocratic  officialdom,  to  set  the  pace  in 
and  see  that  the  American  labor  movement  works  in  conjunction  with  the 
movements  of  England.  Prance.  Italy  and  elsewhere  (applause),  and  see  that  we 
take  an  active  part  in  the  process  of  reconstruction  after  the  war 

What  is  It  that  we  have  to  do?    We  have  got  to  make  progress  in  our 
tion.      We  have  got  to  strengthen  our  organization  in  the  future  as  we 
In  the  past.     But  we  have  got  to  do  something  besides  that.     We  have  got  to 
the  spirit  of  the  working  class  outside  of  our  movement  so  that  they  may  keep 
with  our  movement  and  together  we  may  put  an  ideal  and  spirit  into  the 
labor  movement   to  match  the  labor  movement  elsewhere  so  that  together  we 
emancipate  ourselves  universal: 

That   Is   the   program  of  the  Amalgamated   Clothing  Workers  of  America 
now  on.     Work  with  them,  strengthen  ourselves  as  an  organisation,  and  put 
into  the  rest  of  the  labor  movement  of  America  so  that  we  ma] 
towards  the  work  of  world-wide  emancipation  of  the  working 

;I.I.M  \.\      in  the  Committee  on  Rules  ready  to  repo 

Report  of  Committee  on  Rules 

legate  BLUMBERQ  of  Baltimore.  Chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Rules,  reported 
aa  follows: 

The  Committee  recommends  that  this  Convention   meet  dally   In  two   sessions: 
the  sessions  shall  be  held  from  9  a.  m.  until  12.  and  from  2  until  C.      Every  delegate 



can  speak  on  a  resolution  or  motion  before  the  house  once.  No  speaker  shall  be 
allowed  more  than  five  minutes.  The  chairman  of  the  Committee  may  have  ten 
minutes  to  close  the  debate.  The  Convention  shall  be  guided  by  Roberts'  Rules 
of  Order. 

Now  there  may  be  questions  coming  up  of  vital  importance  to  the  Convention. 
Then  it  will  be  up  to  the  Convention  as  a  whole  to  extend  the  limit  of  debate  on 
any  important  question,  but  these  are  the  rules  as  we  recommend  them  to  the  Con- 
vention. There  will  be  further  recommendations  in  the  afternoon  session  as  to 

President  HILLMAN  I  shall  now  ank  the  chairman  of  the  Committee  to  read 
each  rule  separately  and  the  Convention  will  then  vote  on  them. 

Delegate  BLUMBERG:     This  Convention  is  to  meet  daily  in  two  sessions. 

(There  was  no  objection  ) 

"The  sessions  shall  be  from  9  to  12  and  from  2  p.  m.  to  6." 

(Delegate  ZORN  of  Boston  offered  an  amendment  that  they  meet  from  9:30  to 
12:30  in  the  morning.) 

(This  was  seconded  by  Delegate  Gold  of  Local  156  of  New  York.) 

(The  amendment  was  carried.) 

(Delegate  Blumberg  continued  reading  as  follows):  'The  afternoon  session  shall 
meet  from  2  p.  m.  to  6  p.  m." 

Delegate  GALOWITZ  amended  that  "we  meet  from  2  to  6  p.  m." 

Delegate  BLUMBERG:  It  will  be  impossible  for  us  to  hold  any  night  sessions 
in  this  hall,  and  It  might  be  necessary  during  the  last  days  of  this  Convention  to 
meet  until  7  o'clock.  We  can  use  this  hall  until  7,  and  if  we  decide  to  meet  only 
nntil  5  it  will  be  Impossible  to  get  through.  I  don't  believe  it  is  a  hardship  to  ask 
the  delegates  to  sit  until  six. 

(The  motion  was  carried  that  the  sessions  close  at  6  p.  m.). 

Delegate  BLUMBERG:     Every  delegate  can  speak  on  a  motion  or  resolution  once. 

((There  was  no  objection). 

No  speaker  shall  be  allowed  to  apeak  more  than  five  minutes. 

(There  was  no  objection). 

Delegate  ALEX  COHEN:  Does  that  preclude  giving  any  members  a  special 

Delegate  BLUMBERG:     No,  the  Convention  may  grant  special  privileges. 
Delegate  BLUMBERG   (continues  reading):       The  Chairman  shall  have  ten  min- 
utes to  close  the  debate. 

(There  was  no  objection). 

Delegate  BLUMBERG:  The  Convention  shall  be  guided  by  Roberts'  Rules  of 

(There  was  no  objection). 

If  there  Is  no  objection  on  the  part  of  my  committeemen  I  should  recommend  that 
all  the  resolutions  be  in  by  tomorrow  at  12:30. 

(There  was  no  objection). 

After  12:30  no  resolutions  will  be  accepted. 

President  HTLLMAN:     Unless  there  is  the  unanimous  consent  of  the  Convention. 

(There  was  no  objection). 

President  HILLMAN:  That  means  that  you  will  have  time  until  12:30  tomorrow, 
at  the  latest,  to  hand  in  your  resolutions.  The  Chair  will  announce  the  appointment  of 
the  following  Committees,  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Convention: 

The   Convention   Committee 

Assistant  General  Secretary — Jacob  S.  Potofsky. 
Sergeant-at-Arm* — Lorenzo  De  Maria,  Local  280,  New  York. 

Assistant  Sergeant-at-Arms— Saul  Rieger,  Local  12,  New  York;  I.  J.  Strlzover, 
Local  120,  Louisville,  Ky.;  L.  Lederman,  Local  114,  Baltimore. 



PreM  Committee:  Ira  W.  Bird.  Axortate  Editor  of  "Advance."  chairman;  Harry 
Cry*tal,  Local  36,  Baltimore;  Prank  Bollnnca.  Local  63.  New  York. 

Miscellaneous— Wm.  Drubln.  chairman.  N'ew  York  Joint  Board.  New  York;    Joa 

Pennlnl.  Local  1.  Boston;  Harris  Heller.  Local  213.  New  York;  Prank  Bartoa*.  Local  6». 

Baltimore;   Mamie  Santera.  Local  170.  Baltimore;   Harry  Rubin.  Local  159.  Brooklyn. 

;  Bernard  Wela*.  Local  40.  N«-  Sam  Leder.  Local  11.  New  York;  Darld 

Oilman.  Local  171.  Boaton. 

Report  of  Officer*— Jacob  Kroll.  chairman.  Local  61.  Chicago;  Morris  Ooldin. 
Local  8.  New  Yurk;  Char  Knglander.  Local  166.  New  York;  J.  P.  Friedman.  Local  4. 
New  York;  Sam  Stelner.  Local  16.  New  York;  Hyman  Goldoft.  Local  8.  New  York; 
B.  Romano.  Local  68.  New  York;  Prank  White.  Local  109.  Montreal;  John 

Reaohition  Committee— Harry  Cohen,  chairman;  J.  B.  Children's  Clothing 
New  .  ter  Monat.  Local  262.  New  York;    Paul  Arnone.  Local  68.  New  York; 

Nathan  Siegel.  Local  2.  New  York;  Harry  Bender.  Local  65.  New  York;  Hyman 
Isovits.  Joint  Board  of  Chicago;  Leon  Lebovltz.  Local  172.  Boston;  Sam  Baeain, 
Local  241.  Baltimore;  Leah  Galbin.  Local  163.  Philadelphia. 

Organization  Committee— Alex  Cohen,  chairman.  Local  3.  New  York;  Joa.  Good- 
man. Local  2.  New  York;  Louis  Pelnberg.  Local  9.  New  York;  Simon  Haas,  Local  176. 
New  York;  Louis  Scbapiro,  Local  43.  Brooklyn.  N.  Y  ;  Peter  Galskls.  Local  Ml.  Chicago; 
I.  Kessler.  Local  143.  Philadelphia;  Sam  Drabkln.  Local  248.  New  York;  Philip 
DeLuca.  Local  51.  Baltimore. 

Committee  on  Law— David  Wolf,  chairman.  Local  262.  New  York;  Abraham  Mfltar. 
Local  8.  New  ienry  Dozzo.  Local  262.  New  York;  Julius  Powers.  Local  80. 

Brooklyn;  Louis  Zuckerman,  Local  16.  New  York;  Meyer  Senter.  Local  4.  New  York; 
Morris  Rappaport.  Local  2,  New  York;  Sam  Diamond.  Local  162.  Chicago;  Nathan 
Blller.  Local  173.  Boston. 

Appeals  and  Grievance* — Jas.  Blugerman,  chairman.  Joint  Board  of  Toronto;  Harry 
Nlestadt,  Local  117.  Baltimore;  Louis  Posner.  Local  169.  New  York;  I.  Axelrad.  Local 
7.  Brooklyn;  A.  N.  Fisher.  Local  39.  Chicago;  Eugene  Bucci.  Local  24.  Newark;  8. 
Welnstein.  Local  3.  New  York;  B.  Horowitz.  Local  12.  New  York;  Sam  Kau.  Local  10. 
New  York. 

Committee  on  Rules — Hyman  Blumberg.  chairman.  District  Council  No.  3.  Balti- 
more; Samuel  Geler.  Local  61.  Chicago;  Prank  Marrone,  Local  85.  New  York  City. 

Labels— Gabriel  Vastano.  chairman.  Local  63.  New  York;  John  Drasel.  Local  280. 
Baltimore;  Max  Yudelovitz.  Local  19.  New  York;  Prank  Cancellleri.  Local  176. 

Wybraniec,    Local    38.    Chicago;    H.    Kalushkin.    Local    214.    Brooklyn^ 
Alexander.  Local  215.  Brooklyn;  Morris  Rablnowlu.  Local  144.  Chicago;  Morris 
Local  36.  Baltimore. 

As  there  was  no  objection  by  the  Convention  to  any  of  the  delegates) 
Committees  remained  as  announced  by  the  Chairman. 

Order   of   Business 

Prealdent  HILLMAN:  I  wish  to  state  to  the  delegate*  that  we  have  tried  to  have 
every  city  and  every  locality  represented  In  the  different  committee*)  so  that  they 
may  get  the  proper  hearing  at  the  Committee.  Unfortunately  we  have  not  yet  got 
sufficient  committee*  to  place  all  the  delegate*  on  them,  to  some  had  to  be  left  out 
I  hope  that  those  who  were  left  out  of  the  committee*  will  take  it  in  the  right  spirit 

Prealdent  Hillman  then  read  the  Order  of  Business  of  the-  Convention  as  follow*: 

1.  Call  to  order  by  General 

2.  Report  of  Credential  Committee. 


5.  Reading  of  Minute*. 
4      Report  of  Officers, 

6.  Appointment   of   following 

Officers.  Appeals  and  Grievances.  Organisation.  Label  and 

7.  Reports  of 


I.  New  Business. 

10.  Nomination  of  Officers. 

11.  Selection  of  place  for  next  convention. 

12.  Adjournment. 

•sldont   HILLMAN:     The  report  of  the  officers  will  be  presented  to  this  Con- 
renilon  at  the  morning  session  Wednesday  morning.      Is  there  any  objection  to  the 
order  of  business  as  read? 
(There  was  no  objection.) 

This  will  be  order  of  business  for  the  Convention. 

(Delegate  Potofoky  was  about  to  read  resolutions,  which  had  been  submitted  to 
him.  when  Delegate  Cohen  suggested  that  the  resolutions  be  referred  to  the  various 
and  that  when  they  report  they  read  them  to  the  Convention  10  as  to 
the  time  of  the  Convention,  and  made  a  motion  to  that  effect.      It  was  seconded.) 

President  HILLMAN:  All  I  ask  is,  If  you  accept  it,  that  you  don't  complain 
afterwards.  As  a  rule  we  find  that  if  a  resolution  is  not  read,  claims  are  made  that 
resolutions  were  handed  in  that  were  never  handed  in.  If  your  motion  prevails, 
Delegate  Cohen,  it  means  that  all  resolutions  will  be  referred  to  the  presiding  officer 
without  presenting  them  to  the  Convention,  and  the  Chairman  of  the  Committee  will 
read  them  only  when  he  reports  on  them. 

After  a  heated  discussion  the  Convention  voted  that  the  resolutions  be  read  to 
the  Convention  at  this  time.  Delegate  Rosenblum  thereupon  read  the  following  reso- 
lutions which  had  thus  far  been  submitted  and  they  were  referred  seriatim  by  the 
Chairman  to  the  respective  committees  dealing  with  each  particular  resolution: 


Resolution  No.  1 — Local  61,  Baltimore,  on  44-hour  week.       Referred  to  Committee 
on  Resolutions. 

Resolution   No.   2 — Local   14,   Rochester,   on   organization   campaign.     Referred    to 
Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  3 — Local  14,  Baltimore,  on  co-operative  movement.       Referred  to 
Committee  on  Miscellaneous. 

Resolution  No.  4 — Locals  16,  186,  282,  New  York,  on  44-hour  week.      Referred  to 
Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Resolution  No.  5 — Local  39,  Chicago,  on  promotion  of  labor  literature.       Referred 
to  Committee  on  Miscellaneous. 

Resolution   No.   ft— Local  63,  New  York,  on  wage  increase  on  equal  basis.       Re- 
ferred to  Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Resolution  No.   7 — Local  63,   New  York,  on  high  cost  of  living  and   co-operative 
stores.      Referred  to  Committee  on  Miscellaneous. 

Resolution   No.   8 — Local    63,   New   York,   on   program   of   inter-allied    conference. 
Referred  to  Committee  on  Report  of  Officers. 

Resolution   No.   9 — Local  63,  New  York,   on  tenement-house   work.       Referred  to 
Commute  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  10 — Local  63,  New  York,  on  minimum  wage,  week-work  standard 
and  educational  campaign.      Referred  to  Committee  on  Law. 

Resolution  No.  11 — Local  63,  New  York,  on  44-hour  week.      Referred  to  Committee 
on  Resolutions. 

Resolution   No.   12— Local   63,  New  York,  on  printing  of  constitution  in  all  lan- 
guages.     Referred  to  Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Resolution    No.    13 — Local    63,    New    York,    on    amendment    to    constitution,    two- 
thirds  majority  of  voting.      Referred  to  Committee  on  Law. 

Resolution  No.   14— Local   63,   New  York,  on  district  form  of  organization.       Re- 
ferred to  Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  1&— Local  15,  New  York,  on  needle  trades  department.       Referred 
to  Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Resolution   No.    18 — Local    63,    New   York,   on   women's    department    Referred   to 
Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  17— Local  247,  Baltimore,  as  to  organizing  of  pressers.      Referred  to 
Committee  on  Law. 



Resolution  No    IS-Cblidren'i  Cloibtns;  Joint  Board.  New  York  Ctty.  on  44  hour 
week.     Referred  to  Committee  on  naeoimkmi, 

Resolution   No    Ifr—  Local   17S.   Brooklyn,  on   organization   campaign  tor  orerall 
workers.      Referred  to  Committee  on  Organization 

Resolution  No.  20— Local  tt.  New  York,  endorse  movement  for  daily  Italian  labor 
paper.      Referred  to  Committee  on  Resolution* 

Resolntion   No.   21-Local   U,   New   York,   on   proffmm   of   Brttiab   Labor   Party. 
Referred  to  Committee  on  Report  of  Oficers 
Adjourned  12:10  p.  m. 


Third  Session. 

Baltimore,  Md.,  Tuesday,  May  14,  1918. 

The  Convention  was  called  to  order  at  2:15  p  m.,  Tuesday,  May  14,  1918,  President 
Hilhnan  in  the  Chair. 

The  following  messages  of  greeting  were  read  by  Secretary  Schlossberg: 

Brooklyn.  N.  Y.,  May  14,  1918. 

On  behalf  of  two  thousand  coat  makers,  whom  we  represent,  accept  our  best 
wishes  and  congratulations  to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention.  It  is  our  hope  that 
this  convention  will  undertake  as  its  next  move  to  win  for  the  clothing  workers  in  this 
country  a  better  and  brighter  life  by  inaugurating  the  forty-four-hour  week. 

Chairmen  of  Kalman  Friedman's  District, 
Coat  Branch,  New  York  Joint  Board,  A.  C.  W.  of  A. 
WM.  GOLDBERG,  Chairman.  Member  of  Local  2. 

New  York.  N.  Y..  May  13,  1918. 

Heartiest  congratulations.     May  your  deliberation  bring  about  a  shorter  workday. 

I.  Tanzer,  Secretary. 

Cincinnati,  Ohio,  May  13,  1918. 

In  this  critical  period,  may  your  deliberations  be  of  service  to  humanity.  We 
are  undergoing  the  travail  of  truth.  From  these  birthpalns  a  new  freedom  will  be 
born.  The  Amalgamated  will  surely  do  its  utmost  in  this  the  last  struggle  of  man. 

Greetings  until  the  better  day, 

Chicago,  111.,  May  13,  1918. 

May  your  efforts  be  crowned  with  glory.  May  the  result  of  your  deliberations 
be  of  such  nature  that  it  shall  illuminate  the  works  and  instill  in  them  that  spirit  of 
industrial  democracy  that  will  eventually  dominate  the  world. 


Louis   Weiss,   Secretary. 

Toronto,  Ontario,  May  13,  1918. 

The  vestmakers  of  Toronto  Local  222  are  extending  congratulations  to  our  Third 
Convention.  We  wish  you  success  in  your  good  work. 

H.  HECKER,  Secretary. 

New  York,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1918. 

Congratulations  to  the  Third  Convention.  Wish  you  success  in  bringing  about 
the  forty-four-hour  week  in  five  days'  work;  also  scale  of  wages,  and  to  take  the 
platform  for  Palestine  and  send  delegates  to  Congress.  Hope  you  passed  everything 
successfully  and  report  good  news  to  local  union.  Best  wishes, 

Member  Local  156. 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1918. 

We  congratulate  yon.  Long  life  to  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America, 
Pass  resolution  for  a  forty-four-hour  week. 

Palm  Beach,  Local  157,  A.  C.  W.  of  A. 



New  York,  N.  Y..  May  11.  1918. 

The  Joint    Executive  Board  of  she   United   Brotherhood  of  Tailors  extends   its 
congratulations    to    the    Third    Biennial    Convention   of  the 
Workers  of  America,  and  best  wishes  in  all  future  undertakinc*. 

D.  8AXDLER,  Chairman. 

Israel  Galley.  Secretary.  Joint  Executive  Committee, 
United  Brotherhood  of  Tailors. 

New  York.  N.  Y..  May  W.  1918. 

to  the  Third  Convention  at  Baltimore.     We  hope  that  (his 
will  help  establish  a  six-hour-workday. 


Local  19,  B.  Zuckerberg.  Financial 

New  York.  N.  Y..  May  13.  1918. 

The  working  men  of  Stauber  A  Sapers'  shop,  of  Local  167.  A.  C  W.  of  A-,  are 
sending  yon  heartiest  congratulations,  and  hope  that  in  the  future  you  will  con- 
tinue your  splendid  work. 


r.  N.  Y..  May  13.  1918. 
We  send   our   best   greeting   to   your   Third    Convention.     Appreciate   the   work 
done  and  we  also  wish  best  success  in  the  future. 


New  York.  N.  Y..  May  II.  1918. 

May  the  future  achievements  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  excell  lu 
marvelous  attainments  of  the  past 

N.  Berger.  Acting  Secretary. 

New  York.  N.  Y..  May  18.  1918. 

The  Italian  Branch  of  the  New  York  Coat  Makers.  Local  63.  extends  greeting* 
to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America, 
and  expresses  its  fervent  desire  that  our  organization  will  win  the  recognition  of 
the  world  as  one  of  the  foremost  in  the  straggle  for  the  happiness  and  freedom  for 
those  wfco  serve  the  world. 

JOS.  CATALANOTTI.  Chairman, 
Cancelllerl,  Secretary.  Local  63.  A.  C.  W   of  A. 

Baltimore.  Md..  May  14.  1918. 

The  Workers  of  the  American  Uniform  Company,  civilian  branch, 
heartiest  greetings  to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the  Amalgamal 
Workers  of  America. 

B.  SWARSKY.  Chairman. 

Baltimore,  M&.  May  13.  191& 
Accept  our  best  wishes  and  congratulations,     stay  your  efforts  be  crowned  with 

PANTS  PRESSERS',  LOCAL  69.  A.  C.  W.  of  A. 

Rochester.  N.  Y..  May  13.  1918. 

Rochester  sends  yon  its  heartiest  greetings  and  best  wishes.    Our  long 
and  spiritually  enslaved  fellow  workers  are  fast  recovering  from  Hie  welfare 
of  our  employers,  and  are  rapidly  awakening  to  their  true  interest  in  life, 
joining  oar  ranks.    The  spirit  for  organisation  is  sweeping  the  city  with  a 
sympathy  and  support  of  our  International  Union  and  Its  great  and  growing 
ship   throughout   the   country.     We   feel   that   in   the  near   future  thi 


will  make  of  the  foremost  welfare  fake  and  non-union  clothing  market  in  America 
a  mighty  power  for  the  protection  of  the  workers.  Remember  that  nineteen  eighteen 
ii  the  year  for  Rochester.  Yours  for  a  hundred  per  cent  organization  very  soon,  and 
complete  industrial  and  social  democracy  in  our  day, 


Locals  14,  202,  204,  A.  C.  W.  of  A. 

Louis  Feldman,  Secretary-Treasurer 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1S18. 

Three  thousand  members  of  Locals  16  and  186,  vett  makers'  unions  of  Greater 
New  York,  extend  their  greetings  and  congratulations  to  the  Third  Diennial  Con- 
vention of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America.  With  best  wishes  for 
success  In  all  your  future  enterprises  and  for  a  freer  and  happier  mankind, 

A,  WEINSTEIN,   Secretary. 

New  York,  N.  Y.,  May  15,  1918. 

Heartiest  congratulations.  May  this,  our  Third  Convention,  realize  our  aim  for 
a  successful  one  hundred  per  cent  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers'  Union. 


Toronto,  Ontario,  May  13,  1918. 

Tonight  1  am  leaving  for  Palestine  to  nght  for  my  country  and  nation.  For 
two  yean,  I  am  proud  to  say,  I  worked  hard  for  the  progress  of  the  Amalgamated. 
I  congratulate  you  on  your  Third  Convention.  May  you  progress  and  succeed  In 
the  work.  Remember  our  martyred  nation  and  help  its  deliveration. 

(Formerly  Secretary  of  Local  216,  Toronto.) 

Baltimore,  Md.,  May  14,  1918. 
Accept  our  heartiest  congratulations. 


New  York,  May  13,  1918. 

We  send  greetings  to  your  Third  Annual  Convention.  Wishing  you  success 
In  your  great  work. 

LOCAL  30  OF  NEW  YORK,  A.  C.  W.  of  A. 

Delegate  Rosenblum  continued  reading  the  resolutions. 


Resolution  No.  22 — By  the  Boston  delegation,  in  the  matter  of  organizing  th« 
orerall  workers.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  23— From  Locals  4  and  9,  in  the  matter  of  officers'  salaries.  Referred 
to  Committee  on  Law. 

Resolution  No.  24 — By  the  Boston  delegation,  with  regard  to  a  paper  In  the 
Lithuanian  language  to  be  published  by  this  organization  for  our  Lithuanian  members. 

At  this  point  the  President  announced  that  as  there  were  several  resolutions  that 
teal  with  educational  work,  a  Committee  on  Education  will  be  appointed,  and  this 
resolution  will  be  referred  to  that  Committee. 

Resolution  No.  25 — Joint  Board  of  Toronto,  Canada,  including  several  different 
topics.  The  Chair  announced  tfcat  the  different  parts  will  be  referred  to  the  proper 
Committees.  The  Chair  suggested  that  in  the  future  delegates  take  care  to  present 
separate  resolutions  on  separate  topics. 

Resolution  No.  26 — Local  2,  on  officers'  salaries.     Referred  to  Committee  on  Law. 

Resolution  No.  27 — Local  2,  on  editorial  policy.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Re- 

Resolution  No.  28 — Local  2,  on  conventions.    Referred  to  Committee  on  Law. 

Resolution  No.  29 — Local  2,  on  policies  of  officials.  Referred  to  Committee  on 

Resolution  No.  30 — Local  2,  on  the  composition  of  the  General  Executive  Board. 
Referred  to  Committee  on  Law. 



Resolution  No.  81— Locm)  1.  on  sjsitttflartasj  of  daUcatss.    totem*  to  Commit 
on  Law. 

Resolution  No.  SI— Local  2.   ID   the   matter  of  foreign   Isngissjsa,     Referred   to 

Committee  on  Resolution* 

Resolution  No.   W— Local   2.    on    financial    reports.      Referred    to   CoanUttee   cm 
Reports  of  Officers, 

Resolution  No.  14— Local  S.  on  the  election  of  officers     Referred  to  Ccssatttes 
on  La* 

Resolution  No.   U— Local    2.   on   the    44  hour    week.     Referred    to   Organization 

Resolution   No.  3*— Local  211.  on  *  minimum   wage.     Referred  to 

Resolution  No.  87—  Local  1M.  New  York.  In  the  matter  of  the  organisation  of  the 
lerks.     Referred  to  Committee  on  Resolution! 

itlon   No.   3*—  Local   168,   New    York,    providing    for   an   orfanlier   tor   the 
:IK  clerks     Referred  to  Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  2»—  Local  172.  Boston.  In  favor  of  the  restoration  of  Palestine  to 
the  Jew.  na. 

Resolution  No.  40—  By  the  delegates  of  Locals  4  and  63  on  the  New  York  Call 
Referred  to  Committee  on  Education. 

Resolution  No.  41—  Local  112.  Cleveland,  on  organization  campaign.     Referred  to 
Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  42  —  Local  218.  on  several  matters.     Will  he  assigned   to  various 

Resolution  No.  43—  Local  1S6.  New  York,  on  the  amalgamation  of  the  two  Joint 
Boards  in  New  York.    Referred  to  Committee  on  Organization. 

President    H  The   delegates   who   have   not   handed   In 

tlons  as  yet  will  please  take  notice  that  thin  afternoon  and  tomorrow 
the  only  sessions  left  In  which  to  hand  In  their  resolutions  We  have 
deal  in  the  last  two  y-ars  it  has  taken  a  ?r-nt  deal  of  effort  to  get 
are  now.  Everyone  of  the  officers  in  the  city,  the  active  members  in  the  city,  the 
rank  and  file  in  the  city,  have  contributed  their  share.  But.  as  in  other  cities,  the 
Socialists  came  to  our  aid  in  the  time  of  great  struggle.  I  now  take  great 
In  introducing  to  you  the  editor  of  the  "Public  Ownership"  of  this  city.  Mr. 
Shipley.  (Loud  applause). 

Address  of  Msynard   Shipley 

Mr.  Shipley  congratulated  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  upon  its 
success,  and  said: 

•The  only  bright  spot  that  I  found  when  I  arrived  here,  and  got  a  little 
acquainted  in  this  city,  was  that  grand  and  wonderful  organisation  that  yon  are 
representing  here  today,  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America.  (Applasjse,) 
I  say  this,  friends,  without  any  desire  to  compliment  yon.  let  alone  to  flatter  yon.  I 
could  not  flatter  you  if  I  wanted  to.  and  I  don't  want  to.  I  say  this 
of  my  heart,  that  If  It  were  not  for  tho  splendid  organization  of  class 
in  the  Amalgamated  here  in  this  city  I  would  simply  have  to  take  my  $2 

ir  organization   has   been   so   strong  because  of  the  so 
which  your  organization  is  based.       It  has  been  so  strong  that  even  the 
influences,  the  scabbing  of  the  A.  F.  of   L.  on  your  jobs,  the  efforts  that  tho 
has  made  to  break  every  strike  that  the  Amalgamated  has  been  forced  to 
these  have  not  weakened  you.      It  has  strengthened  you  when  yon  hare  tho 
of  having  Mr.  Ferguson  against  you.  and  that  is  as  high  a  rormmiosxlafirm  as  can 
be  given  any  working  class  organisation.      (Applause.) 

Only  a  few  months  ago  I  had  the  pleasure  of  traveling  through  Boat  of  the 
State,  and  I  found  there,  even  way  out  In  the  coal  mines  In  the 
that  these  coal  miners  out  there  are  thinking  of  the  Amalgamated 
of  America  of  Baltimore.      They  are  modeling  their  unions  in  the  coal 
on  what  you  are  accomplishing  in  the  needle  trade  Industry  of  this  and 
They  are  copying  after  you." 


Mr.  Shipley  spoke  of  the  valuable  assistance  given  to  thU  organization  by  the 
Socialist  party  of  Baltimore  and  its  organ,  "Public  Ownership,"  and  concluded: 

can  say  to  you  in  all  honest  conviction,  that  I  believe  that  I  am  looking  into 
the  faces  today  of  the  men  and  the  women  who  will  live  to  see  a  great  industrial 
democracy  reared  on  the  political  democracy  of  America  today."  (Applause.) 

Appeal    from   the    Chicago   "Daily    World" 

The  Chairman  next   Introduced   Mr.   Max  Globerman,  of  the   "Daily  World,"   the 
only  radical  Jewish  newspaper,  in  fact,  the  only  radical  newspaper  in  Chicago.       He 
delivered  a  stirring  appeal  to  the  members  for  aid  for  this  daily,  as  it  represents  the 
organ  of  radical  thought  in  the  city  of  Chicago. 

Address  by   William  O'Toole 

The  Chairman  then  Introduced  Mr.  William  O'Toole.  the  organizer  of  the  Socialist 
party  In  Baltimore.  Mr.  O'Toole  was  heartily  cheered.  He  delivered  an  address  In 
which  he  appealed  to  the  members  for  financial  aid  for  the  newspaper,  "Public  Own- 
ership." inasmuch  as.  he  stated.  Comrade  Shipley  was  too  bashful  to  ask  the  members 
for  aid.  He  expressed  his  admiration  for  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 
America,  and  endorsed  the  sentiments  of  all  the  previous  speakers.  He  prophesied 
the  time  when  the  Amalgamated  would  become  the  leading  power  in  the  labor  world. 
and  when  its  ideas  would  spread  through  the  entire  labor  movement. 

More    Resolutions   Presented 

At  this  point  Delegate  Rosenblum  read  further  resolutions  as  follows: 

Resolution  No.  44 — By  Locals  116,  209  and  277  of  Montreal,  on  educational  work. 
Referred  to  Committee  on  Education. 

Resolution  No.  45 — By  the  same  delegation.  Treating  of  various  matters;  will 
be  referred  to  the  several  committees. 

Resolution  No.  46 — By  Delegates  Taylor,  of  Local  142,  and  Indyke,  of  Local  161. 
on  Russia.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Resolution  No.  47— By  the  same  delegation,  on  the  Mooney  case.  Referred  to 
Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Resolution  No.  48 — By  Local  169,  on  a  strike  in  the  children's  sailor  suit  industry. 
Referred  to  Organization  Committee. 

Resolution  No.  49 — On  Convention.       Referred  to  Miscellaneous  Committee. 

Resolution  No.  50 — By  Local  63,  on  political  activity.  Referred  to  Committee  on 

Resolution  No.  51 — By  Local  175,  on  the  forty-four-hour  week.  Referred  to  Com- 
mittee on  Resolutions. 

Resolution  No.  52 — By  Delegates  Taylor  and  Indyke,  on  literature  for  our  members 
at  the  front.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Education. 

Resolution  No.  53 — On  composition  of  the  General  Executive  Board.  Referred 
to  Committee  on  Law. 

Resolution  No.  65 — By  Local  3,  on  hours  of  labor.  Referred  to  Committee  on 

Resolution  No.  56 — Local  3,  on  foreign  languages.  Referred  to  Committee  on 

Resolution  No.  57 — By  Local  3,  on  legal  holidays.  Referred  to  Committee  on 

Resolution  No.  58 — By  Local  3,  officers'  salaries.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Law. 
Hebrew  Sheltering  and  Immigrant  Aid  Society 

Mr.  Hirsch  Bloch.  representative  of  the  Hebrew  Sheltering  and  Immigrant  Aid 
Society,  was  Introduced  by  the  Chairman.  Mr.  Bloch  told  the  delegates  of  the  great 
work  done  by  the  Institution  he  represents,  without  any  discrimination  as  to  nationality, 
creed  or  otherwise,  and  asked  that  the  Institution  receive  the  liberal  support  of  our 

Announcement    by    Arrangement*    Committee 

Delegate  Crystal,  Chairman  of  the  Local  Arrangements  Committee,  announced 
that  a  mass  meeting  will  be  held  at  Lyric  Hall  this  evening. 

At  4  o'clock  the  Chair  adjourned  the  Session  until  9:30  the  next  morning,  In  order 
to  enable  the  committees  to  immediately  begin  their  work. 



Fourth  Session. 

Baltimore.  Md..  Wednesday,  May   16,   191ft. 

The  meeting  was  called  to  order  at  9:W  A.  M..  President 
Secretary  Sehiossberg  read  the  following  messages  of  greeting 

New  York.  May  14.  1118. 

This  Is  our  message  for  good  luck  to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the 
r^m*"^  Clothing  Worken  of  America.  We  shall  continue  with  renewed  energy  the 
march  of  the  workers  upon  the  long  and  thorny  path,  upon  which  you  hare  been  bring- 
ing the  workers  ever  nearer  to  democracy  and  freedom. 


Frank  Leventhal  Acting 

New  York.  N.  Y..  May  1J.  1118. 

Our  heartiest  congratulations  to  your  Third  Biennial  Convention.  May  the 
brotherly  spirit  of  solidarity  prevail  In  your  ranks.  May  your  splendid  work  OB  the 
economic  and  educational  Held  be  continued  In  the  future  until  the  creation  of  the 
new  social  order. 


New  York.  May  14.  191ft. 

We.  the  officers  and  members  of  Local  2.  aend  our  beat  greeting  and 
to  your  honorable  body.  No  doubt  you  will  work  for  the  intereat  of  oar 
the  future  as  you  did  In  the  past  Long  live  the  Amalgamated. 

Abe  Simon.  Temporary  Secretary. 

New  York.  May  14.  1918. 

Extending  to  you  our  heartiest  congratulations  on  the  eve  of  your  Third 
ventlon.      May  your  deliberations  and  undertakings  for  the  advancement  and 
•Bee  of  the  Interests  of  your  members  and  all  who  toil  be  crowned  with  great 

M.  Kaufman, 

Sooth  Brooklyn.  N.  Y..  May  14.  191ft. 

Our  heartiest  congratulations  to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the 
Clothing  Workers  of  America.  We  wish  the  delegates  success  in  their 
is  the  forty-four-hour  week. 


Cleveland.  Ohio.  May  14.  191ft. 

Success  and  sunshine  to  our   convention.       May   your  gathering  be   a 
orchard  whose  fruit  shall  be  picked  in  time  all  throughout  the  organisation 


New  York.  May  14.  191ft. 

We  extend  to  your  organization  greetings  and  congratulates*  upon  your  Third 
Dttnnlil  Convention.  The  success  that  your  organisation  has  made  within  the  past 
tone  years  has  been  greater  than  the  accomplishments  of  other  organisations  in  the 


past  twenty-fire  years.     We  again  extend  to  you  a  heartiest  congratulation  and  best 
wishes.      May  your  future  be  crowned  with  success. 


Harris  Feiner,  President. 
Harry  Slupsky,  Manager. 

South  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  14,  1918. 

Let  the  next  convention  find  a  mighty  world  international  where  elements  will  be 
as  strong  and  daring  as  ours.  Then  no  evil  spirit  will  laugh  any  more  its  red  laughter 
and  the  brotherhood  of  the  working  class  will  no  longer  be  a  dream. 

BRITZER,  Chairman,  Local  259. 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  14,  1918. 

The  Brownsville  and  Bast  New  York  Hospital,  Inc..  extends  heartiest  congratula- 
tions to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 


President  HILLMAN:  Before  we  proceed  to  our  regular  business,  I  shall  take 
this  opportunity  to  call  upon  a  fraternal  delegate  to  address  this  convention.  The 
Cutters'  Union  of  the  city  of  Boston,  an  independent  organization,  not  affiliated  with 
the  Amalgamated,  has  been  working  in  full  harmony  with  our  organization  for  the 
past  year,  and  has  sent  a  fraternal  delegate  to  this  convention.  I  shall  now  call 
upon  Brother  Barry  to  address  us. 

Address  of  Joseph    F.   Barry 

Delegate  Barry:  Brother  workers,  members  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers, 
I  want  to  say  that  this  is  unexpected.  I  am  not  strong.  I  don't  know  that  I  can  make 
myself  heard.  But  those  of  you  who  are  from  Ne^w  York  and  Boston  and  Baltimore 
know  that  I  represent  a  local  of  Boston  Clothing  Cutters,  an  Independent  organization, 
which  has  always  been  affiliated  with  every  labor  movement  concerning  a  clothing 
Industry  except  the  present  Amalgamated.  We  have  always  been  so  far  ahead  of  the 
other  clothing  centers  of  the  country  that  it  used  to  distress  us  to  hear  the  reports 
that  our  delegates  would  bring  back  from  the  different  conventions  of  the  clothing 
workers.  In  November,  1917,  I  had  occasion  to  go  to  New  York  on  some  business 
relating  to  Government  contracts.  And  it  came  to  my  notice  that  the  Cutters — of 
course,  we  are  mainly  interested  in  the  Cutters — had  got  beyond  and  far  surpassed  the 
Boston  Clothing  Cutters  in  wages  and  conditions.  And  I  returned  home  and  reported 
that  fact  to  my  organization.  And  then,  in  the  course  of  events,  with  the  assistance 
and  the  advice  of  some  of  your  good  members  of  the  Amalgamated,  my  organization 
Toted  to  send  a  fraternal  delegate  here  to  Investigate  and  find  out  what  the  Amalga- 
mated was  doing. 

Well,  we  take  the  city  right  here  in  which  we  are,  the  city  of  Baltimore,  as  you  all 
know,  was  always  a  blot  on  the  clothing  workers.  Now  I  can  go  back  to  Boston  and 
tell  them  the  fact  that  you  have  revolutionized  the  conditions  In  Baltimore  and  made  It 
a  place  to  work  in  instead  of  being  slaves,  such  as  you  used  to  be.  The  same  condition! 
exist  in  New  York,  from  the  reports  that  I  hear  from  the  delegates. 

1  know  that  this  is  the  work  of  the  Amalgamated.  I  know  that  you  must  be  doing 
the  same  In  every  community  that  you  represent.  I  know  that  I  am  going  back  to 

Boston  and  I  am  going  to  tell  them  a  story  that  they  have  not  heard  for  a  long  time. 
They  are  going  to  hear  of  a  convention  of  clothing  workers  that  was  mainly  composed 
of  men,  different  from  what  has  been  in  the  past,  when  my  local  was  interested  in  a 
national  labor  movement.  The  old  days  I  can  well  remember  when  certain  people 
governed  and  ruled  the  convention.  It  was  not  the  men  as  far  as  I  can  remember,  was 
it  Brother  Hilrman? 

President  HILLMAN:     No. 


Delegate  BAJUt . 

that  I  have  met  aad 
ted.    A  more  Intelligent,  a  better 
in  any  convention  before. 

Now.  I  can  not  say.  brothers,  or  feltow-workere.  that  my  organization  1* 
join  the  Amalgamated.  I  am  only  one.  It  is  for  me  to  bring  back  to  them  a  report  of 
your  view*,  and  they  will  act  accordingly.  They  are  Intelligent  men.  If  they  wish  to 
join  the  Amalgamated.  God  speed  to  them.  But  I  am  going  to  cloee  by  wtohini 
niiBiisjiliil  imoiTi  and  lone  life  of  the  Amalgamated  for  the  food  work  that  yon 
In  ih*  uplift  of  the  clothing  industry  in  this  country,  because  if  there  to 

thai  needs  uplift  It  Is  the  clothing  Industry     I  have  been  in  It  * 
to  know     1  inmaeitur  It  from  the  time  when  aa  an  errand  boy  I  took  the  doCnini 
the  swealahop  aad  from   the   time   that   I   took  the  clothing  and   unpacked   it 
the  caace  coming  from   New    York      The  shocking  condition*  that   prevailed  in 
clothing  Industry  the  Amalgamated  ha*  stopped  in  many  place*,  and  1  know  It  to 
to  stop  them  throughout  the  rest  of  the  coui. 

I  remember  the  condition*  from  the  report*  that  were  brought  back  In 
year*  by  the  delegate*  to  the  conventlona.  We  never  got  a  decent  report  from  any 
city  with  the  eioeptkm  of  New  York  once  in  a  while.  But  now.  mingling  wK*  the 
I  find  that  you  are  improving  condition*  la  every  place  and  every  city 
you  have  aa  organization,  and  I  hope  that  the  Amalgamated,  before  they  are 
will  standardise  the  wage*  and  the  condition*  in  the  flhrthlng  Industry  of  the 
United  State*  aad  Canada,  so  that  no  matter  where  a  man'*  home  la.  If  It  to  hi*  leek 
to  have  to  change  hi*  city  where  he  to  to  live,  that  wherever  he  goe*  he  will  find  the 
same  good  conditions  and  the  same  good  wages.  I  thank  you.  brother*,  aad  wish  you 
continued  success.  (Applause.) 

Preeideat  H1LLMAN:    I  shall  now  announce  the  Committee  on 

A.  Becker-man.  Chairman  .Local  4. 

A.    Yelknrltz  ...Local    43. 

Harry  Blsen  Local  : 

David  Goldberg  Local  St. 

A,  Feldman  ....  »cal  IS. 

Frank  Lennan  Local  1. 

M.  Slrki  .  Local  114.  Baltla*ej» 

N'lrenberK  Ix>cal  1.  New  York 

Betmle  Berensteln  .  . .   Local  It.  Baltimore 
I*  there  any  objection  to  these  appointments? 
(There  was  none.) 

I  shall  also  appoint  Delegate  Young  In  place  of  Brother  Ledennaa.  who  did  not 
accept  the  appointment,  as  assistant  sergeant -at  arms     We  have  with  ue  a 
Uve  of  the  Naturalization  Aid  League  and  one  of  the  Vice-Presidents  of  the 
Ladle**  Garment  Workers'  Union      I  have  the  pleasure  of  Introducing  to  yom 
Pania  Cohen. 

Address  of   Fanla   Cohen 

Mr.  Chairman  and  fellow  worker*:  It  is  needle**  to  tell  you  that  I  was  very  glad 
to  take  advantage  of  the  opportunity  to  appear  before  you  here  at  year  Third 
Convention.  My  own  organization,  the  International 
will  hold  it*  convention  next  week,  and  I  am  quite  busy  with  the 
menu.  Still  I  was  tempted  to  be  with  you  and  say  a  few  words  to  you.  After  all,  we 
consider  ourselves  one  organization,  of  the 

I  will  tell  you  the  special  object  of  coming  here  this  morning  It  to  the  flrst 
la  my  life.  I  will  say.  that  I  am  coming  with  such  a  mission,  aad  I  hope  I  will  be  enc- 
ceesfttl.  You  know  we  are  living  In  this  country  under  a  system  under  which  every  ma* 
or  woman  living  here  for  five  year*  has  a  right  to  become  a  crtliea  of  this  country,  aad 
enjoy  the  privilege*  that  go  with  citltenshlp.  Unfortunately  the  workers  aeglect  thU 


opportunity.  The  middle  class  and  the  wealthy  class  are  always  naturalized.  Why? 
It  is  very  staple.  They  have  time  for  it.  If  you  approach  the  workers  they  tell  you: 
"I  have  to  work.  I  cannot  go  to  Court  and  spend  a  day  or  two  days  or  more  In  order 
to  become  a  citlxen."  In  dull  season  the  worker  tells  you:  "I  am  worried  by  unem- 
ployment and  cannot  think  of  becoming  a  citizen."  He  neglects  it. 

Now,  we  have  a  new  element  In  New  York.  It  is  the  women.  Last  November  the 
franchise  wms  granted  to  them.  But  what  did  we  discover?  A  very  small  number  of 
them  are  citizens.  The  vast  majority  of  them  are  not  citizens  at  all.  Do  you  know  what 
It  means?  To  my  mind  they  are  traitors  to  *heir  own  class  if  they  don't  become  citizens 
of  a  country,  where  they  could  use  their  vote,  where  they  could  elect  their  own  repre- 
sentatives. We  find  it  necessary  to  organize  in  the  city  of  New  York,  where  the  bulk 
of  your  membership  and  ours  live,  a  league  for  the  purpose  of  educating  the  workers  to 
become  citizens,  tell  them  of  their  duty  to  become  citizens,  tell  them  to  become  citizens 
and  elect  their  own  representatives  to  Assembly,  to  Congress,  et  cetera.  This  involves 
The  U.  S.  District  Court  in  New  York  appreciated  the  necessity  and  the  use- 
of  our  league,  and  it  Is  now  recognized  by  that  Court. 

Now  this  Is  the  first  time  that  I  am  going  to  ask  for  money.  It  is  a  very  unpleasant 
thing  to  do.  but  knowing  how  liberally  your  organization  always  responds  to  any  appeal 
from  the  labor  movement,  I  was  persuaded  to  come  here  and  ask  for  funds.  Your  organ! 
zation  has  already  contributed  to  this  institution.  So  did  our  organization.  But  it  is 
going  to  contribute  again.  You  have  a  representative  on  the  executive  board,  your  Presi- 
dent and  your  Secretary  are  on  the  advisory  committee,  and  they  will  see  to  it  that  you 
will  get  the  benefit  for  your  members  out  of  this  league.  I  hope  that  every  one  of  you 
will  do  something,  will  vote  for  a  contribution.  I  thank  you.  (Applause.) 

President  HILLMAN:  The  Socialist  Party  1918  Campaign  Committee  has  sent  its 
representative,  Brother  Bakal,  to  make  a  request  of  the  convention.  I  will  now  call  on 
Brother  Bakal,  who  will  address  the  convention  on  this  subject  for  a  few  minutes. 

Comrade  Bakal  made  a  strong  appeal  for  contributions  for  the  Million  Dollar  Fund 
the  Socialist  Party  has  undertaken  to  raise  for  the  next  congressional  campaign  through- 
out the  country. 

President  HILLMAN:  The  delegates,  I  hope,  are  aware  that  this  is  the  last  session 
for  the  presentation  of  resolutions.  When  this  session  is  over,  no  more  resolutions  will 
be  accepted,  except  by  unanimous  consent. 

The  Arrangements  Committee  asks  that  we  adjourn  the  convention  tomorrow  at 
11  o'clock  so  as  to  give  an  opportunity  to  the  delegates  to  see  Washington.  What  Is  your 

Delegate  HARRY  COHEN:     I  move  to  that  effect. 

Chairman:  Will  the  mover  of  the  motion  agree  that  we  meet  tonight  until  7  o'clock 
and  that  tomorrow  we  adjourn  at  11  o'clock  a.  m.  for  the  rest  of  the  day? 

Delegate  COHEN:    I  accept  that  in  the  motion. 
The  motion  was  seconded. 

Delegate  RABKIN  of  Local  209:  I  move  that  we  delay  the  Washington  trip  until  the 
convention  is  through  with  its  business. 

This  amendment  was  seconded,  but  was  lost  by  an  overwhelming  vote. 
The  original  motion  was  carried. 

President  HILLMAN:    We  have  with  us  here  a  number  of  Schloss  Bros,  strikers. 

Their  appearance  was  greeted  by  thunderous  applause,  and  as  the  strikers  marched 
around  the  delegates,  the  enthusiasm  and  applause  grew  in  volume  until  it  was  deafening- 
The  demonstration  lasted  for  fully  six  minutes  and  filled  the  hearts  of  everyone  with 
emotion  and  pride  and  strength. 

The  strikers  then  proceeded  to  the  balcony  to  listen  to  the  proceedings  of  the  con- 

President  HILLMAN:  I  shall  now  call  on  the  Manager  of  our  Local  Organization, 
a  member  of  our  General  Executive  Board,  Brother  Hyman  Blumberg,  to  greet  the  con- 
vention and  the  strikers.  (Applause.) 


Address    of    Hyman    Blumberg 

it  would  have  done  mt  mort  good  tf  those  who  have 
that  we  have  DO  onranliatlon  in  the  City  of  Baltimore  were  frilMt  IB  CMt 
the  splendid  reception  accorded  to  our  strikers  of  Be  h  loss 
out  BOW  for  five  weeks—  the  reception  accorded  them  by  this 

Brother  Shlplacoff  last  night  in  his  address  at  the  Lyric  Theatre  said  that  special 
cities  are  subject  to  special  epidemics  of  disease.  He  cited  that  In  the  City  of  New  York 
they  had  the  epidemic  of  Infantile  paralysis.  In  Baltimore  we  have  the  epidemic  of 
Ferguson f  .«  In  this  same  hall,  when  the  American  Federation  of  Labor  held  its 

convention  her  vember.  1916.  that  this  same  Ferguson,  sitting  at  one  of 

tables,  said  that  he  was  proud  to  be  a  scab  agent.    And  In  response  to  Prselds 
who  had  attacked  the  actions  of  Ferguson  in  this  City,  said  that  if 
scab  agents  In  the  United  States,  to  forward  them  to 

And  I  agree  with  him.    Ferguson  is  not  enough  In  this  City  to  combat  the 

gamated  Clothing  Workorn.  H»»  will  n«'«vl  moro'  (Appl:m-«-  »  Th-  <»::>,;,.  ,,f  our 
in  thin  city,  as  shown  by  the  tremendous  fights  that  they  have  pot  up.  is  sucn  that  if  all 
the  Fergusons  of  the  United  States  were  sent  to  Baltimore  by  the  entire  American  Fed- 
eration of  Labor,  they  would  only  help  to  strengthen  the  Amilsjimstsd  Clothing  Work- 
ers in  this  City  to  more  solidly  unite  the  clothing  workers  as  a  whole  in  Baltimore. 

The  activity  of  our  enemies  against  us  has  only  tended  to  make  this  city  oae  tas> 
dred  per  cent.  Amalgamated. 

I  sincerely  hope  that,  before  this  convention  adjourns.  I  may  be  In  a  position  to  re- 
port to  you  a  settlement— an  Amalgamated  settlement— of  the  Schloss  strike!  (Hurrah! 
and  great  applause.)  And  when  the  adjustment  will  be  made  with  that  firm,  it  will  be 
years  and  years  before  any  labor  faker  In  this  or  In  any  other  city  that  he  may  come 
from  will  ever  dare  attempt  again  an  attack  on  our  organization!  (Applause  ) 

I  could  not  close  without  again  referring  to  a  remark  that  was  made  In  this  hall 
at  the  convention  of  the  American  Federation  of  Labor.  At  that  time.  Samuel  Oompers. 
from  this  platform,  said  In  reference  to  a  question  that  came  up.  and  I  will  repeat  that 
remark  with  reference  to  the  Fergusons.  Oompers  said :  "Lay  on  MacDuff.  and  dasned 
be  he  who  will  cry  enough!"  (Loud  applause.) 

President  H1LLMAN:  I  am  sure  that  the  delegates,  as  well  as  the  strikers,  will  be 
glad  to  listen  to  one  who  has  participated  In  every  fight  in  this  city,  as  well  as  la  staer 
cities,  of  our  International,  and  this  Is  Brother  Frank  Be  11  an ca,  editor  of  our  Italian 
organ.  Lavoro. 

Brother  Bellanca  of  Local  63  delivered  a  stirring  address  In  Italian.  His  speech  was 
received  with  enthusiasm  by  the  Italian  members  present  and  frequently  interrupted  by 

President  HILLMAN:  When  the  Nashville  situation  arose,  we  found  that  we 
in  great  need  of  professional  men.  especially  lawyers,  and  went  to  friendly  legal 
In  New  York.  Morris  HtllquH  defended  the  legal  side  of  oar  case;  in  Cincinnati  we  were 
very  fortunate  In  having  the  assistance  of  our  friend  Nicholas  Klein.  We  will  give  up 
part  of  the  morning's  session  to  listen  to  an  address  by  our  friend.  Nicholas  Klein  of 

Address  of  Nicholas    Klein 

Mr.  President  and  Friends:  I  did  not  expect  to  be  called  upon  at  this  very  - 
at  least,  because  of  the  presence  of  my  good  friend  and  colleague,  who  has  just 
to  you  from  the  City  of  Washington,  with  a  message  of  encouragement,  I  have  BO 
But  I  was  asked  when  I  approached  the  platform  to  say  some  few  words  of 
ment  to  the  Schloss  Brothers  strikers  of  Baltimore.  I  can  only  say  this,  that 
than  I  could  say  this  morning  has  already  been  demonstrated*  here  on  this 
in  this  hall.  The  marching  around  of  the  men  and  the  women  this  irfrr^g.  *&d  t-V 
standing  up  of  the  groups  of  delegates  from  the  various  cities,  was  indeed  an  Inspiring 
spectacle  to  my 


I  believe  that  they  have  been  on  strike  for  five  consecutive  weeks.  The  strikers 
now  realize  -what  war  means.  And  they  also  realize  no  doubt  what  Sherman  said  about 
war,  because,  my  friends,  a  strike  is  a  war,  the  two  contending  forces  fighting  like  sep- 
arate armies,  each  for  Its  share  of  the  spoils  in  this  world  today. 

The  speaker  this  morning,  the  Chairman  or  the  co-worker  of  Baltimore,  Bald  that 
a  settlement  was  about  to  be  had,  and  he  expected  to  announce  before  the  adjournment 
of  your  convention  a  settlement  of  this  strike.  My  friends,  I  hope  that  is  true.  I  hope 
that  the  Schlo«s  Brothers  strikers  are  going  to  win  a  splendid  victory!  (Applause.) 

There  never  has  been  such  a  wonderful  opportunity  for  labor  as  presents  itself  this 
rtry  moment.  But,  my  friends.  I  have  in  mind  this,  and  I  say  this  to  the  strikers  and  I 
say  this  to  the  delegates.  Labor  just  now  is  In  the  flower  of  its  manhood.  Just  like  this 
beautiful  spring  day.  when  the  buds  are  beginning  to  open,  so  labor  is  coming  into  its 
own.  But,  my  friends,  that  in  due  in  great  measure  not  so  much  to  your  stand  either  as 
or  working-women,  but  to  the  peculiar  economic  status  which  has  beem 
about  by  the  war.  And  I  say  to  you,  my  friends,  that  perhaps  after  this  war — 
and  that  is  not  so  far  off— a  chance  will  come  to  you  strikers,  and  to  you  workers,  to 
show  not  by  applause,  but  by  action,  how  much  per  cent,  you  feel  for  organized  labor. 
Because,  my  friends,  after  this  war.  there  will  be  a  sreat  unemployment  problem.  The 
munition  plants  will  be  closed  and  useless,  and  millions  of  munitions  workers  will  be 
thrown  out  upon  the  market.  And  then  the  time  will  come  to  show  whether  you  strikers 
and  you  workers  believe  one  hundred  per  cent,  for  organized  labor  or  only  35  per  cent., 
because,  my  friends,  my  good  friend  is  he  who  is  with  me  when  the  storms  are  beating, 
when  I  am  hungry,  when  I  have  no  money,  when  everybody  is  spitting  on  me,  when  I 
am  in  Jail;  and  then,  when  a  man  comes  to  me  and  says,  "I  am  with  you;  have  courage; 
I'm  your  friend!"  that  man  is  my  brother — that  man  is  two  hundred  per  cent,  because 
that  man  is  not  a  sunshine  friend.  Sunshine  friends  organized  labor  can  get  now.  Sun- 
shine friends  organized  labor  can  get  when  it  is  victorious,  when  it  is  on  top.  But  the 
true  test  will  come  to  you,  strikers,  and  to  you  workers,  in  Just  a  short  time.  To  you 
strikers,  who  have  been  holding  out  five  weeks.  I  may  say  a  word  of  courage,  and  U 
this:  When  you  go  into  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  you  are  going 
mto  a  real  organized  Union,  not  a  bosses'  union.  You  are  going  into  a  union  made  up 
of  those  who  have  Ideals,  of  those  who  believe  in  you,  of  those  who  are  working  for 
you.  of  those  who  are  using  every  energy  and  every  effort,  not  for  politics,  but  to  make 
it  better  for  you  in  the  shop,  not  because  of  a  label,  but  because  you  are  workers  and 
you  produce  all  the  wealth. 

And  I  say  to  you,  stick  to  that  Union.  That  Union  means  Just  what  It  says.  It  is 
a  Union  of  organized  forces  In  America  in  the  needle  trades. 

So,  my  friends,  without  taking  up  any  more  time,  let  me  say  to  you,  and  without 
being  pessimistic,  that  there  will  be  evil  days  coming.  And  they  are  not  so  far  off.  I 
wonder  how  many  of  the  membership  of  New  York  and  Chicago  and  all  over  the  country 
are  so  solidified  and  will  stick  to  the  Union,  to  the  Amalgamated,  when  the  time  comes — 
when  the  call  comes,  and  you  are  put  to  the  test.  Will  you  be  a  real  soldier  in  a  grand 
army  of  labor,  or  will  you  be  one  of  those  stragglers  who  only  come  in  to  get  two  dollars 
or  more  wages  per  week?  That  is  going  to  be  the  great  problem. 

And  the  education  of  your  membership  now,  the  solidifying  of  your  forces  now,  the 
making  of  your  lines  strong  now,  my  friends,  is  the  big,  big  question,  and  it  can  be 
done — anything  can  be  done  If  a  Union  of  one  hundred  thousand  members  can  be 
organized  In  three  years  like  has  been  so  wonderfully  done  here  by  your  leaders  and  by 
your  officers  and  your  membership,  my  friends,  anything  is  possible.  Education  is  pos- 
sible, and  the  winning  of  strikes  Is  possible. 

Let  me  close  Just  now  by  giving  you  a  little  story  that  I  have  given  you  once  before. 
I  close  by  telling  you  the  story,  because  I  think  it  explains  better  than  anything  else,  at 
this  time,  the  great  possibilities  which  can  come  to  labor.  There  is  a  story  told  about 
the  making  of  the  first  railway.  There  was  an  old  man,  it  is  said,  whose  name  was 
Stevenson,  who  made  the  first  locomotive.  You  know,  Just  like  in  the  labor  movement 
they  said  locomotives  were  impossible.  You  had  to  have  horses  or  cattle  to  pull  a  train; 
that  nothing  would  go  without  something  being  attached  to  it.  There  would  be  no  loco- 

And  when  old  man  Stevenson  proposed  a  train— something  to  be  run  without  the  aid 
of  horses  or  oien,  he  was  ridiculed.  One  day  a  test  was  made,  and  they  laid  two  pieces 




and  upon  these  two  piecee  of  wood  they  placed  some  thin  shaeta  of  metal,  and 
that  crude  arrangement  waa  placed  the  flrat  locomotive. 
And  it  is  said  in  this  story  that  tbouaaada  of  people  were  ovt  to  ate  the  flrat  taet 

of  that  locomotive,  and  of  couree  the  people  all  shouted,  aad  pointed  to  th«r 

crazy,  aad  they  aald  the  locomotive  waa  out  of  queetlon:  It  waa  lav 
and  the  crowd  yelled  out:  "You  old  foggy  fool!  Yon  can't  do  It!     You  cant  do 
And  the  same  everywhere.    The  old  man  waa  in  the  cab.  and  aoanbody  fired  a 
pistol  and  the  signal  was  given.  He  pulled  the  throttle  open  and  the  engine  shot  oat  aad 
In  their iaa limit  the  crowd,  not  knowing  how  to  answer  I 

to  that  argument. 
"  TOD  old  fool!     You  can't  stop  It!  You  can't  stop  it!  Yon  can't  stop  It'  '     <  Applaoee  ) 

And  my  friends.  In  this  story  you  have  a  history  of  thto  entire  movement-  Ftret  they 
ignore  you.  Then  they  ridicule  you  And  then  they  attack  you  and  want  to  burn  you. 
And  then  they  build  monuments  to  you. 

And  that  is  what  is  going  to  happen  to  the  Amalgamated  Ctotatag  Workere  of 

And  1  say,  courage  to  the  striker*,  and  courage  to  the  deiegatea,  bacauas  groat 
are  coming,  stressful  daya  are  here,  aad  I  hope  your  hearts  will  be  atrong.  aad  1 
will  be  one  hundred  per  cent,  union  when  It  cornea!  (Great  applause  ) 

President  MILKMAN.*   I  am  sure  that  Coagreaamaa  London  noodo 
to  this  convention     I  take  great  pleasure  in  calling  upon  Congreeeman  Meyer  London  te 
address  this  convention. 

London  received  an  ovation,  everybody  rising  and  cheering  wildly. 

Congressman   London's  Addreea 

Chairman  and  Deiegatea  to  the  Amalgamated 

vvas  with  a  great  deal  of  hesitation  that  I  left  the  city  of  Washington  even  for  a 
couple  of  hours  and  absented  myself  from  a  part  of  the  •aiilmv  It  has  fallen  to  ma  to 
be  a  member  of  the  American  ConirresA  at  a  time  when  the  world  la  aflame. 
thing  is  In  the  crucible,  when  the  flux  Is  more  rapid  than  e-ver  in  the  hlatory  of  the 
tyrdom  of  the  race.  And  it  has  fallen  to  my  lot  in  this  hour  of  stress  to 
norlty  view— to  speak  for  those  who  have  been  voiceless  for  a  long  time,  to 
the  tomorrow  or  the  day  to  come.  And  every  ounce  of  my  energy,  all  I  have  and  all  that 
I  expect  to  develop,  all  my  spiritual,  intellectual  and  physical  strength  is  devoted  to  the 
task  before  me. 

I  always  find  inexpressible  pleasure  In  addressing  a  gathering  of 
greatest  event  In  hlatory  waa  the  organization  of  the  flrat  labor  union.    It  to 
man  who  Is  at  the  very  bottom  of  the  social  scale,  when  the  worker  upon  »Boaa 
rests  all  the  weight  and  all  the  burden  of  society,  it  is  when  he  arlaea.  whan  ha 
claim  a  share  In  the  world— not  only  better  clothing  and  better  shoes 
but  when  he  demands  access  to  the  world's  treasures  of  learning  and 
lated  for  centuries,  when  he  begins  to  draw  upon  the  reservoir  of  wl 

and  of  education.  It  is  then  that  mankind  begins  to  move  forward. 

It  is  organized  labor— united  labor— that  will  push  the  world  forward,  aad 
apeak  of  organized  labor  I  know  that  your  convention  and  your  organization  occupies 
*  •  preeent  moment  a  unique  position.  It  looks  aa  If  you  are  Isolated.  But  that  will 
not  be  for  long.  I  know  that  all  of  you.  your  leaden  aa  well  aa  the 
will  use  the  first  opportunity  to  see  to  it  that  you  become  a  pan  and 
labor  movement  which  will  embrace  the  entire  country  and  the  entire 

Labor  cannot  afford  to  be  selfish  or  sectarian  or  aristocratic.  That 
curse  of  the  labor  movemnt  for  years.  The  clothing  worker,  the  ladiea* 
and  the  tailor,  was  the  roost  deaplsed  of  all  workers.  You  know  that  old 
"It  takes  nine  tailors  to  make  a  man."  That  proverb  came  about  In  a  vary 
In  olden  days  men  were  aa  foolish  In  matters  of  dreaa  aa  women  are  today  and  It 
a  dozen  tailor*  to  make  up  one  man.  It  required  an  extra  tailor  to  prepare  the  half- 
tro-aaera  for  him,  aad  the  vest  and  the  coat  and  the  lapels,  and  all  aorta  of  frills,  so  that 
the  proverb  waa  created  that  "It  takee  nine  tailors  to  make  one  man."  But  others 
applied  it  as  a  term  of  reproach  aad  contempt  for  the  tailor,  for  the  clothing 
And  it  waa  a  term  of  reproach,  thirty  years  ago.  before  the  great  labor 
tailoring  tradea  aaw  the  light 

Now  It  is  a  pleasure,  it  Is  an  honor,  to  apeak  to  organize* 
them  not  only  tho  dothlnic  worker,  not  only  the  man  who  ia 
only  the  man  who  aeeks  the  Improvement  of  hta 


has  a  vision,  who  looks  into  the  tature,  who  studies  and  reads  and  thinks  and  who  Is  in 
the  forefront  of  the  labor  movement,  striving  toward  genuine  progress. 

There  is  nothing  to  be  despised  about  the  tailor  today.  No  bricklayers'  convention 
and  no  railroad  workers'  convention  and  no  telegraphers'  convention  can  present  that 
volume  of  idealism,  of  striving  and  craving  for  the  better,  that  our  conventions  present 
And  that  Is  why  we  are  today  in  the  vanguard  of  the  labor  movement.  We  have  broken 
away  from  the  past.  We  are  not  destroyers,  but  we  have  stopped  licking  the  dust  of  the 
past.  So  far  as  our  Ideals  are  concerned,  we  always  know  that  they  will  become  a  reality 
when  you  have  your  feet  on  the  ground  and  when  you  fight  now  and  here  for  immediate 
Improvements,  always  guided  by  a  big  broad  desire  to  improve  not  only  your  own  con- 
ditions but  the  conditions  of  the  world.  It  is  this  combination  of  the  ideal  and  the  prac- 
tical that  Is  characteristic  of  our  union.  We  cannot  build  the  cooperative  commonwealth 
you  build  better  men  today.  The  union  builds  and  creates  that  soul  which  Is  es- 
for  the  world  to  travel  forward. 

The  sailor  is  made  on  the  sea  and  in  tho  storm,  the  soldier  on  the  firing  line.  The 
that  will  build  a  future  society  must  begin  building  his  character  and  his  manhood 
his  moral  strength  and  develop  his  fibre  a<  a  fighter  today  and  here  in  the  fights 
for  the  betterment  of  the  conditions  of  the  workers. 

I  recall  having  read  a  beautiful  sketch  by  one  of  the  p:  ian  writ<  -off. 

He  pictures  a  skillful  aviator — a  man  who  In  a  very  short  time  acquired  a  reputation  as 
the  best  aviator  in  the  country.  He  had  the  very  best  machine.  He  was  to  give  an 
exhibition  of  his  skill  and  adroitness.  And  as  he  went  up,  the  plaudits  of  the  crowd  ac- 
companying him.  he  looked  with  contempt  on  the  crowd  below  him.  All  was  so  petty 
and  so  small  and  and  so  sordid.  And  he  snld,  "T  will  go  up  higher  and  higher  and  away 
from  this  crowd  of  small  men,  and  away  from  the  little  things  and  away  from  the  com- 
monplace "  And  as  he  went  up  high  he  determined  to  make  this  circle  still  "wider  and 
•till  higher,  and  up  he  went  higher  and  higher  and  higher,  and  wider  and  wider  was  the 
sphere  that  he  soared  away  from  the  low,  away  from  the  contemptible,  away  from  the 
little  men  and  women  who  inhabit  the  earth — higher  and  higher.  He  refused  to  come 
down.  Every  thing  below  was  so  sordid.  But  he  did  come  down,  and  his  machine  came 
down,  a  dead  machine  with  a  dead  aviator. 

The  idealist  who  starts  ou.t  with  a  complete  disregard  for  things  as  they  are,  who 
believes  that  this  world  is  soiiiid  and  small,  that  the  fight  for  wages  and  for  hours  Is 
too  petty  a  thing,  that  what  we  ought  to  do  is  to  reorganize  the  entire  society,  all  at  once, 
and  build  up  a  cooperative  commonwealth  beginning  from  the  twentieth  floor,  Is  like 
that  aviator.  He  will  go  up  higher  and  higher  into  wider  and  wider  spheres  away  from 
everything  small,  but  he  will  come  down  a  dead  man  In  a  dead  machine. 

The  man  who  fights  today  for  things  worth  while  is  the  man  who  builds  the  world. 
I  am  glad  to  see  that  the  great  majority.  If  not  all  of  the  members  of  this  union  In  this 
great  crisis  of  the  world,  realizes  that  the  last  man  In  the  world  to  scab  against  Uncle 
Sam  is  a  member  of  organized  labor  and  a  member  of  a  union. 

I  did  my  part  in  the  Congress  of  the  United  State*  representing  that  body  of  thought 
which  I  as  a  Socialist  stood  for  and  stand  for  today.  I  know  that  labor,  always  capable 
of  realizing  the  necessity  of  utilizing  every  existing  force  for  the  improvement  of  con- 
ditions will  take  the  practical  view.  And  what  means  thf»  practical  view?  Is  the  word 
"practical"  a  contemptible  term?  No.  What  does  it  mean?  When  we  use  that  word 
from  the  platform  of  a  labor  convention,  It  means  that  which  is  best  fitted  to  serve  our 
Ideals  and  our  purposes.  It  is  in  this  sense  only  that  we  can  use  the  word  "practical." 
Any  other  method  is  destructive  of  the  very  things  that  we  are  striving  for. 

I  have  tried  on  the  floor  of  Congress,  as  I  am  trying  everywhere  else,  to  destroy  the 
idea  that  war  times  are  not  times  for  improvements.  I  tried  In  the  last  argument  on  the 
so-called  sedition  bill  to  prove  that  it  is  In  war  times  that  we  are  to  make  changes  which 
are  necessary  to  put  society  on  a  proper  basis.  It  fas  when  the  nation  Is  put  to  stress, 
when  all  its  energy  Is  called  into  action,  when  all  its  resources  are  needed,  it  Is  then 
that  we  find  what  is  wrong  with  us.  It  is  then  that  we  discover  what  is  defective  in  our 
economics  and  in  our  politics.  It  Is  then  that  every  weak  spot  appears  on  the  surface. 

Twenty-nine  out  of  every  100  men  who  appeared  to  be  examined  for  military  service 
were  found  to  be  physically  defective.  There  is  a  condition  which  we  never  understood 
before.  That  fact  faces  us  today.  And  the  fact  is  so  apparent,  so  eloquent,  so  clear,  BO 
convincing  that  we  cannot  postpone  the  removal  of  that  horrible  fact  until  the  war  is 



If  we  need  strong  men  to  fig  ht  th*  nation's  fights  and  the  world's  fights  ta  UBS* 
of  war.  we  Insist  thai  we  shall  have  strong  men  In  time*  of  peace  aad  forever. 

Special  students  of  American  conditions  knew  that  there  was  illiteracy  ta  «oeme  eec- 


We  all  knew  In  peaceful  times  that  profiteering  was  a  curse.  But  imagine  the  siuta- 
tkm  today.  Somebody  asked  me  on  the  floor  of  Congress  whether  I  would  favor  a  strike 
in  the  trenches.  I  said  Because  in  the  trenches  the  rich  boy  aad  tho 

poor  boy.  the  banker's  son  and  the  bricklayer,  are  standing  shoulder  to  shoulder  pouring 
••Ir  blood.  The  rich  man's  son  does  not  try  to  get  Into  the  poor  man's  pocket  and 
pick  out  his  change.  The  rich  man's  son  will  exploit  the  poor  man's  son  over  hero  km 
industry.  The  very  reverse  takes  place  of  what  takes  place  on  the  hattloflold.  Aad  that 
ta  why  we  must  be  energetic,  strong  and  courageous.  Wo  are  not  going  to  scab  on  Uncle 
Sam.  but  we  don't  want  any  profiteer  to  scab  on  us! 

There  are  great  problems  now.  I  don't  know  whether  the  statesmen  of  the  world 
are  capable  of  solving  the  problems  that  face  tho  world  today.  But  the  British  Labor 
Movement,  the  French  Labor  Movement,  the  Italian  Labor  Movement,  the  Labor  Move- 
ments of  the  World  have  their  reconstruction  program.  They  speak  as  brave  BOB.  not 
from  books,  not  from  theories,  not  from  little  pamphlets.  No.  In  the  university  of  lite 
they  have  learned  a  lesson,  and  the  English  worker  and  the  French  worker  Insist  that 
when  the  war  Is  over  and  when  he  goes  back  home  he  should  bo  not  only  a  partner  to 
the  national  debt  of  Great  Britain  and  a  pan  owner  of  the  French  national  obligation*, 
but  that  he  should  have  access  to  the  land  and  to  the  industries  and  that  he  should  be 
given  an  opportunity  to  live  a  free  man's  life  In  a  free  country. 

And  when  you  will  be  accused — and  no  one  will  dare  accuse  u»— of  lack  of  love  for 
these  United  States,  we  say  that,  so  far  as  we  are  concerned,  no  matter  In 
some  of  us  might  have  been  born,  no  matter  in  what  country  the  graves  of  our 
may  be.  thin  country,  where  the  cradle  of  our  children  Is  standing,  is  our 
country!    We  shall  not  in  this  hour  of  crisis  be  weak.   Now  is  the  time  for 

Now  friends,  you  delegates  of  a  union  representing  laboring  men.  you  are  not  all 
the  labor  movement  unfortunately.  There  are  still  millions  of  tollers  who  don't  know, 
who  have  not  seen  the  light  of  organization.  There  are  still  millions  of  men  who  don't 
understand  the  mission  of  our  movement.  Let  every  one  of  you  men  and  women  con* 
stltute  himself  a  teacher  and  an  organizer  and  a  leader.  Read  more,  study  more,  try 
to  understand  more.  Let  not  the  word  "workers"  be  a  term  of  contempt  Organise, 
teach,  don't  throw  the  burden  upon  leaders  only,  because  the  leader  has  definite  difficult 
functions  to  perform.  The  work  of  organizing  must  be  done  by  the  mssses. 

And  not  only  In  strikes.  Oh.  the  strike  unions!  How  I  despise  them!  A  strike 
organized,  and  all  the  people  joining  the  union  by  paying  in  a  quarter,  and  there  ta  a 
union  man.  A  scab  yesterday,  a  quarter  made  him  a  union  man  today.  That  Is  the  snsis 
kind  of 

It  takes  more  sacrifices  than  that  to  be  a  real  union  man.  It  takes  more 
to  be  a  union  man  than  the  paying  in  of  a  quarter.  Upon  you  rests  the  fate  of  the 
And  so  let  every  one  of  us  become  a  carrier  of  light,  a  propagandist  of  Ideas,  the 
of  a  cause,  the  prophet  of  a  better  dsy.  strong  men.  strong  women  In  this  terrible  crisis 
where  the  world  Is  being  drowned  in  blood.  We  need  every  strong  man.  Wo  need  every 
Intelligent  man,  we  need  every  intelligent  woman  and  more  energy,  more  faith,  more  love 
for  humanity! 

A  great  ovation  was  given  Congressman  London  upon  the  conclusion  of  his  addreom. 

Resolutions  Assigned 

Board  Member  Frank  Rosenblum  read  the  following  resolutions,  which  wore  then 
assigned  to  committees; 

Resolution  No.  54— By  delegation  of  Local  S,  New  York,  on  tiuuifUittUli  of  General 
Executive  Board.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Law. 


Resolution  No.  59 — Boston  Joint  Board,  on  the  eight-hour  day.  Referred  to  Com- 
mittee on  Resolutions. 

Resolution  No.  60 — Pantsmakers'  Delegation,  New  York,  on  organization  campaign 
of  pantsmakers.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  61 — Chicago  Joint  Board,  on  organization  campaign.  Referred  to 
Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  62 — Local  230,  Baltimore,  as  to  Bohemian  organizer.  Referred  to 
Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  63— Local  69.  Baltimore,  as  to  Polish  organizer.  Referred  to  Com- 
mittee on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  64— Locals  4  and  9.  New  York;  61,  Chicago;  116,  Montreal;  IS, 
Baltimore,  as  to  cutter  organizer.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  65 — Local  30,  New  York,  as  to  Russian  organizer.  Referred  to  Com- 
mittee on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  G6 — Locals  15.  36.  69,  114  and  241,  Baltimore,  on  organization  of 
country  shops.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  67 — Local  157,  New  Yoi  k,  on  organization  of  the  Palm  Beach 
workers.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  68- — Local  69,  Baltimore,  on  Industrial  organization  with  national 
branches.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  69 — Locals  16,  186  and  262,  New  York,  on  thanks  to  Socialist  press. 
Referred  to  Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Resolution  No.  70 — Local  244.  New  York,  on  abolition  of  sub-contracting.  Referred 
to  Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Resolution  No.  71 — Local  144,  Chicago,  on  bonding  of  financial  officers.  Referred 
to  Committee  on  Finance. 

Resolution  No.  72 — Chicago  delegation,  on  financial  support  to  "Dally  World." 
Referred  to  Committee  on  Finance. 

Resolution  No.  73 — Local  114.  Baltimore,  on  financial  support  to  Public  Ownership. 
Referred  to  Committee  on  Finance. 

Resolution  No.  74 — Toronto  Joint  Board,  on  financial  support  Naye  Welt.  Referred 
to  Committee  on  Finance. 

Resolution  No.  75 — Toronto  Joint  Board,  on  financial  support  "Jewish  Labor 
Gazette."  Referred  to  Committee  on  Finance. 

Resolution  No.  76 — Locals  2  and  161,  New  York,  on  financial  support  of  the  Naye 
Welt  Referred  to  Committee  on  Finance. 

Resolution  No.  77 — Local  61,  Chicago,  on  books  and  pamphlets.  Referred  to  Com- 
mittee on  Education. 

Resolution  No.  78 — Local  3,  New  York,  on  political  prisoners.  Referred  to  Com- 
mittee on  Resolutions. 

Resolution  No.  79— Local  175,  New  York,  thanks  to  Harry  Cohen.  Referred  to 
Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Resolution  No.  80 — Locals  4  and  9,  New  York,  thanks  to  Mrs.  Blumberg  for  her 
most  valuable  services  to  the  organization.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Resolution  No.  81 — Local  61,  Chicago,  on  tuberculosis  sanatorium.  Referred  to 
Committee  on  Miscellaneous. 

Resolution  No.  82— Local  61,  Chicago,  on  organizing  Chicago  clothing  workers. 
Referred  to  Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  83 — Local  6,  Chicago,  on  Czecho-Slovak  Independence.  Referred  to 
Committee  on  Reports  of  Officers. 

Resolution  No.  84 — Local  156.  New  York,  on  uniform  prices  on  military  work. 
Referred  to  Committee  on  Miscellaneous. 

Resolution  No.  85— Local  69,  Baltimore,  on  representation  by  nationalities  on  the 
G.  E.  B.  Referred  to  Committee  on  Law. 

Resolution  No.  86— Local  156.  New  York,  as  to  foremen  and  contractors.  Referred 
to  Committee  on  LAW. 

Resolution  No.  87 — Local  144.  Chicago,  on  uniform  bookkeeping  system.  Referred 
to  Committee  on  Finance. 

Resolution  No.  88 — Local  69,  Baltimore,  on  subscription  to  official  organs.  Referred 
to  Committee  on  Reports  of  Officers. 

Resolution  No.  89 — Local  15,  Baltimore,  on  organizing  work.  Referred  to  Commit- 
tee on  Organization. 



live  Board.    Referred  to  Committee  on  Law. 

Resolu1  1- Locals  8.  8  and  1M.  New  York.  OB  week  work. 

Committee  on  LAW. 

Reeoiotkm  No.  92-Local  lit.  New  York,  endorsement  of  Socialist  Party, 
red  to  Committee  on  Reeo. 

,  M-LocaU  1U  and  148.  PhlladelpbU  and  New  York 
organlxlng  shirt  and  boys'  waist  worker*.    Referred  to 

Resolution  No.  94-  lx>cels  80  tnd  162.  New  York,  on 
Custom  Tailors  of  New  York  and  Chicago.    Referred  to 

Resolution   No.   95— Boston  Joint   Board,   requesting  organiser  for 
States     Referred  to  Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  9«— Local  4,  N«w  York,  on  financial  support  to  Naturalisation  Aid 
League.    Referred  to  Committee  on  Finance. 

Resolution  No.  97— Local  120.  Louisville,  requesting  a  woman  general  organiser. 
Referred  to  Committee  on  Organization. 

Resolution  No.  98— Locals  4.  175  and  248,  New  York,  on  financial  support  to  the 
$1.000,000  fund  of  the  Socialist  Party.    Referred  to  Committee  on  Finance, 

Resolution   No.   99— Local   48.   on   financial   support  of   Williamtburg    (Brooklyn) 
Labor  Lyceum     Referred  to  Committee  on  Finance. 

Resolution  No.  100— Locals  4.  7  and   142.  New  York,  tbanks  to  the  Contention 
Arrange  men  ta  Committee.    Referred  to  Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Resolution  No.  101— Local  175,  New  York,  as  to  financial  support  for  the  Diownj 
Tiile  Labor  Lyceum.     Referred  to  Committee  on  Finance. 

Resolution  No.  102— Local  152,  Baltimore,  providing  a  sinking  fund  of  $1C4,*4». 
to  Committee  on  Finance. 

No.  103— Local  12.  New  York,  on  salaries  of  general  officers.    Referred 
to  Committee  on  Law. 

Resolution  No.  104— Local  S6,  Baltimore,  proponing  a  $5.000  fund  for 
purposes.     Referred  to  Committee  on  Education. 

Resolution  No.  105 — Locals  3.  4  and  175,  endorsing  the  American 
Ileferred  to  Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Delegate   RABINOWIT7.   of   Chicago,  moved   that   all   resolutions   rand. 
favorably  recommended  by  the  Resolutions  Committee  or  not.  should  be  printed  In  tne 

HILLMAN  announced  that  this  would  be  done  in  the  final  repert 

Report  of  Credentials  Committee 

Delegate  POTOFSKY  reported  for  the  committee  as  follows: 

The  Chairman  of  the  Credentials  Committee  asked  me  to  report  In  the  case  of 
Local  54.  which  local  has  refused  to  let  the  General  Office  audit  Its  books,  and  Is  not 
paying  per  capita  for  all  of  its  members. 

The  committee  ruled  that  the  question  of  non-payment  of  the  per  capita  slow 
not  belong  to  theC  redentials  Committee, 

The  Credentials  Committee  recommends  that  the  two  «t*i*r*»««  from  Local  54 
are  fully  entitled  to  their  seats  on  the  basis  of  per  capita  paid. 

In  the  matter  of  the  local's  refusal  to  have  their  books  audited  by  the  General 
Office,  the  delegatese  zplained  that  on  account  of  the  inefficiency  of  the  former 
Secretary*  ttoe  books  were  not  up-to-date,  and  as  soon  as  they  will  be,  la  about  a 
week  or  two.  the  General  Office  may  audit  their  books. 

The  delegates  also  stated  that  they  never  refused  to  have  their  books  audited. 
but  were  unable  to  do  it  because  of  the  above-mentioned  reason. 

The  Credentials  Committee  decided  to  aloow  Local  54  four  weeks  in  which  to 
bring  their  books  to  the  General  Office  for  auditing  purposes. 

Report  of  the  committee  was  accepted. 

The  Credentials  Committee  heard  an  appeal  on   behalf  of 
in  whose  case  action  was  taken  at  the  second 



gate  from  Local  ISO,  with  a  voice  but  no  vote.  The  committee  decided  to  ask  the 
convention  to  reopen  the  case  with  the  understanding  that  no  precedent  is  thereby 

The  Credentials  Committee  also  recommended  the  seating  of  Brother  I.  Kessler 
as  delegate  from  Local  167.  Montreal. 

Delegate  6kala,  member  of  the  Credentials  Committee,  moved  that  Brother 
Morrelli  be  seated  and  given  a  vote,  without  setting  any  precedent  for  the  future 

Delegates  Arnone,  Marcovltz  and  Gold  spoke  for  the  motion;  Delegates  Goodman 
and  Rieger  spoke  against  It.  All  who  spoke  for  giving  a  vote  to  Morrelli  insisted  that 
it  should  be  clearly  understood  that  that  is  not  to  be  made  a  precedent  for  the  future. 

The  motion  was  carried,  and  session  adjourned  at  12.80. 



Fifth  Session. 

Baltimore,  Md..  Wednesday  Afternoon.  May  16,  1918 

The  Convention  was  called  to  order  at  2.10  P.  M..  President  Hlllmaa  presiding 
Secretary  Senloesburg  read  the  following  messages: 

Boston.  Mass .   May    14.   Hi*. 

Massachusetts    State    Committee    of    the    Jewish    Socialist  Labor  Party  Poalet 

Zlon.  representing  thousands  of  Jewish  workingmen.  send  greetings  from  the  bottom  of 

their  hearts  to  the  convention  at  large.     Congratulations  to  your  leaders  upon  your 

vements.    Wish  you  success  and  hope  that  you  stand  solidly  for  Jewish 

emancipation — emancipation  of  the  working  class. 

i    HA.VI/N.  Secretary. 

Boston.  Mass .  May  IS.  ItU. 

Accept  our  heartiest  wishes  for  your  Third  Annual  Convention.  May 
effort  in  both  industrial  and  social  endeavors  be  crowned  with  success. 


Philadelphia.  Pa..  May  IS.  1118. 

We.  the  strikers  of  Wanamaker  ft  Brown,  who  have  been  locked  out  by  the 
are  extending  our  heartiest  congratulations  to  your  Third  Biennial  Convention.     We 
are  full  of  confidence  and   best  spirit  for  our  victory,  knowing  that  your 
organization  is  behind  us. 

SAMUEL  KiaBMEP.  Chairman.  Wanamaker  ft   Brown. 

New    York.    N     Y  .    May    14.    1118. 

The  Wage  Earners'  Institute  of  New  York  City  sends  greetings  to 
assembled  In  convention  and  wishes  them  success  in  their  endeavors  on  behalf  of 
organized  labor.  Your  organization  has  from  the  very  start  taken  an  active  Interest 
in  the  education  of  the  working  people.  Permit  me.  therefore,  on  behalf  of  tne 
organizing  committee  to  extend  to  you  an  invitation  to  the  conference  for  the 
education  of  working  people  to  be  held  In  New  York  City  May  30  and  31st  It  Is 
requested  that  your  organization  be  officially  represented.  Will  you  bring  this  to  the 
of  the  convention. 


New  York.  N.  Y .  May  II.  ItlS. 

In  the  name  of  the  Bushlers'  Branch  of  Local  2.  New  York,  we  congratulate  you 
the  work  you  did  for  our  membership. 


Brooklyn,  N.  Y.  May  IS.  1118 

We  send  our  heartiest  greetings  and  best  wishes  to  the  Third  Biennial  Conven- 
tion, and  trust  that  the  spirit  which  made  our  organization  strong  and  leading  win 
always  prevail  In  our  midst 

LOCAL  72.  A.  C.  W    of  A. 

May  18.  1118 
Our    congratulations    to   your   Third    Convention.     Best    wishes    to    your    future 



Baltimore,  Md.,  May   15,   1918. 

May  the  result  of  your  deliberation!  bear  the  fruits  at  good  work  that  will  never 
decay  in  the  history  of  labor.    Beet  wishes  to  all  delegates. 

POLISH  LOCAL  69,  A.  C.  W.  of  A. 
H.  BUDACZ,  Vice  president , 
J.  WISNIKWSKI,  Secretary 

New  York,  N.  Y.,  May  15,  1918. 

We.    the   employees  of  London's  shop,   send  our   best   greetings   and   good   wishes. 
Yomr  noble  work  of  the  pa*t  is  known.    We  hope  you  will  continue  it  also  in  the  future. 


Toronto,  Ontario,  Canada,  May  15,  1918. 

Heartiest  wishes  for  success  in  all  your  plans  for  better  conditions  of  labor. 


New  York,  N.  Y.,  May  15,  1918. 

We.  the  employees  of  Henry  Davies,  send  our  best  greetings.  Forty-four  hours 
•hall  be  our  motto. 


Baltimore,  Md.,  May  15,  1918. 

The   workers   of   Strouse    &   Brothers   send    their   hearty   congratulations    to   the 
Third  Biennial   Convention  of  the  A.   C.  W.  of  A.     Let  the  forty-four-hour  week   be 
our   slogan.     We   send    our   personal    greetings    to    President    S.    Hillman.    Sec: 
Schlosskerg  and  Judge  Panken.  We  hope  that  this  will  be  the  most  successful  convention. 


Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  15,  1918. 

Beet  wishes  and  congratulations  from  the  members  of  Local  214,  A.  C.  W.  of  A. 

JACOB  STABINSKY,  Secretary. 

New  York,  N.  Y.,  Ma-  15,  1918. 

Accept  our  sincere  congratulations  and  best  wishes  for  a  success. ul  and  result- 
bringing  convention. 

Jacob  Bloom,  Chairman. 

New  York.  May  15,  191  S. 

Heartiest  congratulations  Third  Biennial  Amalgamated  Convention.     May  onr  or- 
ganization thrive  and  prosper  in  the  future  as  it  did  in  the  past. 
Greetings  to  Manager  Blumberg,  of  District  Council,  No.  3,  Baltimore,  Md.: 

A.  YELOWITZ,  Secretary, 
Locals  43  and  85,  A.  C.  W.  of  A. 

Baltimore,  Md.,  May  15.  1918. 

We.  the  workers  of  Strouse  &  Bros.,  wish  to  call  attention  of  the  convention  to 
the  splendid  work  done  in  Baltimore  city.  Three  oheers  for  Blumberg. 


President  HILLMAN:  I  shall  ask  the  delegation  to  pay  close  attention  to  the 
proceedings  at  this  session.  General  Secretary  Schlossberg  will  read  the  report  of 
the  General  Executive  Board— a  report  that  will  cover  the  ..ctivitiea  of  our  international 
organization  for  the  last  two  years.  I  take  pleasure  in  calling  upon  Brother  Schlossberg 
to  read  the  report.  (Applause.) 

Secretary  SCHLOSSBERG:  Mr.  President  and  Delegates— This  report  was  com- 
pleted and  printed  this  week.  It  reached  us  from  the  printer  last  night.  Under  these 
circumstances,  I  am  sure,  you  will  pardon  the  omission  of  names  of  persons  entitled 
to  credit  for  work  done,  and  of  details. 


Report  of  the  General  Executive  Board 

iir   limd  Biennial  Convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers 



cond  coi  iu M  May,  1916,  in  Rochester,  N. 

with  •  lung  a  forty-eight  hour  week  for  the  clothing 

..ivr  tin-  *  report  that  your  command  has  been  carried  out  faithfully 

•access  fully,  in  letter  and  in  spirit.     The  forty -eight  hour  week  is  now  so 

'irm!\  in  our  industry  that  a  beginning  has  already  been  made  for 

•ur  hour  week,  a  real  eight  hour  day.    This  distinction  belongs  to  our 

did  orp.v  in  Toronto,  Canada. 

Our  speedy  and  universal  triumph  in  the  forty-eight  hour  drive  was  no 
.vie.     It  vitable  corollary  of  the  loyalty,  militancy 

iigence  of  our  membership.  It  was  the  unavoidable  outcome  of  that 
same  magnificent  spirit  which  has  enabled  our  organization  to  successfully 
conduct  all  01  •  k  during  the  past  two  years,  as  well  as  since  its  inception 

Tin-  more  conspicuous  than  the  many  other 

.  -v  by  its  \  cry  nature,  not  being  a  part  of  the  daily  routine, 
li  out  in  greatest  relief. 

..u-t  be  remembered,  however,  that  the  past  twenty-four  months  con- 

itense  battling  for  the  rights  of  the  workers  in  our  industry. 

Our  path  was  w -\  ith  roses,  but  we  have  always  come  out  with  flying 

Through  the  Crisis  in  New  York 

In  our  report  to  the  Second  Convention  we  discussed  the  crisis  then  pre- 

ikj  in  the  relations  between  our  organization  and  the  American  Clothing 

s'  Association  in  New  York.    Though  we  had  hoped  for  a  speedy 

reestablishment     of     normal     relations,     the     situation     was     growing     ever 

i ted   for  some  time  until   the  employers  realised  that  there  are 

certain   methods  which,  if  applied  by  them  against  organized  labor,  carry 

their  own  penalty  with  them. 



The  relations  between  employers  and  employees,  under  the  best  of  cir- 
cumstances, are  not  those  of  a  family  circle  or  an  ethical  culture  society. 
They  are  the  relations  of  two  opposing  sets  of  relentless  economic  interests. 
When  the  workers  are  unorganized  the  relations  and  conditions  arc  deter- 
mined in  the  simplest,  most  primitive  and  the  most  ruthless  manner:  The 
emplover  commands  without  giving  reasons  and  the  workers  obey  without 

LT  questions.     Where  the  workers  are  <  <1  they  do  fr 

questions  and  the  employers  arc  often  obliged  to  give  reasons.     The  « 
and  persistency  of  the  compelling  questions  depend  upon  the  power  of  the 
orga:  >rkers.     Where   the  workers   are  organized    the  employers   are 

bound  to  take  cognizance  of  their  attitude  in  all  such  matters  in  which  both 
parties  are  mutually  concerned.  The  great  task  then  is  the  rstaMishing 
of  an  equilibrium  that  would  be  sustained  by  the  relative  strength  of  the 
The  opposing  material  interests  of  the  employers  and  the 
workers  will  necessitate  adjustments  and  readjustments.  Where  cffor 
made  in  good  faith  to  maintain  said  equilibrium  it  is  possible  to  meet  the 
changing  requirements  of  the  situation  as  the  mutual  relations  continue. 
Our  relations  with  the  largest  firms  in  the  industry  have  worked  out  in  that 

In  the  New  York  situation,  however,  there  were  some  factors  that  were 
absent  in  the  others  and  they  made  for  serious  complications.  The  most 
irritating  of  them  was  the  notion  entertained  by  the  employers  that  a  Judas 
to  the  working  class  would  succeed  where  others  have  failed,  namely  to 
break  our  organization.  That  notion  took  such  hold  of  them  that  it  required 
i  most  convincing  demonstration  of  its  futility  in  order  to  disillusion  them. 

Our  organization  did  all  it  could,  without  injuring  the  interests  of  its 
members,  to  facilitate  the  successful  working  out  of  our  agreement  with 
the  Association,  in  spite  of  all  obstacles  purposely  and  intentionally  placed  in 
the  way,  but  failed. 

The  obstructions  were  made  against  both  organizations,  ours  and  the 
employers',  by  the  party  who  knew  of  but  one  policy,  to  artificially  stir  up 
trouble  between  us  and  the  employers  so  that  he  might  be  able  to  fish 
in  troubled  waters.  We  saw  the  situation  clearly,  but  any  suggestion  that 
came  from  us  indicating  it  was  taken  by  the  deluded  manufacturers  as  a 
show  of  "fear"  on  our  part  and  they  proceeded  on  the  "old  and  tried"  theory 
that  what  we  did  not  like  must  be  good  for  them. 

The  following  illustration  will  give  an  idea  of  the  diabolic  methods  used 
to  keep  both  parties  in  hot  water  continuously. 

One  of  our  shop  chairmen  was  discharged.  The  firm  charged  him  with 
incompetency.  We  had  sufficient  proof  to  show  that  it  was  a  case  of  dis- 
crimination because  of  union  activity.  The  outside  chairman  ruled  against 
us.  We  accepted  his  ruling  and  the  matter  would  have  ended  there.  But 
the  case  was  reported  in  the  manufacturers'  trade  paper  giving  the  name  of 
the  member  and  the  cause  given  for  his  discharge.  That  was  tantamount 



to  placing  thr  discharged  member  on  the  black  clings  naturally  ran 


it  asking  us  to  agree  to  a  modification  of  the  agreement,  annou: 
ment  was  suddenly  ma<l  "  Association  to  the  effect  that  the  cutters' 

organization  was  no  longer  included  in  the  agreement. 

order  to  leave  no  gap  in  the  long  chain  of  mischief  making  the  fol- 
'•s  suddenly  made  their  appearance  in  the  cutting  rooms  of  the 
rs  of  the  associati*  ; 
"1      I-'.-:  •  .veek's  w 

is  paid  at  the  rate  of  time  and  a  half 
"3.     This  is  a  union  cutting  and  trimming  department. 

No  discrimin  uitsoever,  against  any  man  belonging  to  a  bona 

fide  labor  01 

it  was  a  challenge  in  the  face  of  the  organization  announcing  the  em- 
ployment of  United  Garment  Workers'  scabs. 

In  one  cav  --re  forced  to  call  a  strike  in  order  to  »•  i  ruling 

of  the  Board  of  Mod<  to  return  securities  of  fifty  dollars  to  each  worker 

a  member  of  the  association  had  forced  his  employees  to  pay. 

Most  of  our  difficulties  arose  from  the  fact  that  the  employers  failed  to 

carry  out  the  decisions  and  rulings  of  the  Board  of  Moderators.    Nor  is  it  to 

>ndcred  ere  firms  of  all  sizes,  standings  and  calibers, 

including  such  who  were  absolutely  unscrupulous  in  their  methods,  were 

ne  agrc<  ith  our  organization  which  was  in  all  cases 

and  under  all  circumstances  uniform  in  interests,  policies  and  methods.    The 

.idc  particularly  difficult  by  the  manufacturers  conveniently 

shifting  responsibility  to  the  contractor. 

Such  was  the  atmosphere  as  between  us  and  the  American  Clothing  Man- 
ufacturers' Association  at  the  time  of  the  last  convention. 

The  professional  mischicfmaker,  whom  the  Board  of  Moderators  on  one 

ion  correctly  described  as  a  "sinister  influence",  continued  his  old  prac- 

is  intensely  interested  in  discrediting  and  destroying  the  Board 

of  Mode:  vho  proved  a  serious  obstacle  in  his  way,  inasmuch  as  it 

n  opportunity  to  submit  facts  and  grievances  and  throw  light  on 

prevailing  conditions,  even  if  we  failed  to  secure  redress.    The  exposure  • 

methods  was  most  embarrassing  to  the  "sinister  and  secret  influence"  and 

could  not  but  reflect  upon  his  employers.    We  went  much  out  <  \j  in 

order  to  assist  the   Board  of  Moderators  in  the  hope  of  re-establishing  a 

normal  situation     But  the  Board  did  not  rise  to  its  task  and  opportunity.     It 

•>f  the  "sinister  influence"  and  permitted  haelf 
to  be  d  by  him.    On  May  25,  1916,  the  Board  of  Moderators,  cor 

f  Dr.  J.  L.  Magnes.  Dr.  Henry  Moscowitz  and  Mr.  Charles  L.  Bern- 
heirner.  announced  its  resignation. 

The  Board  of  Moderators  was  created  under  the  agreement  with   the 
thing  Manufacturers'  Association  in  July,  1915.    The  unwilling- 


ness  of  the  Association  to  carry  out  the  provisions  of  the  agreement  and  the 
rulings  of  the  Moderators  nearly  precipitated  a  general  strike  in  January, 
1916.  The  resignation  of  the  Board  of  Moderators  followed  a  futile  attempt 
on  their  part  to  revive  the  agreement  which  had  been  destroyed  by  the  methods 
of  the  Association. 

In  that  situation  we   were  not  in  the  least  worried  about  any  ill  i 
quences  to  ourselves.       We   felt  perfectly   safe.       We  were,  howe 
much  concerned  about  the  possible  effect  on   th  Union,    . 

was    d  hting  a  :\    thousand   members    in    New 

Great  efforts  were  made  by  the  cloak  manufacturers'  association  to  exploit 
the  resignation  of  the  Board  of  Moderators  in  order  to  prejudice  the  public 
mind  against  labor  unions  generally.  Fortunately  all  those  attempts  failed. 

But  while  the  cloak  manufacturers  did  not  succeed  in  securing  any  aid 
and  comfort  for  the;  our 

employers  benefited  greatly  by  the  struggle  in  the  cloak  industry.  The 
magnitude  of  the  cloak  strike  and  the  necessity  of  giving  the  strikers  all  the 
moral  and  financial  support  po:  our  menil 

demands  for  wage  increases,  though  there  was  ample  justification  I<T  it 
larly  in  the  coatmaking  branch. 

In  the  city  of  New  York  the  men's  clothing  industry  is  still  •linin^ly 

a  contracting  industry.     The  sweat  shop  of  old  is  gone,  but  the  contractor  is 
still  there.    Our  members  are  not  in  the  immediate  employ  of  the  manufacturer. 
The   Union   holds   the   mai.ii.'.-icturer   responsible    for    its    members'    \\ 
working  conditions,  but  it  is  from  the  contractor's  hand  that  the  worker*  receive 
their  pay  envelopes. 

The  cut-throat  competition  among  the  contractors  enables  the  manufacturers 
to  force  prices  down  to  the  breaking  point.  Where  the  workers  are  not  organ- 
ized, the  contractor  helps  himself  to  their  wages  to  reimburse  himself  so  that 
he  is  not  the  loser.  Under  such  a  condition  the  capacity  for  competition  is 
determined  by  the  power  to  exploit  the  workers.  Thus  the  manufacturers  en- 
joy the  full  benefit  of  the  ruthless  exploitation  and  bear  none  of  the  responsi- 
bilities for  it.  When  wage  reductions  are  carried  to  the  starvation  point  a 
spontaneous  revolt  is  the  natural  and  unavoidable  outcome.  Many  a  strike  in 
former  years  was  just  such  a  desperate  outbreak  to  which  the  workers  were 
literally  driven  by  the  pangs  of  hunger. 

Where  the  workers  are  organized,  they  resist  all  attempts  at  wage  reduc- 
tions, and  the  contractors  must  conduct  tl  ^le  of  competition  at  th 
pense  of  their  own  profits.       But  the  constant  and  growing  pressure  of   the 
manufacturer  upon  the  contractor  must  ultimately  affect  the  workers  employed 
by  the  latter.     In  some  cases  reductions  in  wages  are  forced  on  the  workers,  in 
others  the  contractor  absconds  with  the  entire  payroll,  reduced  or  other 
The  cut  throat  competition  among  the  contractors,  fostered  and  encouraged  by 
the  manufacturers,  who  are  the  only  beneficiaries  of  the  mad  scramble, 
keeps  the  union  busy  collecting  the  hard  earned  wages  for  its  members  who 
must  also  lose  working  time  looking  for  new  jobs. 



We  should  be  happy  to  sec  the  contracting  system  abolished.  So  long 
as  there  must  be  employers  and  wage  workers,  we  should  like  to  see  our 
industry  on  the  same  basis  at  other  large  industries,  the  workers  employed 
y  and  immediately  by  the  manufacturers.  But  while  it  is  not  within 
our  power  to  eradicate  the  evil,  we  have  tried  to  regulate  it  and  remove 
at  least  its  most  objectionable  features,  make  it  less  brutalizing  for  the 
contractors,  who  are  human  beings  like  the  rest  of  us.  and  less,  degrading 
for  the  workers.  We  have  no  solidarity  tor  as  an  employer, 

but  we  are  interested  in  his  protection  in  so  far  as  that  means  protection 
for  our  members  employed  by  him.  Accordingly,  we  made  our  renewed 
agreement  with  Clothing  Manufacturers'  Association  in 

:<)i6,  a  •  -he  contractors,  through 

their  organizations,  in  all  such  matters  in  which  they  might  be  concerned 
If  the  agreement  had  not  been  intended  by  the  "sinister  influences"  men- 
ried  above  to  be  no  more  than  a  scrap  of  paper,  a  sound  machinery  to 
regulate  conditions  in  the  industry  would  have  been  established.  As  it  was. 
we  could  do  no  more  than  expound  the  principle,  lay  out  the  plan  and 
commit  it  to  writing.  It  naturally  remained  a  dead  letter.  The  contractor 
continued  the  old  grab-as-grab-you-can  system.  A  point  was  reached  where 
the  coat  contractors,  who  seemed  to  have  suffered  most,  could  stand  it  no  longer. 
They  organized  and  instituted  a  lockout  on  August  i,  iqi6. 

A  Lockout  That  Brings  a  Wage  Increase 

In  a  letter  to  the  New  York  Joint  Board  they  stated  that  the  lockout  was 
not  intended  against  the  workers.  The  contractors  only  dosed  the  shops  in 
order  to  secure  concessions  from  the  manufactur 

The  New  York  Joint  Board  immediately  took  hold  of  the  situation  as 
far  as  our  members  were  concerned.  Th<  n  of  our  organi/ation  was 

defined  substantially  as  follows:     In  the  quarrel  between  our  immediate  and 
mediate  employers,  the  contractors  and  the  manufacturers,  we  can  not  be  silent 
nesses  >v:  arc  losing  earnings  by  idleness.     We  cannot  force  you.  em- 

ployers, to  open  your  shops  continue  our  work  and  earn  our  wages. 

you  choose  to  keep  them  closed,  but  if  we  must  lose  our  earnings  while  you  arc 
fighting  out  your  own  disj>  serve  notice  on  you  that  when  you  call  us 

back  into  your  shops  we  shall  return  only  if  our  wages  are  increased  by  one 
dollar  a  week.    We  did  not  quit  work  to  demand  higher  wages  lest  we  embarrass 

but  now  that  we  are  forced  into  idleness  by  your 

action,  we  take  this  occasion  to  get  the  increase  that  we  should  have  got  some 
time  ago. 

<•  lockout  was  c  •:.       When  our  memlM-r<  returned 

to  the  shops  it  was  on  !  .ise  was  general  throughout  the 

coat  ma  king  trade. 

Relations  With  the  Manufacturers'  Association  Restored 
In  the  meantime  the  relations  between  our  organization  and  the  Ameri- 
Clothing    Manufacturers'    Associa'  -e    restored.      There    was    no 

written   agreement    and    no    formal    machinery    for    adjusting   disputes,    but 


some  informal  modus  vivcndi  has  grown  out  of  the  daily  relation  be- 
tween our  organization  and  the  leading  members  of  the  association  for  the 
adjustment  of  disputes  as  they  arose. 


The  resignation  of  the  Board  of  Moderators  was  completely  forgotten. 
Those  who  had  hoped  that  the  wide  publicity  given  to  the  statement  of  the 
Board  and  the  antagonistic  interpretation  placed  on  it  would  injure  the 
organization  found  themselves  bitterly  disappointed.  We  proceeded  with 
our  work  undisturbed,  calling  strikes  and  winning  them  where  strikes  could 
not  be  avoided,  and  preventing  strikes  where  that  could  be  done  without 
depriving  our  members  of  the  protection  and  benefits  due  them  from  their 
organization.  We  continued  this  routine  with  vigor  and  energy,  but  with 
no  occasion  for  any  great  demonstration  of  our  power  until  the  movement 
began  for  the  forty-eight  hour  week.  The  time  came  for  the  carrying  out  of 
the  mandate  of  the  Rochester  Convention. 

Committees  representing  the  New  York  Joint  Board  and  the  Joint  Board 
of  the  Children's  Clothing  Trades  appeared  before  the  General  Executive 
Board  at  its  session  in  New  York,  October,  1916,  and  asked  that  we  en- 
dorse a  movement  they  wished  to  initiate  for  a  forty-eight  hour  week.  The 
General  Executive  Board  promptly  authorized  such  a  movement  and  the 
campaign  opened  immediately  with  mass  meetings,  literature  and  general 
propaganda.  The  membership  had  a  full  opportunity  to  discuss  all  the 
issues  involved.  They  were  discussed  at  Joint  Board  meetings,  local  meetings, 
shop  meetings,  in  the  press,  and  they  were  topics  for  discussion  wherever 
our  members  congregated. 

When  the  movement  assumed  definite  form  and  it  was  clear  that  the 
membership  stood  behind  it  as  a  unit,  the  following  communication  was 
sent  to  the  employers : 

The  undersigned  has  been  authorized  by  the  New  York  Joint  Board  of  the  Amal- 
gamated Clothing  Workers  of  America  to  inform  you  that  demands  have  been  for- 
mulated by  our  membership  for  the  coming  season,  as  stated  below. 

The  increase  in  the  cost  of  living  has  been  so  great  that  it  is  impossible  for  our 
members  to  meet  it  out  of  the  wages  they  now  receive.  And  wages  are  the  only 
•ource  of  income  our  members  have. 

The  lowest  possible  increase  in  wages  to  enable  our  members  to  meet  to  any 
appreciable  extent  the  constantly  growing  prices  of  the  necessaries  of  life  is  two 
dollars  per  week.  Our  membership  has  decided  to  make  that  one  of  its  principal 

We  also  ask  that  the  working  week  be  reduced  to  forty-eight  hours. 

The  trend  of  the  clothing  markets  throughout  the  country  is  towards  a  forty- 
eight  hour  week.  In  some  cases  the  employers  have  already  granted  this  shorter 
week;  in  others  movements  and  negotiations  are  on  foot  towards  that  end. 

The  rising  prices  on  necessaries  of  life  make  an  increase  in  wages  inevitable. 

The  development  of  the  methods  of  production  makes  a  reduction  in  the  working 
week  imperative. 

Some  employers  in  the  clothing  industry  have  already  recognized  the  justice  of 
the  workers'  demands  along  these  lines  and  conceded  them. 

There  are  also  other  changes  in  the  working  conditions  that  hare  become  neces- 
sary and  that  our  members  ask  to  establish. 

To  sum  up,  the  demands  we  submit  are: 

a.  A  minimum  wage  increase  of  two  dollars  per  week. 

b.  A  48-hour  week. 

c.  Such  changes  in  the  working  conditions  as  are  necessary. 



We  submit  the  above  to  you  in  the  hope  that  you  the  proper  light 

and  enable  us  to  put  the  changed  conditions  into  effect  for  the  ensuring  acasom.  We 
hope  to  be  able  to  reach  a  tatUfactory  agreement  with  vou  and  avoid  a  struggle. 

ike  this  matter  up  with  the  undersigned  on  or  before 
December  i,  1916. 



A  similar  letter  was  sent  out  by  the  Children's  Clothing  Joint  Board, 
oards  co-ofx  making  the  movement  a  success  throughout 

The   Joint   Board   of   Children's   Clothing   Trades   was,   however,   more 

mted  than  was  its  sister  organization,  the  larger  body,  because 

of  th  ig  week  \va.s  airs,  while  the  working  week 

of  the  men's  c  was  fifty  hours.    The  Children's  Clothing  organiza- 

ulso   had   the   a-  of    having    no   such    disturbing  elements   in    its 

industry  as  the  nun's  clothing  organization  was  afflicted  with.     Its  agreement 

Associated  Boys'  Clothing  Manufacturers  worked  out  satisfactorily 

and  all  matt-  :her  routine  or  demands  for  new  conditions,  were  taken 

v  representatives  of  both  organizations  for  negotiation  and  adjudication. 

The  new  demands  were  taken  up  in  the  same  manner.     After  a  series 

of  conferences  between  our  representatives  and  those  of  the  Association,  the 

:    hour  week,  an   increase  of  $2  a  week   in  the 

wages  of  the  cutters  and  $i  a  week  in  the  wages  of  the  tailors.  That  went 
into  effect  December  12,  1916.  The  entering  wedge  for  the  48  hour  week 
for  the  tailors  was  made  without  the  necessity  of  resorting  to  a  strike. 

We  conferred  with  the  manufacturers  in  the  men's  clothing  in- 

hopc  of  avoiding  there  too,  but  that  proved  an  impossibility. 

After  a  number  of  conferences  this   final  compromise  offer  was  made 

to  us  on   Decemlxr  4th,    1916:     'A   wage   increase   of   one   dollar  a   week; 

a   forty-nine   hour   working  week   imme<!  nd  a   forty-eight   hour   week 

in   June,    1917.      The    proposition    was    submitted    to    representatives   of   our 

membership  at  a  special  joint  meeting  of  the  New  York  Joint  Board  and  the 

•  •  Committees  of  all  of  its  affiliated  locals  on  December  5th.     The 

compromise  on  the  working  hours  was  unanimously  rejected,  and  this  action  was 

'•'.i*  general  membership  at  about   twenty  monster  mass  meetings 

held  in  the  afternoon  of  December  'h  a  unanimity  that  denoted  inflexible 


The  memory  of  those  meetings  will  forever  remain  green  with  those  who 
had  the  privilege  of  witnessing  them. 

'iraries  have  been  filled  with  hooks  on  both  sides  of  the  Labor  Ques- 
Speeches  without  number  have  been  made  hi  support  of  and  in  oppo- 
stion  to  the  Labor  Movement.  But  none  of  those  books  and  speeches  can 
give  the  student  such  a  deep  insight  into  the  great  Social  Problem  as  meet- 
ings such  as  those.  The  non-diplomatic  and  unsophisticated  but  straight- 
forward and  genuinely  human  arguments  of  those  sons  of  toil  who  came 



directly  from  the  workshop  to  attend  the  parliament  of  their  industry  reveal 
the  true  soul  of  the  modern  and  intelligently  organized  proletariat.  It  is 
at  such  meetings  that  one  can  see  industrial  democracy  in  the  making. 
Books  may  be  a  chronicle  of  events  or  an  interpretation  of  them.  But  our 
meetings  show  the  events  as  they  occur,  in  their  actual  social,  ethical  and 
psychological  settings  and  the  moral  forces  guiding  them.  This  is  not 
meant  to  detract  from  the  value  of  books  and  book  education.  On  the  con- 
trary, we  hope  to  see  the  workers  read  and  study  ever  more.  But  with 
the  growth  of  the  intelligent  labor  movement,  books  alone  do  not  cover  all 
the  ground.  Happy  is  he  who  can  supplement  his  book  study  with  actual 
touch  with  the  class  struggle  and  vice  versa. 

The  meetings  through  which  the  masses  who  carry  the  industry  on 
their  backs  were  legislating  for  their  industry  demonstrated  courage  and 
intelligence  which  were  truly  inspiring. 

The  Argument  For  the  Forty-Eight  Hour  Week 

The  stock  argument  usually  advanced  in  favor  of  the  forty-eight  hour 
week  is  that  a  worker  can  produce  more  under  it  than  under  a  longer 
working  week.  In  short,  it  pays  the  employer.  A  workingman  less 
fatigued  will  produce  more  than  a  workingman  more  fatigued.  But  the 
moment  that  argument  is  translated  into  terms  of  money  it  can  appeal 
to  the  employer  only.  In  this  particular  instance  the  worker  is  interested 
in  the  matter  of  fatigue,  not  in  dollars  and  cents,  just  as  the  employer  is 
interested  in  money,  which  is  his,  and  not  in  fatigue,  which  is  the  worker's. 
If  in  any  case  the  employer  should  succeed  in  disproving  the  contention 
that  a  shorter  working  day  means  more  production  the  woncer  has  no  leg 
to  stand  on.  Compare  that  shorter-work-day-and-more-production  argur 
ment  with  the  following  point  made  at  the  joint  meeting  that  rejected  the 
compromise,  made  by  a  man  who  came  to  the  meeting  straight  from  the 
ironing  board.  He  said :  "When  this  war  is  over,  our  unfortunate 
fellow  humans  now  suffering  in  the  war  stricken  countries  on  the  other 
side  of  the  ocean  will  come  here  in  search  of  their  livelihood.  We  want  to 
provide  now  so  that  when  they  come  here  they  may  find  an  opportunity  to 
work  and  honestly  and  dignifiedly  earn  their  bread  and  butter.  By  reducing 
our  working  week  by  two  hours  we  will  enable  many  of  them  to  find  em- 
ployment alongside  of  us.  We  may  not  be  able  to  do  it  then,  but  we  can 
do  it  now.  We  cannot  do  more,  but  this  much  we  can  and  must  do." 

Of  course  that  was  not  the  only  argument.  Nor  was  it  one  that  was 
based  on  an  immediate  economic  cause,  which  is  always  the  compelling 
cause.  But  while  the  former  argument  reveals  the  tool  and  commodity 
status  of  the  worker,  which  is  his  present  status,  the  latter  argument  dis- 
closes the  beauty  of  the  human  soul  in  the  worker,  his  striving  to  a  human 
status,  to  a  condition  where  the  worker  will  be  a  human  being  in  full  stature 
and  not  a  flesh  and  blood  machine,  more  often  a  skin  and  bone  machine, 
for  the  production  of  goods  and  profits. 


The  underlying  economic  cause  for  the  demand  for  a  shorter  working 
week  was  the  same  in  our  case  as  in  the  case  of  all  other  organized  workers : 
not  less  fatigue  in  order  to  produce  more,  but  less  exacting  toil  in  order  to 
live  more,  better  and  happier. 

The  case  for  the  forty-eight  hour  week  was  defined  in  our  press  when 
the  great  struggle  in  New  York  was  imminent,  and  may  well  be  reproduced 

It  was  as  follows: 

Twenty-seven  years  ago  the  first  International  Socialist  Congress  called 
upon  the  workers  to  fight  for  an  eight  hour  working  day  and  dedicated  to 
that  struggle  a  special  labor  day,  the  First  of  May.  At  that  time  and  for 
a  Ion  eafter,  t  v.mrnt  of  the  eight  hour  working  day  was 

looked  upon  as  an  ideal  which  would  probably  be  realized  some  day  in  the 
very  distant  future.     Since  1889,  however,  large  numbers  of  workers  havt 
(1  the  eight  hour  day  and  it  has  ceased  to  be  a  dream. 
blic  opinion,  which  is  always  timid  and  the  last  to  abandon  old  tradi- 
.  now  also  sanctions  the  eight  hour  day. 

Our  own  industry,  too.  last  reached  the  eight  hour  day  stage. 

With  us  it  is  still  a  forty-eight  hour  week.  Years  ago  an  eight  houi 
day  did  mean  a  forty-eight  hour  week.  But  the  Saturday  half  holiday  if 
becoming  a  universal  custom,  and  a  real  eight  hour  day  now  means  forty- 
four  hours  a  week. 

In  the  clothing  industry,  particularly  in  New  York,  where  there  was 
practically  no  limitation  to  the  working  time  a  few  years  ago,  except  physical 
endurance,  the  introduction  of  the  fifty  hour  week  was  a  radical  revolution. 
But  we  have  passed  that  stage  and  arc  now  entering  the  era  of  the  universal 
forty-eight  hour  week  for  the  entire  indust 

Why  a  forty-eight  hour  week? 

Some  say  t  are  lazy,  that  we  do  not  wish  to  work  more  and  earn 

more.  Others  say  that  the  workers  arc  not  interested  in  the  shorter  hours, 
that  the  agitation  of  the  leaders  alone  is  responsible  for  the  issue  having 
been  raised. 

But  the  situation  is  such  that  it  calls  to  us:  You  will  either  reduce  your 
working  time  or  your  lives ! 

The  technical  development  in  the  clothing  industry  has  been  quite  rapid 
of  late.  While  improved  machinery  and  division  of  labor  make  it  easy  to 
learn  a  given  operation,  they  also  make  work  so  much  more  intense  and 

One  does  not  exert  himself  to  the  same  extent  while  making  a  complete 
garment  as  he  docs  while  working  constantly  at  one  and  the  same  operation. 

The  mechanic  who  made  a  complete  garment  was  naturally  fatigued  aftei 

c  hours  of  continuous  toil.     But  in  the  course  of  those  ten  or 

twelve  hours  he  was  obliged  to  pass  from  one  operation  to  another,  which 

afforded  him  some  measure  of  relief.     Also,  his  personal  interest  in  construct- 

•lie  garment  helped  to  sustain  the  master  mechanic  in  his  hard  work 



The  worker  who  is  always  making  one  small  part  of  the  garment  has  no 
occasion  to  move  from  one  operation  to  another.  His  work  is  monotonous, 
tedious  and,  because  of  that,  exceedingly  burdensome. 

There  is  also  another  factor  adding  to  the  hardships  of  the  modern  cloth- 
ing worker,  i.  c.,  the  neckbreaking  speed.  The  full-fledged  tailor,  making  th<> 

re  garment,  must  keep  pace  with  himself  only.  If  he  is  slower  lu  earns 
less;  if  he  is  faster  he  makes  more.  He  can  work  side  by  side  with  a  slower 
or  faster  neighbor  without  hampering  or  being  hampered. 

It  is  different,  however,  with  the  clothing  worker  of  to-day,  who  is  only 
a  cog  in  the  huge  wheel  of  the  modern  process  of  labor.  He  who  performs 
only  one  operation  finds  his  work  more  exacting  not  only  because  of  the  mo- 
notony and  lack  of  mental  interest,  but  also  because  he  must  maintain  a  constant 
race  with  the  worker  that  "feeds"  him,  whose  operation  precedes  his,  and  also 
with  the  one  that  is  "fed"  by  him,  whose  operation  follows  his.  They,  in 
turn,  are  situated  exactly  as  he  is.  Unless  he  keeps  fully  apace  with  them,  and 
they  with  the  others,  the  labor  process  will  be  disrupted  and  production  demo- 
ralized. The  greater  the  division  of  labor  the  more  monotonous  the  work 
and  the  higher  the  speed  and  the  strain. 

Under  such  conditions  human  strength  must  be  quickly  exhausted.  Under 
the  system  in  vogue  in  the  olden  days  tailors,  though  working  hard,  lived 
to  an  advanced  age.  Under  the  modern  system  that  is  impossible.  We  only 
age  quickly,  even  as  we  do  our  work  speedily,  much  ahead  of  time.  It  being 
impossible  to  abolish  the  health  wrecking  and  life  destroying  system,  in- 
creased rest  becomes  a  most  vital  matter.  Accordingly,  there  is  but  one  remedy 
in  sight:  Reducing  the  working  time.  Two  hours  more  freedom  from  such 
strenuous  toil  literally  means  two  hours  more  life. 

There  is  still  another  factor  to  be  reckoned  with. 

The  worker  earns  approximately  as  much  as  he  needs  for  his  sustenance. 
His  earnings  may  fluctuate  from  time  to  time,  but  they  always  tend  to  th»- 
irreducible  minimum  without  which  the  worker  cannot  sustain  himself  and 
his  family.  His  earnings  are  what  they  are  at  a  given  time,  regardless  of 
the  standard  working  time.  A  fifty-four  hour  standard  week  does  not  in- 
crease earnings  and  a  forty-eight  hour  standard  week  does  not  reduce  them. 
On  the  contrary,  for  obvious  reasons,  the  shorter  working  week  makes  for 
higher  earnings,  for  their  greater  stability  and  for  an  advanced  standard  of 
living,  which  in  turn  raises  the  irreducible  minimum.  In  a  word,  the  modern 
labor  process  in  the  clothing  industry  has  compelled  the  clothing  worker  to 
fight  for  a  forty-eight  hour  week  in  order  to  conserve  both  his  health  and  1 
earnings  and  all  that  they  mean  for  general  human  happiness.  He  must  raise 
his  standard  ever  higher  or  it  will  be  forced  down  ever  lower. 

The  above  statement  of  the  situation  establishes  the  foundation  under- 
lying our  forty-eight  hour  movement  in  particular,  and  all  movemens  for 
improved  conditions  in  general.  It  is  clear  that  the  movement  for  the  shorter 
working  week  was  no  whim  or  caprice.  It  was  a  compellling  necessity. 

It  will  be  easy  to  understand  now  why  our  members  rejected  the  com- 



promise  offered  them.    The  resolution  which  we  herewith  reproduce,  rejecting 
>cs   willingness  to  compromise  in  the  matter  of  wages  but 
not  in  the  matter  of  working  hours. 

un  as  adopted  at  the  joint  meeting  of  the  New  York 

Hoar,  and  unanimously  approved  by  the  sub- 

sequent mass  meeting,  was  as  follows: 

-    the  member  ,,f  ihc  .\vw  York  Joint  Board  and  of  the  loc  >m- 

aigamated    (  of   America,  assembled   in   Forward 

.trd  the  report  of  our  officers,  who  had  cor. 

irers.  to  the  effect   that   the  latter  have 
of  one  dollar  a  v%eck  *ages,  a  reduction  of  one  bow 

of  one  hour  in  June,  1917. 

.ally  declare  that  we  consider  the  forty-eiRht  hour  week  at  the  most 
-    meant   in   order   to   afford   some    relief   to   the   workers   in   our 
n«  strain  they  are  beinjf  subjected  to  by  the  increasing  sp- 

Muitry  have  already  achieved  the  forty  -eight  hour 
se  who  have  not  si  ><  »'«»r  it  with  reli«iout  enthusiasm. 

*  organic  ~*  York,  feel  that 

by  procla  -  i*  immc«!:     -  >lUhment  of  the  forty-eight 

•!ly    and    conscientiously    represent    our    fellow    workers.      The 

our  organized  power  make*  it  pot- 

the  banner  of  \\\*  rk  and  pledge  ourselves 

to  carry  it  on  >erured,  without  a  fight  if  possible,  with  a  fight 


We  herewith  authorise  our  officials  to  do  all  that  they  may  deem  fit  in  order  to 
enfor,  -  r  of  this  declaration  and  to  negotiate  with  our  employers  on  all 

other  demands  submitted  by  us. 

All   further  conference';  with  the  employers  proved  fruitless.     They  were 
inflexible  in  their  opposition  to  the  forty-eight  hour  week.     A  strike  became 

Children's  Clothing  Workers  Win  Forty-eight  Hour  Week 

During  all  that  time  the  children's  clothing  workers'  organization  was  in 
conference  with  the  Association  of  their  employers.     On  December   I2th,  by 
agreement  between  our  organization  and  the  Associated  Boys'  Clothing  Manu- 
facturers, the  for  hour  week  became  the  law  of  the  Children's  Cloth- 
ing Industry,  to  take  effect   December  25th.     Strikes  were   declared  against 
such  independent  firms  as  had  refused  to  abide  by  that  very  important  piece 
lustrial   legislation.     The  strikes   were  of   short  duration  and   the  new 
working  week  became  an  accomplished  fact   for  the  entire  boys'  clothing  in- 
y  before  the  New  Year  began. 

General  Strike  in  the  Men's  Clothing  Industry 

December  i3th,  the  morrow  after  the  forty-eight  hour  week  was  granted 
to  th-  .  saw  the  beginning  of  the  general  strike  of 

Mien's  clothing  work* 

:kc  better  organized  and  more  efficiently  conducted.    That 

was  also  t  general  strike  of  clothing  workers  in  New  York  that  was 

not  a  sp  ak  of  starved  slaves  driven  to  desperation  by  their 

n'on  did  not  plead  the  members'  poverty  as  justification  for 



the  strike  and  did  not  appeal  to  pity  and  charity.  On  the  contrary,  it  proudly 
announced  that  the  workers  by  their  organized  power  wire  well  able  to 
take  care  of  their  fundamental  wants,  which  alone  caused  strikes  in  former 
years,  but  that  the  time  had  come  for  the  workers  to  strike  for  the  satisfac- 
tion of  the  higher  human  wants;  to  strike  not  only  for  a  living  but  for  a 
better  and  happier  It: 

No  sooner  was  the  strike  proclaimed,  and  no  sooner  did  the  workers  leave 
the  shops,  than  the  American  Clothing  Manufacturers'  Association  announced 
through  the  public  press  an  agreement  with  the  scab  agency  known  as  t In- 
United  Garment  Workers  of  America,  which  We  reproduce  here  for  the 
amusement  of  our  members  and  the  historian.  The  treacherous  nature  of  the 
document  speaks  for  itself  and  requires  no  comment  from  us. 

The  "agreement 

I.  The  hours  of  labor  shall  be  48  hours  a  week  in  the  cutting  depart- 
ment, and  50  hours  a  week  in  the  tailoring  departments.  On  June  I,  1917,  at 
the  complete  conclusion  of  the  spring  season,  the  working  hours  shall  be  49 
hours  per  week  in  the  tailoring  shops,  and  at  the  beginning  of  the  following 
spring  season,  not  later  than  December  25,  1917,  the  working  hours  in  the 
tailoring  shops  shall  constitute  48  hours  per  week. 

II.  Increase  in  Wages:  The  Association,  in  order  to  carry  out  in  detail 
its  pledge  for  the  third  increase  during  the  year  1916,  to  all  workers  in  the 
clothing  trade,  regardless  of  union  or  non-union,  hereby  reaffirms: 

A.  That  all  employees  in  the  cutting  department  will  receive  an  increase 
in  wages — i.  e.,  a  minimum  of  $i  and  a  maximum  of  $2,  beginning  with 
the  week  of  December  18. 

B.  That   all   such   tailors   working    for    members    of    this   association 
directly,    will    receive    an    additional    increase    in    their    wages    beginning 
December  18,  a  minimum  of  $i  and  a  maximum  of  $2. 

C.  That  all  the  members  of  the  American  Clothing  Manufacturers' 
Association  will  advance  on  all  contract  work  sent  to  their  respective  shops, 
from  December  18,  an  increase  of  a  minimum  of  10  per  cent  and  a  maximum 
of  twelve  per  cent  for  the  purpose  of  enabling  them  to  grant  an  increase 
to  their  respective  workers,  union  or  non-union,  a  minimum  of  $i  and  a 
maximum  of  $2  per  week. 

III.  Status  of  the  Union:  The  American  Clothing  Manufacturers'  Associa- 
tion will  give  preference  in  employment  to  members  of  the  United  Garment 
Workers  of  America.     In  turn  the  United  Garment  Workers  of  America  will 
not  discriminate  against  any  employee  who  may  be  affiliated  with  another  organ- 
ization, or  refuse  to  join  any  organization. 

IV.  Adjustment   of   Disputes:   The   parties   hereby   constitute   a   Committee 
of  Two — one  representing  each  side,  as  hereinafter  provided,  to  be  regarded 
as  a  permanent  standing  committee,  whose  duties  it  shall  be  to  adjust  all  matters 
of  dispute  that  may  arise  between  members  of  the  association  and  the  union. 



V.  Should  the  Committee  of  Two  fail  to  agree  on  tome  specific  case, 
the  matter  shall  be  referred  to  a  committee  on  immediate  action  as  her* 
.ifi.-r  JT <Aided  for  settlement. 

VI.  Immediate  Action:  A  committee  on  Immediate  Action,  consist- 
ing  of  three  representatives  of  each  side,  with  an  impartial  chairman,  shall 
be  selected.    Said  committee  on  Immediate  Action  may  be  called  by  either 
wembrr  of  the  l<  of  the  latter'*  disagree- 
ment on  the  disputes  in  question. 

••  agreed  that  pending  the  adjustment  of  disputes  through  the 
machinery  provided  for  in  this  agreement,  there  shall  be  no  strike  or  lock- 
out by  the  parties  thereto. 

VII.  The  parties  hereby  agree  to  create  within  60  days  a  council  of 
Moderators  who  shall  be  chosen  as  follows: 

A.  On  the  part  of  the  Union,  an  official  of  the  American  Federation 
of  Labor. 

B.  On  mfacturers,  a  representative  employer 
from  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  or  the  Merchants'  Association. 

C.  One  who  shall  be  chosen  by  the  first  named  two  individuals. 
The  Board  of  Moderators  shall  act  on  an  official  appeal  from  the  com- 
mittee on  Immediate  Action  on  such  matters  where  they  have  failed  to 
agree  and  their  decision  shall  be  final  with  no  appeal  from  it. 

VIII.  It  is  mutually  agreed  that  the  parties  to  this  agreement 

cor  iin   f,n  committee   on    revision,   consisting  of    three 

representatives  of  each  side  whose  duties  it  shall  be  to  study  the  develop- 
ments of  trade  and  trade  conditions,  etc.,  and  from  time  to  time  submit 
their  reports  to  both  organizations  for  such  revisions  of  this  agreement,  as 
may  be  to  the  best  interests  of  all  concerned. 

IX.  This  agreement  shall  continue  at  least  until  January  i,  1918. 

X.  No  later  than  three  months  prior  to  the  expiration  of  this  agree- 
ment, representatives  of  the  association  and  union  shall  meet  in  conference 
to  consider  the  question  of  its  renewal  or  modification. 

The  expected  stampede  of  the  s1  Sack  to  the  factories  as  a  result 

of  the  "agreement"  did  not  materialize.     On   the  contrary,  the   injection  of 

blc  scab  crew  served  to  fire  still  more  the  enthusiasm  of  the 

Mrik<  hing  was  at  all  lacking  in  order  to  raise  the  strikers'  ardor 

ic  highest  degree,  that  "agreement"  filled  the  gap  admirably. 

The  elements  opposing  us  in  that  memorable  struggle  were  more  than 

!ly  savage  and  brutal.  The  guerillas,  police,  private  detectives  and  pro- 
fessional strikebreakers  are  no  strangers  to  the  clothing  workers,  and  in  this 
case  they  were  extraordinarily  ruthless.  But  the  fight  was  continued  in  the 
tooth  of  all  opposition,  prosecution  and  persecution. 

Immediately  before  calling  the  strike  \\v  addressed  the  following  letter  to 
Police  Commissioner  Woods: 


Arthur  Woods,  Esq., 

I'olicc  Commissioner,  Dec.  9,   1916. 

New    Vorl;.    X.    V. 
Dear   Sir: — 

Sixty  thousand  men  and  women  in  the  men's  and  children's  clothing  industry  of 
Greater  N<  w  York  may  be  called  on  strike  next  week.  They  have  voted  to  demand 
a  48-hour  week  and  a  wage  increase  of  $2.00  a  week  to  meet  the  increased  cost  of 
living.  It  is  our  wish  that  this  general  strike,  if  it  be  called,  be  free  from  disorder 
kind.  In  the  past  strikes  manufacturers  have  recruited  private  armies  of 
gangsters  from  notorious  strikebreaking  agencies  to  terrorize  our  pick  n  and 

women   have   been   attacked   near   struck   factories   by   these   gangsters    while    in    the 
lawful  exercise  of  their  rights. 

Unfortunately  the  police  have  not  co-operated  with  us  in  our  efforts  to  maintain 
peace  during  past  strikes.  The  attitude  of  you  and  the  department  we  know  is  neu- 
tral But  there  arc  a  number  of  policemen  who  have  no  sympathy  with  organized 
labor.  Instead  they  arc  partial  to  the  gangsters  and  the  scabs  and  strikebreakers. 
The  manufacturers  win  the  friendship  of  these  policemen  by  providing  them  with 
lunches  in  their  buildings  and  doing  other  favors  for  them  while  they  are  on  duty. 

Such  favoritism  would  not  be  tolerated  by  you  if  you  were  aware  of  it,  so  we  are 
asking  that  you  issue  a  special  order  to  the  police  of  the  city  to  be  neutral  in  this 
contest.  We  know  that  we  will  win  out  without  one  act  of  disorder  or  violence, 
worker  has  been  warned  to  obey  the  orders  of  the  general  strike  and  picketing 
committees.  If  the  police  will  do  the  same  there  will  be  no  complaint  against  either 
party  in  the  strike. 

Private  armies  of  big  corporations  always  cause  trouble,  as  we  have  seen  in 
Colorado,  Bayonne,  West  Virginia,  Michigan  and  other  places  of  extensive  strikers. 
If  such  can  be  kept  from  this  strike  we  promise  you  the  police  will  have  no  difficulty 
in  preserving  order. 

Respectfully  yours, 

(Signed)        SIDNEY  HILLMAN,  General  President, 

JOSEPH  SCHLOSSBERG,  General  Secretary. 

Woods  was  reputed  to  be  a  liberal  minded  official.  He  probably  wished 
to  see  us  get  a  square  deal.  But  in  a  conflict  between  capital  and  labor 
he  could  not  be  stronger  than  the  "system"  and  we  received  our  full 
measure  of  police  "attention." 

Our  fellow  workers  in  other  industries  took  a  deep  interest  in  our  great 
struggle.  The  following  correspondence  will  serve  as  an  illustration  of  the 
fraternal  spirit  shown  by  them. 

New  York,  Dec.  18,  1916. 
General  Strike  Committee, 

Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America, 

32  Union   Square.   New  York   City. 
Greetings: — 

Your  present  fight  for  better  conditions  and  humane  treatment  is  the  chief  topic 
of  discussion  by  the  civilized  and  modern  workers  of  America.  Our  Joint  Board 
was  with  you  at  all  events  whenever  you  fought  for  better  conditions,  which  arc  the 
fundamental  principles  of  the  human  race.  We  realize  that  we  arc  in  duty  bound  to 
be  with  you  at  the  present  time  because  your  fight  is  our  fight,  and  your  victory  is  our 
victory.  The  cloakmakers  recall  the  attack  on  them  last  summer  by  their  enemies 
and  the  attitude  taken  by  you  and  your  members  in  the  factories  in  their  struggle. 

There  was  a  time  when  the  Jewish  and  Italian  workers  were  submissive  and 
devoted  to  all  promises  of  the  employers  and  ignored  the  labor  agitator  who  is  the 
yeast  of  human  progress  and  nature.  A  change  took  place.  Economic  suppr 
caused  the  workers  to  become  organized  and  not  to  be  dependent  upon  the  mercy 
of  the  employers.  The  struggle  for  economic  freedom  will  not  cease  as  long  as  the 
worker  will  be  deprived  of  the  necessities  of  life.  No  doubt  in  your  present  fight, 
there  will  be  no  sect  and  the  Italian  and  Jewish  brothers  will  not  be  captured  by 
traitors  and  spies  who  are  paid  by  the  employers  and  who  have  the  task  of  con- 
signing the  workers  to  dark,  cheerless  and  comfortless  homes. 

The  cloakmakers  are  again  with  you  in  your  grave  hour  and  you  may  expect  the 
moral  as  well  as  the  financial  support  of  our  Union  to  its  largest  extent. 



\Vc  trust  and  hope  that  unity  and  folidarity  will  prevail  amongst  your  workers 
and  that  you  will  come  c  a*  in  the  present  fight,  which  is  for  a  higher 

standard  of  human  living. 


.ed)         LOUIS  LANCER,  Secretary 

.<  Lanfer,  Sec'y,  New  York.  Dec.  19.  1916. 

Joint  Board  Cloak  and  Skin  Makers  Union. 

40  East  New  York  i 

Dear  Sir  and  Brother:— 

Your  letter  of  December  18th,  extending  to  our  striking  members  the  greetings 
r»   of   the   Cloakmakers*   Union   and   the   offer  of   financial   and   moral 
support,  was  r  •  !.»>       Its  publication  will  be  received  by  our  members  with 

pride  and  happiness. 

are  all  proud  of  the  great  Cloakmakers'  Union,  of  its  magnificent  record  as  a 

:.t  body  of  organized  workers,  of  it«   readiness  to  defend  the   interests  of   its 

icmbcrs  and  lend  a  helping  hand  to  other  members  of  the  working  class  in  their 

battles   with   capitalism.     We  are  happy  over  the   fact  thaj  this  great   body  of  labor 

.tnd  shares  with  us  our  joys  and  our  sorrows  )ust  as  we  share  theirs 

.  ver  entertained  any  doubt  at  to  the   feelings  of  the   great  many 

of  organized  cloakmakers  about   the   mighty  struggle  that  we  are  now  engaged  in. 

It   that   we  can  depend  upon   your  fullest   support   in   the  event  it 

should  become  necessary.    Your  letter  strengthens  our  confidence  still  more  and  raise* 

our  •> 

We  feel  that  the  progressive  labor  movement,  of  which  you  and  we  are  important 
factors,  is  no  sordid,  materialistic  affair  for  selfish  purposes,  but  that  we  are  ali 
working  jointly  in  the  interests  of  our  class  as  a  whole,  extending  our  help  wherevet 

rvcn  if  outside  of  our  immediate  rank*. 

all   feel   that   our  cause   is  one  and   that   whether  we   are   fighting  as  cloak 
workers  against  cloak  manufacturers,  or  as  clothing  workers  against  clothing  manu- 
facturers.  \\e   are   all   fighting   for   working  class   interests,   for   the   elevation   of   our 
t  such  and  against  the  oppression  of  the  capitalistic  class  as  such. 

have  always  felt  that  any  success  achieved  by  you  must  naturally  redound 
to  our  benefit  and  vice  versa.  Your  present  message  to  us  is  new  proof  of  the  fact 
that  vou  feel  and  strive  with  us  for  the  same  purpose. 

c  fight  now  conducted  by  us  is  for  a  great  principle,  to  make  the  life  of  the 

worker  worth  living.     The  establishment  of  the  48-hour  week,  which  is  our  principal 

.ill  be  an  important  step  in  that  direction.     Our  victory  in  this  struggle  will. 

as   of  necessity   it   must,   strengthen   your   hands   in   improving  your   working   condi- 

t    us   take   this   occasion    to   assure    yo6   that    when    our    members   contributed 
many  thousands  of  dollars  to  the  support  of  your  strike  last  summer,   it   was  done 
of  happiness,  affection  and  true  brotherly  love,  with  a  feeling  also  that 
cloakmakers'  and   the   organized   clothing  workers  are   one. 

that  we  belong  to  you  and  you  belong  to  us.  We  hope  that  a 
time  will  come  when,  instead  of  a  number  of  separate  international  organizations, 
there  will  be  one  great  powerful  and  all  embracing  body  of  needle  workers. 

Thanking  you  in  behalf  of  our  striking  members  in  New  York  and  our  member- 
ship generally,  I  am. 

Fraternally  yours, 

(Signed)          JOSEPH  SCHLOSSBERG. 

General   Secretary. 

With  all  the  workers  out,  with  all  the  nationalities  standing  together  as 
a  unit,  and  led  by  a  powerful  organization,  the  outcome  of  the  gigantic 
gle  was  never  in  doubt. 

Proud  of  their  organization  and  convinced  of  the  justice  of  their  Cause 
and  its  ultimate  triumph,  our  members  fought  like  Trojans  in  spite  of  the  tre- 
mendous obstacles. 

At  the  end  of  the  second  week  of  the  struggle  we  received  the  fol- 
lowing lett' 



New  York,  December  28,  1916. 
Mr.  Max  Friedman,  Chairman  of  Labor  Committee. 

American  Clothing  Manufacturers'  Association,  and 
Mr.  Sidney  Hillman,  President 

Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America 

As  citizens  deeply  interested  in  the  peaceful  solution  of  industrial  conflicts, 
primarily  and  possible,  by  a  full  and  frank  conference  of  the  parties  imme- 

diately   "intere-te.!.    we    take    thr         -         of   offering   to   you    but    a    single    suggestion 
towards  the  settlement  of  the  pending  strike  in  the  men's  clothing  trade. 

-  make  the  suggestion  because  experience  has  shown  the  difficulty  of  the  par- 
tics    themselves   gf  .  «-thrr    without    interposition    of    a    third    i-crs-m;    r;u •:• 
is  restrained  lest  its  initiative  seem  a  sign  of  weakness.    And  thus  the  very  difficulty 
of  meeting  engenders  new  conflicts. 

We  therefore  tender  to  you   our  services  in  arranging  a  meeting  of  both   I 
in  bringing  you   together   lor  a  joint   o  -  .in   the  confident  hope  that  a  frank 

ssion  by  you  of  the  differences  between  the  two  sides  will  enable  you,  alone  or 
such  outside  aid  as  may   be  mutually   agreeable  to  you,  to  end   the  strike   and 
bring  about  a  just  and  lasting  peace. 

We  suggest  an   immediate  answer  so  that  the  meeting  may  be  arranged  before 
car  ends. 

Very  respectfully  yours, 

(Signed)      JULIAN  W.  MACK, 


Care  of  Association  of  Bar, 
42  West  44th  Street. 

We  accepted  the  offer  of  Judge  Mack  and  Mr.  Thompson.  The  American 
Clothing  Manufacturers'  Association  did  likewise  in  spite  of  the  "agreement" 
with  the  scab  agency,  having  realized  that  we  were  determined  not  to  be 

The  conferences  were  held  on  December  3Oth,  1916,  with  the  Judas 
Iscariot  previously  mentioned  eliminated,  and  resulted  in  the  following  under- 
standing : 

The  universal  forty-eight  hour  week  to  go  into  effect  January  22;  $2  in- 
crease in  the  weekly  wages  to  the  cutters  and  $1  increase  to  the  tailors  to 
to  go  into  effect  immediately. 

The  terms  of  settlement  were  accepted  by  the  General  Strike  Committee 
and  unanimously  ratified  by  as  many  and  as  enthusiastic  mass  meetings  of 
our  membership  as  had  rejected  the  forty-nine  hour  proposition. 

On  January  22,  1917,  the  clothing  industry  in  New  York  City  became 
firmly  and  definitely  established  on  the  forty-eight  hour  basis. 

It  was  a  remarkable  coincidence  that  the  revolutionary  change  in  our  in- 
dustry, that  enlargement  of  freedom  for  our  members  should  occur  on  a 
date  which  is  a  red  letter  day  in  the  history  of  Freedom,  January  22  being 
the  anniversary  of  the  Russian  Red  Sunday  of  1905. 

Whoever  has  had  the  privilege  of  watching  the  clothing  workers  emerge 
from  the  black  plague  of  sweat  shopism  with  its  unlimited  hours,  overlimited 
wages,  complete  absence  of  rights  and  hopes,  as  a  compact  and  intelligently 
organized  body,  steadily  gaining  ground,  always  asserting  their  rights,  and 
raising  themselves  to  an  ever  higher  standard  of  life,  has  seen  the  best 
demonstration  of  the  disinherited  proletariat  coming  into  its  own,  and  must 
find  his  faith  in  the  emancipation  of  the  working  class  confirmed  and 



We  feel  that  we  arc  justified  in  proudly  emphasizing  the  fact  that  our 
great  New  York  strike  of  nearly  sixty  thousand  workers  was  financed 
throughout  by  ourstl  m  funds  raised  by  our  own  members,  without 

the  need  of  calling  upon  our  fellow  workers  in  other  organizations  for  as- 
out  even  the  need  of  asking  the  help  of  the  other  local  unions 
in  our  own  International.     That,  too,  was  the  first  instance  of  its  kind  in 
the  history  of  clothing  workers'  strikes  in  this  cour. 

c  New  York  strike  was  followed  by  movements  in  other  clothing  0 
ters  for  the  forty-eight  hour  week  which  were  crowned  with  success  all 
along  the  line.     In  some  cases  strikes  were  necessary ;  in  others  they  were  not. 

The  New  York  Call 

It  may  not  be  amiss  at  this  juncture  to  record  the  fact  that  under  its 
former  editorship  the  "New  York  Call"  had  persistently  opposed  our  organi- 
zation, even  to  the  extent  of  suppressing  the  news  of  the  historic  class 
struggles  under  our  banner  in  Chicago  and  in  Baltimore,  though  we  had 
upport  of  the  Socialist  Party  in  both  cases.  During  the  forty-«ight 
hour  strike  in  New  York  the  then  editor  of  the  "Call"  took  every  opportunity 
to  try  to  stab  us  in  the  back  and  he  brazenly  encouraged  scabbing  upon 
the  "agreement"  with  the  scab  agency.  The  members  of  the  So- 
cialist Party  finally  rose  in  resentment  against  the  outrageous  conduct  of 
the  editor  and  forced  a  working  class  attitude  of  the  paper  towards  our  or- 
ganization The  making  of  the  "Call"  what  it  was  intended  to  be,  a  clear  cut 
working  class  paper,  has  created  an  atmosphere  in  which  the  non-socialist 
Editor  could  not  thrive.  He  has  since  come  out  in  his  true  colors,  as  a 
vilifuT  and  defamer  of  the  socialist  movement  in  the  interests  of  the  reaction- 
ary powers  of  the  country.  Since  Comrade  Charles  Erwin  has  been  placed 
at  the  helm  of  the  "Call,"  the  paper  has  consistently  and  faithfully  championed 
our  cause  to  our  mutual  benefit. 


Two    years    ago   we    reported    to    the    Rochester   convention    the    con- 
spiracy formed  against  us  by  the  A.  F.  of  L.-I.  W.  W.  hybrid  in  Baltimore. 
The  wonderful  fipht  then  conducted  by  our  organization  in  that  city  is  still 
fresh  in  our  memory.     We  have  made  giant  strides  in  Baltimore  since  then. 
will  be  happy  to  know  that  we  arc  now  meeting  in  a  city  where  the 
clothing  industry  is  nearly  one  hundred  per  cent,  organized  under  our  ban- 
where  the  forty-eight  hour  week  has  been  made  universal  for  all  our 
members  since  our  last  convention,  and  where  our  members  have  received 
substantial  increases  in  their  wages.     But  while  the  result  achieved 
gladdening  and  inspiring,  the  road  we  had  to  travel  in  order  to  arrive  where 

now  are  was  far  from  inviting. 

A  famous  General  in  our  Civil  War  said  that  "war  is  hell."  If  he  had 
had  in  mind  the  war  forced  on  us  by  the  A.  F.  of  L.  and  I.  W.  W.  com- 
bination in  Baltimore  in  the  years  1916-17  he  could  not  have  given  a  more 



correct  description  of  it.  That  war  was  literally  an  inferno.  We  emerged 
from  it  strong,  powerful  and  in  full  command  of  the  situation;  the  con- 
spirators  remained  there  never  to  come  again. 

Before  the  last  convention  it  was  at  the  Grcif  factory  that  the  conspira- 
tors had  concentrated  their  forces  against  us.  Since  that  convention  they 
attempted  to  execute  their  nefarious  schemes  against  our  members  at  the 
Strouse  &  Bros/  factory.  If  the  history  of  the  labor  misleaders  in  America  will 
ever  be  written,  their  crimes  against  the  clothing  workers  in  Baltimore  will 
bo  among  the  blackest  acts  of  treason  committed  by  them  against  the  work- 
ing cla 

The  Baltimore  "Public  Ownership"  of  July  15,  1916,  official  organ  of  the 
Socialist  Party  of  Baltimore.  M<1.,  contains  the  following  account  of  the  Strouse 
affair,  written  by  a  member  of  our  organization.  We  reproduce  it  here  in  full, 
headings,  text  and  all: — 

"Another  Chapter  in  the  History  of  the  Notorious  Strikebreakers  Ferguson, 

Cohen  and  Gordon 


"Since  the  Greif  strike,  the  I.  W.  W.  who  consistently  scabbed  during 
that  time,  have  allied  themselves,  body  and  soul,  with  the  Gordon  and  Fergu- 
son combination.  The  purpose  in  view  is  to  destroy  that  splendid  organiza- 
tion, the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  the  organization  which 
in  the  past  two  years  has  been  successful  in  obtaining  shorter  hours  and  an 
increase  in  wages  in  all  of  the  clothing  centers  in  the  United  States. 

"The  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers'  organization  has  always  opposed 
sub-contracting,  a  system  wherein  one  worker  has  charge  of  an  operation 
ai'd  exploits  those  working  under  him.  It  permits  one  man  to  employ  helpers 
at  a  low  wage  from  whose  labors  he  reaps  a  big  profit.  Thus,  the  helper 
who  may  be  just  as  good  a  mechanic  as  the  sub-contractor,  earns  $15,00  a 
week,  while  the  sub-contractor  who  does  no  more  work  than  the  helper,  is  earning 
from  $40.00  to  50.00.  a  week. 

"I.  W.  W.  Favors  Sub- Contracting 

"This  system  is  ENCOURAGED  by  the  I.  W.  W..  and  is  in  effect  in  the 
few  coat  shops  that  they  control. 

"On  Thursday,  June  23,  the  Amalgamated  shop  committee  of  Strouse  & 
Bros,  waited  upon  the  firm  and  insisted  that  sub-contracting  be  abolished 
in  the  shop.  The  firm  agreed  and  submitted  to  the  shop  committee  two 
propositions,  one  an  increase  in  the  price  of  the  pocket  from  13%  cents  to 
14  cents,  on  a  piece  work  basis,  or  an  increase  of  $2.00  each  to  all  of  the  helpers 
on  a  week  work  basis. 

"The  helpers  were  content  with  the  concessions  obtained  by  the  com- 
mittee but  the  sub-contractors  were  dissatisfied.  The  sub-contractors  de- 



clarcd  to  the  committee  when  they  left  the  office  of  the  firm  that  they  would 
be  c<>  work  (or  13%  cents  per  pocket  instead  of  14  cents,  which  was 

one-half  cent  less  than  the  committee  had  obtained,  provided  the  shop  would 
agree  to  the  maintenance  of  the  sob-contracting  system. 

" Profits  Gone;  Join  I.  W.  W. 

The  coi  ised  this  offer  and  these  two  sub-contratcors,  who 

belonged  to  the  Amalgamated,  joined  the  I.  W.  W.  and  persuaded  the  majority 
of   their  helpers,  who  arc   the -ir  blood  relations,  to  go  out  on  an  individual 
iting  the  other  workers  in  the  shop.     And  the  sad  fact 
t*  recorded  that  these  foolish  helpers,  whose  wages  under  the  new  arrange- 
ments were  increased  from  25  per  cent  to  30  per  cent,  permitted  themselves 
to  be  misled. 

Monday,  June  27,  at  9  A.  M.,  a  shop  meeting  of  all  the  workers  in  Strouse's 
shop  was  held  at  Fisher's  Hall  to  hear  the  report  of  the  committee.    The  com- 
mented t<>  tlu-  shop  meeting  tiu-  final  concession  won  from  the  firm, 
which  was  an  increase  from  13%  cents  to  14  cents  per  pocket  or  a  $2.00  raise 

After  a  lengthy  discussion  by  mem- 
bers of  both  organizations,  the  I.  W.  W.,  about  75  in  number,  left  the  hall 
before  the  vote  was  taken.    Of  the  700  workers  who  remained  in  the  hall,  only 
•lie  proposition  submitted  by  the  committee. 

•'Illegal  Strike  Called 

"Soon  after  the  meeting  the  people  returned  to  work  but  the  pocket 
makers  remained  out.  The  next  day,  Tuesday,  at  2  o'clock,  the  workers  foresee- 
ing t!  <  *t  of  the  work  would  be  tied  up,  those  working  on  other  operations 
1  to  make  pock  p  going.  At  this  action  the 
members  of  the  I.  W.  \Y.  walked  out. 

"Shortly  after  the  walkout  the  notorious  strikebreaker,  John  Ferguson, 
and  Abe  Gordon,  organizer  for  ti  '<*d  Garment  Workers,  called  out  the 

-s  in  support  of  the  I.  W.  \V.  This  may  seem  strange  company  for  Fergu- 
son to  those  who  remember  his  former  condemnation  of  fthe  I.  W.  W..  and  one 
worn!  >hind  his  affiliation  with  them.  Whatever  it  is,  it  is  not  for 

the  welfare  of  the  workers. 

' '  Ferguson  Directs  Strike 

"Tin-  Strike'  today  --d  by  Ferguson,  representing  the  A.  F.  of  L., 

Cord-  organizer  of  tl  1  Garment  Workers,  and  Doree,  organ- 

izer .  W.,  and  to  verify  this  we  attach  an  affidavit  to  the  end  of  this 

!£ned  by  one  who  was  present  the  first  day  at  the  secret  committee  of 
the  I.  W.  W.  and  the  cutters. 

'The  public  can  judge  from  this  affidavit  that  this  strike  was  called  for 
the  one  purpose  to  protect  the  two  sub-contractors  who  had  joined  the  I. 



W.  W.  with  the  sole  purpose  in  view  to  attempt  to  destroy  the  Amalgamated 
Clothing  Workers  of  America  in  Strouse's  building. 


"Affidavit  of  \  Sala.  which  proves  that  John  Ferguson  advised  the 

slugging  of  members  of  the  Amalgamated. 


'Vincent  Sala,  being  duly  sworn,  deposes  and  says:  That  he  is  a  w< 
man  in  the  pocket  department  at  Strouse  Brothers  where  the  pocket  mak- 
ers went  out  on  a  strike  on  the  27th  day  of  June,  1916.  A  committee  was 
appointed  by  the  strikers,  of  which  committee  I  was  one,  to  go  to  the  office 
of  Abe  Gordon,  a  representative  of  the  United  Garment  Workers  of  Ani<  r 
in  the  Emerson  Tower  Building,  on  the  seventh  floor,  to  inform  him  that 
the  I.  W.  W.  went  on  a  strike.  The  committee,  including  myself,  went  to 
the  office,  where  we  met  John  H.  Ferguson,  Abe  Gordon  and  Abe  Cohen  and 
informed  them  that  the  I.  W.  W.  went  out  on  a  strike  at  Strouse  Bros.  Mr. 
Ferguson  immediately  signalled  to  the  cutters'  floor  in/  Strouse's  Building, 
which  faces  the  office  of  the  United  Garment  Workers  of  America,  and  im- 
mediately the  cutters  walked  out. 

"After  the  walkout,  they  held  a  meeting  and  decided  to  stick  to  the  I.  W. 
W.  until  the  I.  W.  W.  got  what  they  asked  for. 

"After  the  cutters  were  through  with  their  meeting  Ferguson,  Gordon 
and  Cohen  appeared  at  the  Tailors'  I.  W.  W.  conference  in  Barrie's  Hall, 
Barre  iStreet,  at  about  5 145  P.M. 

"There  Ferguson  said  that  he  had  been  waiting  for  this  chance  for  some 
time  and  that  every  move  made  in  that  shop  was  reported  to  him  by  a  spy 
who  supplied  him  with  all  the  news.  He  further  said  that  the  chance  has  now 
come,  and  that  he  will  fight  and  fight,  until  the  shop  goes  back  as  one  organiza- 
tion; he  also  said  that  this  is  no  more  a  question  affecting  the  pocket  makers 
but  is  a  matter  of  driving  out  the  so-called  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers 
from  the  Strouse  shop. 

"It  was  then  decided  to  have  a  secret  conference  to  outline  a  plan  for 
future  action  as  to  the  future  conduct  of  the  strikers.  The  secret  meeting 
was  held  on  the  next  day,  Wednesday,  June  8,  about  2:10  P.M.,  at  the  office 
of  the  United  Garment  Workers,  Emerson  Tower  Building,  seventh  floor. 

"The  second  man  to  speak  was  Gordon.  He  stated  that  this  present  fight 
is  going  to  be  the  last  fight  for  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America, 
and  if  the  United  Garment  Workers'  strikers  and  the  I.  W.  W.  tailors  were 
not  enough — at  this  point  Ferguson  interrupted  and  said:  he  would  get  two 
hundred  or  three  hundred  of  the  husky  guys  of  the  Brewery  Workers'  Union 
to  beat  the  heads  off  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers'  members,  just  like 
they  beat  them  down  at  Lombard  Street,  during  the  Greif  strike. 

"It  was  arranged  that  circulars  be  distributed  inviting  those  people  belong- 
ing to  the  Amalgamated  to  join  their  ranks,  and  it  was  then  said  that  against 



those   who  refused  to  come  out  with  them  by  Saturday,  they  would  start, 
on  Monday,  a  rough  house. 

hen  said,  '1C  you  want  to  get  anybody,  don't  get  them  near 
the  shop  but  slug  them  away  from  the  place  so  that  nothing  should  be  known 
that  the  slugging  was  connected  with  the  I.  W.  W.  or  Cutters'  Union ' 


"Subscribed  and  sworn  to  before  me  this  6th  day  of  July,  1916. 

"Notary  Publ: 

This  may  be  supplemented  by  the  following  report  in  the  New  York 
"\\Vrkly  IVuplr"  of  Augu  1916,  official  organ  of  the  Socialist  Labor 

"The  Greif  strike  in  Baltimore  is  having  its  sequel — a  sequel  written  in 
violence  and  bloodshed. 

"Gencralled  by  John  F.  Ferguson,  notorious  strikebreaker  and  scab-herder, 
president  of  the  Baltimore  Federation  of  Labor  and  labor  lieutenant  of  the 
capitali  sts  of  Baltimore,  there  has  been  organized  in  Baltimore  an 

association  of  gangsters  who  hesitate  not  at  assassination  to  achieve  their  ne fa- 
Is.  The  name  given  to  this  body  composed  of  gunrr.en,  stilettomen  and 
blackjack  thugs,  is  "The  I  :nent  Committee  -  composed  of  men 

affiliated  with  the  American  Federation  of  Labor  and  the  Bummery  Industrial 
Workers  of  the  World.  The  leaders  of  these  two  organizations  have  co-ordi- 
nated their  activities  and  efforts  to  attempt  to  crush  out  by  violence,  intimidation 
and  assassination,  when  necessary  to  their  purpose,  any  organization  of  work- 
ing people  that  refuses  to  submit  to  their  domination  in  the  interest  of  the 
employing  class. 

"Amalgamated  Workers  Assaulted 

:ng  the  past  seven  weeks,  particularly,  they  they  have  conducted  a  cam- 
paign of  violence,  attempted  murder  and  terrorism  against  the  Baltimore 
Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America.  Within  this  period  there  have 
been  not  less  than  ten  mass  attacks  in  force  upon  groups  of  Amalgamated 
members  going  to  and  returning  from  their  work  and  innumerable  individual 
attempts  made  to  assassinate  members  of  this  body  of  workers.  Several  per- 
sons have  been  shot,  a  number  stabbed,  several  blackjacked,  and  others  dis- 
abled by  stones,  brickbats,  and  clubs.  The  police  ambulance  has  been  kept 
busy  carrying  the  wounded  to  hospitals  and  others  to  the  police  stations. 

nee  the  beginning   of    the    strike   at    St rouse's   on    June   27   the   police 

have  been  making  special  efforts  to  prevent  clashes  on  the  street  between 

Amalgamated  and  the  Fedcration-Bummery.     Mass  attacks  by  the  latter 

have  been  made  on  groups  of  the  Amalgamated  in  the  presence  of  squads  of 

police  officers. 

"Blackjack  and  Stiletto  Used 

•is  at  assavsinatiun  an*  made  upon  Amalgamated  mem- 
bers wherever  they  are  found  on  the  street.  Two  of  the  latest  of  these  out- 
rages happened  on  crowded  business  thoroughfares  of  Baltimore  on  last  Thurs- 
.n  Blumberg,  secretary-manager  of  District  Council  No. 
3,  A.  C.  W.  of  A  .  \va>  approached  from  behind  at  Front  and  Fayette  Streets 
and  blackjacked  into  insensibility  and  is  now  confined  to  his  home  as  a  result. 

"The  other  dastardly  attempt  at  Baltimore  and  Howard  Street  on  the  same 
evening  was  witnessed  by  your  correspondent.  An  Amalgamated  cutter  walk- 
ing on  the  street  was  stealthily  approached  and  repeatedly  stabbed  with  a 
stiletto  by  an  Italian  of  the  Bummery.  The  blood  spurted,  and  with  a  cry  he 
sank  to  the  pavement.  Probably  fifty  persons  saw  the  act.  Thinking  he  had 
killed  his  man  the  Bummeryite  started  to  run,  and  nobody  interfering  with  him 
he  slowed  his  pace  to  a  deliberate  walk.  In  a  few  minutes  he  was  arrested. 

"These  are  two  examples  of  what  has  been  happening  in  Baltimore  right 
along,  almost  daily,  for  weeks.  The  newspapers  make  no  mention  of  these 
outrages.  Such  stories  as  they  print  from  time  to  time  are  inspired  by  the 
element  of  which  Ferguson  and  his  accomplices  are  the  leaders. 

"Threatened  with  Death 

"Here  is  a  copy  of  a  letter  received  by  J.  Friedman,  a  member  of  the 
Amalgamated.  Friedman  spent  some  years  in  South  America  and  speaks 
Italian  fluently.  Italians  of  the  Bummery  thought  he  was  an  Italian.  Not 
long  ago  an  Italian  of  the  Bummery  approached  him  and  demanded  of  him 
that  he  leave  the  Amalgamated  and  join  the  Bummery.  He  refused  and  gave 
good  reasons  for  doing  so.  The  letter  received  by  him  is  as  follows : 

"Baltimore,  Md.,  July  24,  1916. 
"'103  Eagle  Street, 

'  'You  are  written  down  on  our  books  as  a  dead  man  if  you  don't  stop  work, 
n,  Friedman,  you  dirty  scab  from  South  America,  if  you  keep  it  up  I 
will  catch  you — if  not  today  I  will  get  you  tomorrow.     I  tell  you  to  stop,  for 
it  will  be  better  for  you. 

"  'Committee,  I.  W.  W. 

"This  note  of  warning  was  written  on  mourning  note  paper  (with  black 
border)  and  enclosed  in  a  black-bordered  envelope.  There  is  no  question  that 
the  dastardly  anonymous  writer  was  a  member  of  the  'Entertainment  Com- 
mittee* and  meant  exactly  what  he  said  in  the  letter. 

"Attack  on  Amalgamated  Headquarters 

"Last  week  the  A.  F.  of  L.-Bummery  crowd  made  a  mass  attempt  to  enter 
and  wreck  the  headquarters  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers,  108  N. 



This  was  f rostra '  •.  vigorous  defense,  the  police  taking 

A  number  of  shots  were  fired  m  the  melee,  clubs  were  used,  and  stones 

and  brickbats  thrown.     One  of  the  attacking  party  was  shot,  and  others  also 

were  made  hospital  cases.     An  Amalgamated  roan  was  charged  with  firing 

that  wounded  a  bystander,  and  summarily  sentenced  to  eighteen  months 

in  prison.    Baltimore  police  justice  courts  have  power  to  sentence  a  prisoner 

for  five  years. 

"In  thr  newspaper  stories  the  Amalgamated  people  are  invariably  referred 
to  as  'strikebreakers';  the  A.  F.  of  L.-Bummery  as  'strikers.'  The  capitalist 
newspapers  simply  will  not  use  proper  words  to  tell  the  real  facts.  This  is 
because  they  allow  themselves  to  be  dominated  by  Ferguson,  his  fellow  con- 
spirators of  the  A.  F.  of  L.  and  the  Bummcry  I.  W.  W. 

rculars  and  public  prints  Ferguson  never  refers  to  the  Amalgamated  Workers  of  America.    The  members  of  this  great,  organized  body  of 
ng  operatives  he  refers  to  as  'the  strikebreakers  who  have  been  rioting 
along  the  streets  of  Baltimore  and  placing  in  jeopardy  the  lives  of  the  innocent/ 
he  designates  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  as  The  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers 
of  the  World,  an  anarchistic  body  whose  leaders  are  gunmen,  of  unsavory  repu- 
tations.'   Here  is  a  deliberate  attempt  to  mislead  the  public  as  to  the  identity  of 
the  organization  attacked  by  the  A.  F.  of  L.  and  the  Bummery  I.  W.  W.,  led 
by  himself. 

"Sequel  to  Greif  Strike 

"The  rioting,  shooting,  brick  throwing,  slugging,  stabbing,  and  other  forms 
of  outrage  perpetrated  on  members  of  the  Amalgamated  Gothing  Workers 
fo  America  in  Baltimore  during  the  past  two  months  by  the  American  Federa- 
tion of  Labor  and  the  Bummery  Industrial  Workers  of  the  World  officered 
by  John  H.  Ferguson,  president  of  th«»  Maryland,  Baltimore,  and  District  of 
Columbia  Federations  of  Labor,  is  the  sequence  of  a  series  of  labor  troubles 
that  began  with  the  Greif  strike  last  spring.  Labor  troubles  at  the  Strouse  and 
Bros  factory  followed  that  strike.  In  the  Greif  affair  the  A.  F.  of  L.  (John 
Ferguson)  combined  with  the  Bummery  I.  W.  W.  to  break  the  strike  of  the 
Amalgamated  Gothing  Workers  of  America  in  the  plants  of  the  Greif s. 

intimate  connection  between  these  two  events.     The  Greif 

ries  and   the   Strouse   &    Bros,    factories   manufacture   the  same   line   of 

product.     The  two  concerns  are  business  competitors.     It   is  said  by  those 

who  ought  to  know  that  the  Strouse  concern  obtained  business  to  the  amount 

of  hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars  that  the  Greifs  had  contracted  for  mak- 

ould  not  do  on  account  of  the  strike  in  the  plants — the  strike  of 

\malgamatcd  that  Ferguson  and  his  I.  W.  W.  allies  succeeded  finally 
in  breaking. 

"Ferguson  is,  according  to  affidavits  in  addition  to  the  evidence  of  the 
'ances,  the  paid  agent  of  the  Grei 

"The  Strouse  &  Bros,  plant  has  been  operated  as  an  Amalgamated  shop, 


with  a  sprinkling  of  the  I.  W.  W.,  and  the  cutters  who  were  members  of  the 
A.  F.  of  L.  The  plant  employs  about  1,000  operatives,  app  iximately  90  per 
cent.  Amalgamated. 

"Plot  Behind  the  'Strike' 

"All  the  evidence  goes  to  prove  that  Ferguson  and  the  Bummery  officials 
conspired  to  attempt  to  bring  about  a  strike  in  Strouse's,  for  two  reasons: 

.  to  avenge  the  Greif  concern,  and,  second,  to  destroy  the  Amalgamated 
in  that  shop  and  make  it  A.  F.  of  L.-Bummery. 

"In  a  conference  about  the  timo  the  Strouse  strike  began,  B.  Strouse,  one 
of  the  firm,  asked  Ferguson  what  motive  prompted  him  in  organizing  the 
sfrike  in  Strouse's.  Ferguson  answered:  'Because  we  owe  a  debt  of  gratitude 
to  the  I.  W.  W.  for  their  assistance  in  breaking  the  Greif  strike'." 

The  Policy  of  Savage  Bloodshed  Extended 

A  later  issue  of  the  "Weekly  People"  brings  the  following  report  from 
Baltimore,  which  shows  to  what  acts  of  desperation  the  conspirators  were 
driven  by  their  impotent  madness: 



"Garment  Workers  of  the  Independent  Union  Assailed  with  Bludgeon,  Knife, 
and  Gun  by  the  Dupes  of  John  H.  Ferguson. 

"Baltimore,  Md.,  August  26. — The  war  for  supremacy  between  the  Ame- 
rican Federation  of  Labor  and  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America 
daily  grows  more  intense  and  sanguinary. 

"John  H.  Ferguson,  president  of  the  Maryland  and  Washington  and  the 
Baltimore  Federations  of  Labor,  labor  leader,  scab-herder,  strikebreaker,  and 
all-around  traitor  to  the  working  class  which  he  misleads,  is  quoted  in  the 
Baltimore  newspapers  as  having  declared:  'The  American  Federation  of  Labor 
is  going  to  fight  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  until  every  member  of 
that  organization  is  driven  out  of  town/ 

"Twenty- four  hours  after  this  announcement  Saturday,  August  26,  8:40 
a.  m.,  Henry  Sonneborn  &  Co.,  makers  of  the  'Styleplus'  men's  clothes,  became 
the  scene  of  a  terrific  battle,  precipitated  by  the  A.  F.  of  L.  forces  in  v/hich 
between  2,000  and  3,000  took  part,  the  weapons  for  the  most  part  being  tailors' 
shears,  knives,  blackjacks,  pistols,  bottles,  chairs,  and  other  sorts  of  weapons. 
Six  persons  were  taken  to  the  hospitals  and  about  fifty  were  given  'first  aid' 
treatment  in  the  hospital  department  of  the  Sonneborn  plant. 

"The  Sonneborn  concern  employs  approximately  4,000  garment  workers, 
being  the  largest  individual  factory  of  its  kind  in  the  world.  It  is  an  Amal- 



gamated  plant.  Of  the  4,000  employes,  the  cutters,  about  200  in  number, 
are  A.  I  The  cutting  department  is  on  the  ninth  floor.  Among  the 

cutters  were  three  members  of  the  Amalgamated,     After  making  hit  declara- 
*f  war  to  the  knife,  and  the  knife  to  the  hilt,  against  the  Amalgamated, 
Ferguson  served  notice  on  the  .Sonneborn  firm  that  unless  the  three  Amal- 
gamated cutters  ^charged  forthwith  there  would  be  a  strike  of  the 
A.  F.  of  L.  cutters.    The  firm  refused  to  discharge  the  three  Amalgamated 
rs.    As  soon  as  this  word  was  brought  to  the  ninth  floor  the  signal  for 
hostilities  was  given,  and  as  one  man  the  A.  F.  L.  cutters  began  an  assault  on 
the  three  Amalgamated  men. 

ree  pistol  shots  notified  those  in  the  building  and  in  the  street  that 
the  battle  was  on. 

"The  door  -  nth  floor  had  been  pushed  open  in  some  way,  and 

the  men,  fighting  with  the  fury  of  madmen,  rolled  down  the  long  stairs. 
When  they  neared  the  first  floor  the  office  force  jumped  from  the  windows 

ran  to  a  place  of  safety.  At  each  floor  the  fighters  were  reinforced  by 
men  of  both  factions,  until  fully  2,000  men  were  engaged 

The  police  arrived  to  see  men  hacking  at  each  other  with  the  huge  shears. 
Several  onlookers  say  they  saw  one  man  actually  try  to  cut  his  adversary's 
ami  nil  with  a  pair  of  shears  nearly  two  feet  long.  The  man  screamed  and 

.s>ailant  was  1<M  in  tlu-  -'.niggling  mass. 

"Besides  the  wounded,  at  least  50  women  swooned,  and  a  corps  of  physi- 
cians from  nearby  hospitals  was  summoned.  In  several  cases  parts  of  the 
clothing  of  the  girls  had  been  torn  from  their  bodies.  Most  of  them  were 
taken  home  in  taxicabs. 

"A  riot  call  quickly  brought  about  100  police  and  eight  or  ten  patrol  wagons, 
but  only  12  arrests  were  made. 

"After  the  police  had  dispersed  the  belligerents,  John  Ferguson  said:  'This 
is  only  the  beginning,  unless  those  gunmen  leave  the  * 

"To  Ferguson  and  his  crowd  'gun-men*  and  Amalgamated  men  are  syno- 
nyms. Notwithstanding  that  for  eight  weeks  the  armed  thugs  of  the  Federation 
and  Bummery  I.  W.  W.  have  systematically  attempted  murder  in  scores  of 
individual  and  mass  assaults  on  members  of  the  Amalgamated  who  simply 
defended  themselves,  and  the  attacks,  many  of  them,  especially  in  mass,  were 
made  on  the  Amalgamated  people  while  under  police  escort,  the  Ferguson 
crowd  and  newspapers  persist  in  calling  the  Amalgamated  workers  'gunmen.' 
crguson  is  outspoken  in  his  defense  of  capitalist  interests.  He  and 
I  declare  that  he  has  done  more  than  any  other  man  to  hold  in 

'%  that  radical  labor  element  tending  toward  Socialism." 

The  violence  and  blood  re  also  accompanied  by  a  great  deal  of 

bluff  and  bluster.  Thus  John  H.  Ferguson,  the  evil  genius  of  the  bloody  con- 
spiracy, threatened  to  call  a  per  ke  in  all  industries  in  Baltimore  in 
order  to  destroy  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers.  We  challenged  htm  to 


make  good  his  bluff.     Baltimore  is  still  waiting  for  that  much  heralded  general 

Brother  Blumberg  published  the  following  official  statement  in  the  Balti- 
more press,  which  we  reproduce  from  "The  Baltimore  Sun"  of  August  12, 


"The  Thursday  newspapers  carried  a  statement  of  a  general  strike  to  be 
called  in  this  city  of  all  the  unions  affiliated  with  the  A.  F.  of  L.  in  support 
of  the  I.  W.  W.  who  left  their  places  at  Strouse  Bros. 

"This  statement  is  so  ridiculous  that  the  author  of  it,  Mr.  Ferguson, 
must  have  relied  on  the  ignorance  of  the  public  at  large  in  regards  to  labor 


"The  A.  F.  of  L.  has  no  authority  to  call  a  strike  of  any  National  Or- 
ganization. It  is  hoped  by  Mr.  Ferguson  that  by  spreading  these  misstate- 
ments  he  may  create  enough  confusion  and  bring  public  sympathy  to  his 
unholy  cause. 

"It  is  well  for  the  public  to  know  that  the  issue  between  the  I.  W.  W. 
and  the  Strouse  firm  could  have  been  settled  if  not  for  the  sinister  motives 
of  Mr.  Ferguson  in  this  whole  matter. 

"The  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  who  are  now  work- 
ing in  the  shops  of  Strouse  Bros.,  is  recognized  all  over  the  country  as  i 
responsible  labor  organization.  It  controls  the  clothing  industry  and  also 
90  per  cent,  of  the  workers  in  this  city. 

"It  maintains  contractual  relationship  with  the  largest  employers  in  the 
country.  It  has  entered  into  agreements  with  the  firm  of  Hart,  Schaffner  & 
Marx,  of  Chicago,  for  the  last  seven  years,  the  largest  clothing  concern  in 
the  world,  without  any  interruption  of  work. 

"Its  agreements  have  been  investigated  and  highly  commended  by  the 
United  States  Industrial  Relations  Commission,  and  in  this  city  the  firm  of 
Henry  Sonneborn  &  Co.  has  an  arbitration  agreement  with  the  Amalgamated 
Clothing  Workers  of  America. 

"Dr.  Frank  J.  Goodnow,  president  of  the  Johns  Hopkins  University,  is 
the  arbitrator  under  that  agreement  for  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers 
of  America  and  Henry  Sonneborn  &  Co. 

"Needless  to  state  that  all  the  talk  about  the  'gunmen1  are  unqualified 

"The  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  refuse  to  be  run  by  a 
few  I.  W.  W.  or  to  recognize  the  leadership  of  men  of  the  type  of  Ferguson. 

"We  were  and  are  willing  to  let  any  impartial  committee  investigate  the 
record  of  our  organization  in  this  and  other  cities. 

"Mr.  Ferguson  admitted  to  Mr.  Eli  Strouse  that  the  cutters  had  no  griev- 
ances and  that  he  insisted  on  calling  the  cutters  to  help  the  I.  W.  W.  His 
own  statement  was:  'I  owe  the  I.  W.  W.  a  debt  of  gratitude  for  the  assist- 



ancc  they  gave  me  in  breaking  the  Greif  strike  of  the  Amalgamated  Cloth- 
ing Workers  of  America.' 

nay  be  <  t  to  the  public  to  investigate  and  find  out  the  1 


I    W.  W. 


r  clary  -Manager  Council    No.   3, 

inalgamatcd  Clothing  Workers  of  America." 

The  conspirators  were  c  and  the  Sonncborn  and  Sf 

factories  are  now  under  the  full  jur  of  our  organization.    The  crimi- 

nal tactics  of  the  conspirators  in  their  mad  rush  to  exterminate  us  have  helped 
to  open  the  eyes  of  many  of  their  followers  to  the  fact  that  they  had  been 

•J  and  betrayed.      They  abandoned  the  old  wreck  of  the  discredited  crew 
and  joined  our  forces,  by  whom  they  were  receive-  shout  of  joy.     Those 

converts  now  constitute  our  live  and  energetic  cutters'  organization  of  Balti- 
more, Local  15,  and  are  among  the  staunchest  members  of  our  International. 
A  as  through  that  baptism  of  blood  and  fire  that  our  organization  in 
Baltimore  was  called  upon  to  pass  in  order  to  establish  itself  permanently  and 
cone!  ior  the  protection  of  the  workers  in  the  industry.  Its  success 

has  been  bravely  fought  for  and  won.  The  organization  now  stands  ready 
to  accept  any  challenge  that  may  be  flung  at  it.  The  traitors  have  been  exposed 
and  annihilated  and  the  clothing  workers  enjoy  the-  full  benefits  of  having 
made  their  enemies  harmless  and  their  organization  strong  and  powerful. 

In  some  cases  we  were  compelled  to  call  strikes  in  Baltimore  in  order  to 
secure  for  our  members  the  forty-eight  hour  week  and  higher  wages  to  meet 
the  growing  cost  of  living.     In  most  cases,  however,  concessions  were  gained 
ut  the  necessity  of  resorting  to 


Our  Ka  -ntion  was  requested  by  our   Montreal   members,  who  had 

a  good  r.  -:i  that  city,  to  help  them  organize  -the  indu                       gave 

them    wl.  instance   we   could   and   a    remarkable   organization   ar 

was  quid-.  loped.      There  were  a  number  of  strikes  during  the  fir* 

montl  our  Rochester  Convention.     All  of  them  were  succr 

In  each  case  the  or^  is  strengthened  in  numbers  and  in  spirit. 

and  the  working  con-  deplorable,  were  considerably  im- 

Montreal,  like  every  other  clothing  center,  has  a  polyglot  industrial  popu- 

lation.                   Scginnii  nch  Canadians,  the  English, 

the  1                                         with  tlv  rent    languages,    sympathies    and 

1  in  the  efforts  to  form  a  cohesive  body  for  a  single  pur- 



pose.  But  they  succeeded  wonderfully.  The  Fivnch  Canadians  in  the  cloth- 
ing industry,  who  had  never  been  organized  before,  formed  thrir  own  local 
union  as  a  part  of  the  Montreal  Joint  Board,  which  was  the  central  adminis- 
trative body  for  all  locals  in  that  city.  The  conditions  of  the  French  t 
dians  were  particularly  pitiful  because  of  the  large  number  of  exceedingly 
young  girls  among  them.  The  workers  among  the  other  nationalities  are 
ically  all  immigrants  and,  therefore,  adults.  The  French  Canadians  are 
natives,  born  and  brought  up  in  Canada.  They  need  not  wait  until  they  are 
old  and  strong  enough  to  undertake  a  long  journey  to  a  far  and  distant  land 
in  order  to  enter  a  clothing  factory.  They  have  the  privilge  of  leaving  school 
at  a  tender  age  and  going  straight  into  the  factory  in  their  home  town. 

The  union's  representative  mu>i  always  be  prepared  for  sights  and  stories 
of  misery  when  attending  meetings  of  workers  struggling  for  better  condi- 
tions. In  time  one  naturally  becomes  more  or  less  hardened.  And  it  is  well 
that  nature  has  made  it  so.  Otherwise,  human  nerves  would  completely  give 
way  in  a  short  time.  But  however  seasoned  and  hardened  a  union  representative 
.  T  be,  however  much  his  eyes  may  have  become  accustomed  to  look  at  faces 
with  misery  and  sufferings  deeply  engraven  in  them,  and  however  much  his  ears 
may  become  adapted  to  hearing  their  stories  of  distress,  he  can't  avoid  a 
severe  shock  when  coming  to  a  shop  meeting  of  his  fellow  members  he  finds 
an  audience  of  little  girls,  some  of  them  still  below  their  teens,  their  children's 
locks  hanging  over  their  shoulders  and  their  dresses  barely  covering  their 
knees.  The  union's  representative,  being  himself  a  father,  and  thinking  of 
his  own  pink-cheeeked  little  girl  while  addressing  those  child  slaves,  cannot  help 
renewing  his  pledge  to  fight  the  cannibalistic  industrial  system,  which,  not 
contented  with  undermining  the  health  of  the  manhood  and  womanhood 
of  the  nation  and  sending  them  into  early  graves,  also  feeds  upon  helpless 

It  was  not  within  our  power  to  abolish  child  labor.  What  was  the  result 
of  many  years,  possibly  generations,  of  industrial  thraldom,  could  not  be 
removed  by  a  few  months  of  resistance.  We  were  happy,  however,  to  succeed 
ir.  lightening  the  burdens  for  the  workers  and  making  life  somewhat  brighter 
for  the  little  slaves.  We  were  doubly  happy  for  the  sake  of  the  little  ones. 

For  the  first  time  the  Montreal  clothing  workers  were  strongly  united, 
had  a  model  organization,  secured  a  voice  in  the  determination  of  their  work- 
ing conditions,  and  rays  of  sunshine,  of  genuine  human  happiness,  broke 
through  the  dark  gray  monotony  of  their  lives  of  drudgery.  Their  very 
interest  in  the  organization,  which  became  so  endeared  to  them,  elevated  their 
souk,  brought  to  them  a  realization  of  the  fact  that  they  were  not  merely 
human  tools  fur  production  of  merchandise,  rightless,  hopeless  and  aimless, 
but  that  they  were  human  beings  entitled  to  the  blessings  of  life,  liberty  and 
the  pursuit  of  happiness.  They  had  not  wished  for  the  strikes  they  had  gone 
through.  They  had  to  get  some  relief  from  the  crushing  oppression,  and 


only  way  they  could  get  -ing  convincingly  demonstrated  the 

power  of  their  organization  to  protect  themselves  they  prevailed  upon  the 

>yers  to  deal  with  the  union  in  ail  matters  concerning  working  conditions. 
The  union  had  hoped  that  that  sane  and  civilized  method  of  dealing 

trial  problems  would  continue  and  enable  them  in  all  cases  peacefully  to 
adjudicate  any  controversy  that  might  arise. 

thr  clothing  manufacturers  of  Montreal  had  been  accustomed  to  un- 
restr.i  iu  attempt  on  the  part  of  the  worker*  to  organize 

had  been  mercilessly  defeated.    The  employers  alone  determined  hours,  wages, 
:  conditions.    While  they  accepted  the  labor  organization  in  our 
case  because  there  was  at  the  time  no  a  hey  immediately  began  to 

prepare  for  a  war  to  the  knife  to  wipe  it  out 

On  D'  of  a  series  of  successful  strikes  was  wound 

up.  th<    stnkr  i^unst  the  1;.  Company,  and  on  December  18,  fire 

was  opened  on  us.  On  that  day  the  Semi-Ready  Clothing  Company  forced  its 
employees  into  a  strike  by  refusing  to  pay  them  the  wage  increases  agreed  upon 
in  a  settlement  made  shortly  prior  thereto,  and  refusing  also  to  permit  our 
organization  to  take  the  matter  up  with  it.  That  was  the  entering  wedge,  which 
the  association  of  clothing  manufacturers  sought  to  drive  deeper  into  the  cleft 
by  officially  u  our  Montreal  organization,  on  December  23,  of  the  abro- 

•\  of  relations  l>  Ixxlies.     It  became  increasingly  clear  that 

the  Association,  which  controlled  the  largest  part  of  the  industry,  was  making 
efforts  to  force  us  into  a  conflict  for  which  it  had  chosen  its  own  time,  and 
was  trying  to  maneuver  it  in  such  a  manner  as  to  fasten  responsibility  on  us. 
Our  organization  did  all  that  could  honorably  be  done  to  avoid  a  strike,  but 
the  other  side  was  determined  to  have  it  and  was  in  a  position  to  enforc 
will.  The  only  way  a  strike  could  have  been  prevented  by  us  was  by  agreeing 
to  the  abolition  of  shop  chairmen  and  accepting  discrimination  against  active 
n  short,  by  committing  suicide.  That  we  were  unwilling  to  do. 
On  January  9,  1917,  the  issue  was  forced  by  a  carefully  laid  out  plan  of  the 
Association.  According  to  that  plan  the  Freedman  Company  challenged  its 
employees  by  a  defiant  act  of  discrimination  compelling  the  workers  to  quit 
work.  The  Freedman  Company  work  immediately  and  simultaneously  made 
its  appearance  at  the  factories  of  all  the  other  members  of  the  Association,  who 
openly  and  deliberately  challenged  their  employees  either  to  make  the  work 
of  the  struck  house  or  quit  their  jobs.  The  challenge  was  made  in  such  a 

ily  provoking  manner   that   it   h  hoice,  even  to  those   who  might 

have  otherwise  wavered,  but  refuse  to  handle  the  work.     Thirty-five  hundred   women  and  chilrren  accepted   the  challenge  and   took   up  the   fig? 
defence  of   tl  '-.t  to  maintain  their  organization.     It   was  not  a  strike. 

It  was  a  lockout  in  every  respect  except  in  name. 

About  fifteen  hundred  people,  employed  by  the  smaller  and  independent 
;-d  at  work.     Within  the  next  few  weeks,  however,  the  situation 


took  such  a  turn  that  it  became  necessary  to  extend  the  strike  to  the  entire 
industry.  On  February  uth.  the  strike  was  made  general.  Settlements  were 
soon  made  with  independent  firms  and  a  settlement  with  tin1  kkffl  was 

made  by  mediation  on  March  nth. 

Those  were  eight  savage  \v<-<k>  never  to  be  forgotten  by  any  who  partici- 
pated in  the  strike. 

Wherever  there  are  employers  and  employees,  wage  payers  and  wage 
recievers,  a  strike  or  a  lockout  is  likely  to  occur.  Workers,  when  on  strike, 
do  not  expect  and  do  not  receive  any  quarter  from  their  employers.  A  strike 
is  no  Sunday  school  picnic.  It  is  war.  In  all  cases  the  employers  as  well  as  the 
strikers  seek  to  present  their  case  to  the  public  in  the  most  favorable  li.^ht. 
But  in  Montreal  an  attempt  was  made  to  deceive  the  public  as  to  tli 
the  right  of  the  workers  to  be  organized,  by  injecting  the  race  issue.  That 
distinction  belongs  to  one  of  the  judges,  Recorder  Semple,  before  whom  some 
of  our  pickets  had  the  misfortune  of  being  arraigned.  The  Recorder  delivered 
himself  of  a  bitter  tirade  against  the  union,  in  the  course  of  which  he  said, 
referring  to  the  union  officials:  "They  draw  fat  salaries,  which  ought  n 
to  go  to  men  of  such  deficient  moral  and  mental  capacity  as  exemplified  in  the 
Secretary  before  me,  who,  with  the  three  Jewish  defendants,  stand  up  and  give 
evidence  directly  contrary  to  that  of  five  constables,  who  from  their  many 
years  of  experience  know  what  it  is  to  perjure  themselves  and  are,  at  least, 

That  was  followed  by  denunciations  in  the  press,  in  which  the  strikers 
were  described  as  German-  Jewish  workers,  who  were  engaged  in  a  strike  that 
>  inspired  and  led  by  German  agents.  If  we  will  remember  that  Canada, 
as  a  part  of  the  British  Empire,  was  then,  as  it  still  is,  at  war  with  Germany, 
we  will  realize  the  brutal  motive  behind  the  words  "German  Jewish  Workers" 
and  "German  Agents/' 

The  characterization  of  "German  Jewish  Workers"  was  applied  to  all 
strikers,  including  the  Italians  and  French  Canadians,  there  having  been  no 
Germans  among  the  strikers  or  the  other  members  of  the  Montreal  organiza- 

The  nearest  approach  to  the  Montreal  appeal  to  racial  prejudices  was  made 
by  the  A.  F.  of  L.  and  I.  W.  W.  conspiracy  in  Baltimore  as  a  means  of  breaking 
the  Greif  strike. 

The  Dominion  Government  was  appealed  to  to  deport  our  officers  and 
organizers,  who  were,  because  of  that,  frequently  called  by  the  Immigration 

In  addition  to  appealing  to  the  Government  the  Association  also  made 
the  same  appeal  in  the  press,  declaring  that  "we  have  removed  this  element 
from  our  shops,  and  all  we  ask  now  is  that  such  men  lie  removed  from 
Canada  as  undesirables.  They  should  be  deported."  (Gazette,  January  15, 
1917.)  The  public  was,  of  course,  informed  that  we  were  not  recognized  by 
the  American  Federation  of  Labor,  that  we  were  a  "scab  organization,"  and 
that  our  official  title  was  "German  Tailors  Union."  During  Secretary  Schlossberg's 



btay  in  Montreal  in  connection  with  the  strike  the  Association  asked  the  New 

Department   for  his  record,  hoping  that  that  would  supply  the 

eagerly  sougi  r  his  deportation,  but  the  Police  Department  had  no 

to  furnish. 

The  clothing  manufacturers,  who  are  also  stockholders  in  munition  plants, 
issued  strict  orders  not  to  give  employment  to  their  striking  clothing  workers, 

••a  were  badly  in  need  of  help.    They  had  hoped  in 
way  to  beat  the  workers  into  submission. 

Knowing  that  the  wages  pai  r  factories  were  not  enough  to  sustain 

;»loyees  during  any  period  of  idleness  the  employers  anticipated  applt- 
is  for  relief  to  t  u  tions.    As  contributions  to  those  in 

lions  and  officers  of  them  the  employers  used  their  influence  and  author/ 
deny  assistance  to  any  ri  cned  to  ask  for 

The  Manufacturers'  Association  published  the  following  as  a  full-page  paid 
ertiscment  in  all  tin  .il  papers,  and  in  all  languages: 



Montreal  is  the  greatest  centre  in  the  Dominion  of  Canada  for  the  manufacture 
of  clothing.  It  has  some  of  the  largest,  most  sanitary  and  up-to-date  clothing 
factories  on  the  Continent.  It  has  built  up  an  enviable  reputation  for  the  quality 
and  workmanship  of  Ready-made  Clothing. 

The  clothing  workers  of  Montreal  are  well  paid,  they  have  been  well  treated  as 
regards  hours  and  conditions  of  labor.  The  majority  of  them  are,  however,  idle. 

a   time   when   the   interests   of   the    Nation   and   of   the    Empire   demand    that 

one  should   put   his   shoulder   to   the   wheel,   when   every   citizen   ought   to  do 

his   share  to   keep   the    Home    Fires    Burning,   and   to   upbuild    British    Industry   and 

:sh  Commerce,  the  clothing  workers  arc  out  on  strike. 

The  reason  is,  because  professional  alien  agitators  have  cleverly  organized  Canadian 
workers  for  the  purpose  of  imposing  tyrannical  and  rumous  conditions  on  Canadian 
manufacturers,  conditions  which  would  leave  the  manufacturers  without  a  shred  of 
author  e  internal  organization  of  enterprises  in  which  their  capital  is  staked. 

The  Alien  Agitator*  and  Their  Methods 

These  agitators  came  here  some  months  ago  for  the  purpose  of  launching  '. 
propaganda.     They   beK  operations   by   making  a    few    unimportant   requests. 

The  manufacturers  granted  the  requests.  Then  demands  were  made,  and  on  concessions 
being  made,  still  further  demands  were  forthcoming.  Again  and  again  the  manufac- 
turers met  the  demands  in  a  conciliatory  spirit.  But  instead  of  satisfying  the  agitators, 
this  only  encouraged  them,  until  at  last  their  impositions  became  unbearable. 

Their  ambition  was  to  secure  absolute  control  so  that  not  a  wheel  would  turn. 
unless  by  their  sanction. 

In  effect  their  demands  meant  that  the  direction  of  the  whole  productive  processes 
of  the  clothing  factories  mt'st  be  handed  over  \vithout  question  to  the  appointed 
delegates  of  these  foreign  agitators,  or  not  a  soul  would  be  allowed  to  work. 

day  there  is  a  strike  of  clothing  workers  in  Montreal  involving  a  loss  of 
earning  power  of  not  less  than  $50,000  a  week  for  the  workers,  and  many  thousands  of 
dollars  to  the  manufacturers. 

Why  Haa  This  Strike  Been  Called? 

Not  because  of  any  grievances  of  the  clothing  workers   themselves,  who  ar-    . 
hard-working  body,   jealous   of   the   good    name    of   Canadian    products,   many 
•»m  have     -  -  igh  intimidation  into  joining  the  Union. 

The  following  is  the  immediate  -    tor  callii 

•i  man  app'»c<l  for  a  povti^n  in  a  clothing  f  He  was  given  a  place 

at  Union  wages.    A  Union-imposed  shop  "delegate"  in  an  entirely  different  department 



appeared  on  the  scene  and  enquired:  "Have  you  got  a  ticket  from  the  Uniom  officials 
l>errmtting  you  to  work  in  this  shop?" 

Fancy  the  insolence  of  it! 

The  worker  replied  that  he  had  not,  and  was  told  by  the  delegate  that  he  must 
cither  get  such  permission  at  oner  -mid  not  be  allowed  to  work  in  the  fad 

The   foreman  objected  to   this,  but  had  no  power  to   interfere,   the   delegate   having 
usurped   authority    in    the   shop. 

As  this  particular  delegate  had  already  caused  much  trouble  in  the  shop  ami 
had  been  notified  that  his  interferences  would  not  be  tolerated,  and  as  discipline 
*as  being  absolutely  undermined,  the  proprietor  called  in  the  delegate  (who  was 
a  paid  employee  of  the  tirm),  gave  him  a  week's  wages  in  lieu  of  notice  and  <i 
him.  Although  the  employee  was  indebted  to  the  manufacturer  in  a  considerable  sum, 
•othing  was  deducted. 

His  reinstatement  was  demanded  by  the  Union,  despite  the  fact  that  he  had  at 
once  obtained  employment  elsewhere.  The  firm  refused,  and  a  strike  was  called  in  the 

The  other  clothing  manufacturers  undertook  to  assist  the  firm  in  carrying  out 
its  Spring  orders,  and  the  work  was  distributed  among  the  various  factories.  Then 
the  present  strike  was  called. 

re  is  another  instance  of  these  imperious  demands. 

A  manufacturer  operating  a  large  plant  in  Montreal  operates  also  a  branch  factory 
in  another  town  in  this  province.  On  a  certain  day  two  shop  delegates  from  the 
Montreal  plant  waited  upon  the  employer  to  advise  him  that  the  first  occasion  after 
that  date  that  any  materials  were  sent  to  this  branch  factory  to  be  cut  and  made, 
would  be  the  signal  for  the  calling  out  of  the  hands  working  in  the  Montreal  factory. 
.Again,  a  man  working  in  a  certain  factory  was  satisfied  with  conditions  and  gave 
satisfactory  service  to  the  employer.  The  labor  agitator  called  on  the  employer 
one  day  and  stated  that  he  had  objections  to  the  man  working  in  the  establishment. 
He  demanded  that  the  man  be  dismissed,  and  failing  to  have  the  demand  complied 
with,  made  the  threat  "I  will  tear  the  guts  out  of  your  building."  Had  the  employer 
not  complied,  a  strike  would  have  been  called. 
Another  case: — 

A  worker  was  being  instructed  in  a  certain  operation  on  a  garment  necessary 
to  iis  proper  finish,  and  although  much  patience  was  expended  the  worker  did  not  wish 
to  learn,  and  finally  refused  to  try  any  further.  The  proprietor  told  the  worker 
that  the  garment  would  have  to  be  made  in  the  manner  indicted  or  his  services 
would  not  be  required.  The  worker  only  laughed  and  retorted,  "You  can't  discharge 
me  anyway,  the  Union  won't  let  you."  To  avoid  a  strike,  the  proprietor  was  compellled 
to  swallow  the  pill. 

Intolerable  Conditions  Imposed  by  Alien  Labor  Autocrats 

These  cases,  however,  are  only  a  few  of  many  leading  up  to  this  strike.    A  Cana< 
employer  cannot   employ  a  Canadian   even   if  that  worker  is  a   Union  man,   without 
"permission"  having  first  been  obtained  from  an  irresponsible  labor  trust. 

While  employers  cannot  themselves  engage  workers,  but  must  apply  to  an 
organziation  dominated  by  alien  agitators — they  are  forbidden  to  discharge  any  worker 
who  has  been  in  their  employ  two  weeks!  No  matter  if  the  worker  is  unsuitable, 
no  matter  whether  he  is  incompetent,  insolent,  a  trouble-maker,  or  a  consistent 
ker."  if  he  has  been  employed  two  weeks,  nothing  short  of  actual  crime  for  which 
conviction  could  be  made  in  the  criminal  courts,  can  take  him  off  the  pay  roll  of  the 
unfortunate  employer!  He  is  a  standing  charge  against  the  firm  for  all  time,  and  the 
amount  the  firm  must  pay  him  is  fixed  by  this  despotic  Union. 

The  manufacturer  must  retain  the  right  to  employ  such  efficient  workers  and 
increase  or  decrease  their  number,  as  the  needs  of  his  business  dictate.  To  take 
away  such  rights  and  to  force  the  manufacturer  to  employ  those  who  are  either 
unsuitable  or  no  longer  required  would  destroy  discipline  and  efficiency  and  take 
the  control  out  of  the  hands  of  those  who  are  responsible  for  the  success  of  the  business. 
The  following  is  an  extract  from  an  article  which  appeared  in  the  "Labor  World/' 
the  official  organ  of  the  Montreal  Trades  and  Labor  Council,  of  the  ijth  of  this 
month: — 

liave  great  respect  for  Recorder  Semple.  and  furthermore  we  do 

not  approve  of  the  way  the  members  of  the  Garment  Workers'  Union  have 

acted  in  this  strike.     We  wish  to  state  that  the  garment  workers  did  not 

e  usual  course,  and  have  not,  as  required  by  the  Trades  and  Labor 



Council,  to  whom  they  did  not  apply,  exhausted  all  means  of  conciliation 
before  going  on  strike  We  are  the  first  to  deplore  the  disturbance*  which 
have  occurred  and  to  blame  those  responsible  i 


:.y  demandi  like  the  foregoing,  the  clothing  manufacturers 
of  this  city  ha  »to  an  Association,  and  they  have  determined  that 

remt  the-»e  demands  to  the  end. 

Our  shops  •  <*rs  who  are  welcome  to  return,  and  we 

giu  h  will  be  absolutely  fair  and  just. 




TD.  \KDNER  ft  CO. 

TD.  !FG.  CO..  LTD. 

SON  A  CO.  &  CO. 

I>MAN  CO.  CO. 

&  CO.  i<T  &  SO 

To  the  above  statement  of  the  Clothing  Manufacturers'  Association  the 

'<•(!  th»-  foil'  ply  as  a  paid  advertisement: 


Our  Position  is  Clear 

"The   truth   about    the   strike   in   the  clothing  industry  of   Montreal,"   is   the 
of  a   full   pax*  •  'it    published   by   the   Clothing   Manufacturers'   Association   in 

the  (!  In   that   statement   the  charge  is  made 

that  '  alien  agitators  have  cleverly  organized   Canadian   workers  for  the 

purpose  of  imposing  tyrannical  and   ruinous   conditions  on   Canadian    Manufac 

' .?  Manufacturers  without  a  shred  of  authority  in  the 
internal  organization  of  enterprises  in  which  their  capital  is  staked.** 

This  c!  'rny  in  fto.     \\  -.-ally  declare  that  THE  REAL  ISSUE 


The  C!  mufacti:;  -ciation  shows  no  spirit  of  fair  play  in  • 

conceal  the  tr  -  lie  cry   of  "Alien   Agitators."     There  are  no  more  ** Alien 

tors"  on  of  the  controversy  than  there  are  on  the  part  of  the  Manufac  - 


It  is  purely  an   industrial   dispute  Mfl   employers  and  their  employees,  both 

of    whom    include    pra<  'ie    same    nationalities,    races    and    creeds.      It    is    an 

indus*    il  dispute  b<  -cs  such  as  have  occurred  in  different 

countries  and  under  variou-  MS.    To  charge  such  a  dispute,  which  is  a  natural 

>wth  of  the  relations  between  employers  and  employees,  to  "Professional 
agitators,"  means  not  only  running  away  from  the  truth,  but  also  character  assassi? 

No  practical   purpose  will  be  -  r  airing  in   the  public  press  of  alleged 

of   the  Hirers*   Association    again  >  nion.   and    the    Union's 

denying  them,  as  we  certainly  do  deny  the  charges  of  "Intolerable  conditions  ii 

.tlien  labour  ,v;t    .  \\ill  not  brinK-  the  issue  any  nearer  a  solution. 

I  the  problem  -  1  by  the  .  inp  to  cru-h  the 

of  th«  -  -ihing  policy  does  succeed,  it  only 

to  plant  the  seeds  for  future  it  >n. 

W  Me  merits  of   the  dispute  we  arc   ready  to  meet   the  employers  at  a 

body  or  individually,  as  thr  -  *  discuss  the  issue  or  issues;  anything  we 

may  fail  to  at      -  -«re  willing  to  leave  to  arbitration. 

S.  W.  Jaco!  both  parties  the  services  of  Hon.  Macken. 

former  Minister  of  Labuor.  \V',v  are  the  Manufacturers  afraid  to  trust  him?  He. 
surely,  is  not  an  "Alien  Agitator."  Nor  can  the  Mayor  of  this  city  be  classed  as  such. 
We  a  -  -  may  easily  be  found  a  number  of  other 

fair-minded  and  publi  -  rns  entitled  to  the  confidence  of  both  parties. 

The    Amalga:  lothtng    Wor  America    has    been    working    ui 


collective  bargain  agreements  with  a  number  of  Clothing  Manufacturers,  among  them 
the  two  largest  clothing  firms  on  the  American  Continent.  Hart,  Schaffner  &  Marx, 
of  Chicago,  employing  about  six  thousand  tailors  and  cutters,  and  Henry  Sonneborn 
&  Co.,  of  Baltimore,  employing  about  three  thousand.  The  "Intolerable  conditions 
imposed  by  the  Labour  Autocrats"  arc  found  to  be  perfectly  satisfactory  by  all  those 
establishments.  What  is  possible  there  cannot  be  impossible  here. 

The  workers  are  determined  to  defend  their  rights  to  organise.  A  right  established 
by  the  free  laws  and  institutions  of  this  country  they  will  not  permit  themselves 
to  be  deprived  of  by  any  set  of  men.  But  the  organization  of  the  workers  stands 
ready  to  meet  with  the  employers  to  confer  and  adjust. 

All  that  is  necessary  in  order  to  reach  a  speedy  adjustment  is  for  the  employers 
to  agree  to  meet  us. 



The  following  letters  are  self -explanatory: 

JOS.  SCHLOSSBERG,  Esq.,  Montreal,  January  i8th,  1917. 

General  Secretary, 

Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America. 

Dear  Sir: — With  reference  to  the  dispute  which  has  arisen  between  the  working 
men,  members  of  your  Association,  who  are  now  on  strike,  and  the  various  Clothing 
Manufact  nis.  1  should  be  glad  to  learn  whether  your  Association  would  lie- 

prepared  to  meet,  in  conference.  Members  of  the  Clothing  Manufacturers'  Association, 
\viih  a  view  of  settlement,  and  in  the  event  of  the  parties  failing  to  agree,  to  submit 
such  disagreements  to  the  arbitration  of  the  Hon.  W.  L.  Mackenzie  King,  former 
Minister  of  Labour.  I  am  dispatching  a  similar  letter  to  the  Clothing  Manufacturers' 
Association,  asking  whether  they  would  be  prepared  to  fall  in  with  this  view. 

I  have  not  been  authorized  by  any  of  the  parties  to  the  dispute  to  interest  myself 
in  the  matter  and  am  acting  purely  with  the  object  of  endeavoring  to  bring  about 
a  settlement  of  the  unfortunate  trouble,  through  the  means  referred  to  above. 

May  I  have  your  reply  immediately? 

Yours  truly, 

(Signed)  L.  W.  JACOBS  . 

P.  S.— I  have  phoned  Mr.  King,  who  states  that  if  both  parties  are  agreeable 
to  having  him,  he  would  be  prepared  to  act.  S.  W.  J. 

Montreal,  January   ipth,   1917. 
L.  W.  JACOBS,  Esq.,  83  Craig  St.,  West,  City 

Dear  Sir: — I  have  your  favor  of  the  i8th  inst.,  asking  whether  my  organization 
would  meet  in  conference  with  members  of  the  Clothing  Manufacturers'  Association 
with  a  view  of  settling  the  present  controversy. 

I  have  not  as  yet  had  an  opportunity  to  place  your  letter  before  my  organization 
for  official  action.  It  has.  however,  been  the  policy  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing 
Workers  of  America  to  confer  with  employers'  Associations  for  the  purpose  of  adjusting 
disputes.  In  line  with  that  established  policy  I  shall  urge  to  agree  to  confer  and  am 
confident  that  it  will  be  done  if  the  other  side  is  ready. 

It  has  been  my  experience  that  seeming  unsolvable  problems  in  the  relations 
between  employers  and  employees  were  satisfactorily  solved  by  mutual  understanding 
and  agreement  as  a  result  of  conferences.  What  was  possible  in  many  other  cases 
should  also  be  possible  i-n  the  present  case. 

Appreciating  the  high  motive  that  has  prompted  your  action,  I  thank  you  most 

Respectfully  yours, 

(Signed)        JOSEPH  SCHLOSSBERG, 

General  Secretary, 
Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America. 



The  Labor  World,  organ  of  the  Trades  and  Labor  Council,  in  its  issue  of 
January  27,  1917,  indignantly  protested  against  the  manufacturers'  use  < 
name  in  us.    The  Trades  and  Labor  Council  also  adopted  a 

resolution  expressing  its  sympathy  with  the  strikers. 

In  a  •>  given  above  the  following  correspondence  will  be 

of  interest  an<t  will  throw  a  strong  light  on  the  whole  situation: — 

Montreal,  February  2.  1917 

Ge:  •  inalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America, 


Dear  S.  .   reference  to  the  letters  which   1    addressed  on  January   ifkh  to 

you,  at   r-         -  -  .ited   Clothing  Workers   of   America,  and   to 

iiuctmrrs*    Association,    I    have    to    say    that    the    Manufacturer!' 

the  same,  and   unofficially    1    am   given   to  under- 

-   not  t)t<-  :   that  body  to  take  any  cognizance  of  my  com- 


In  a  letter  addressed  by  the  Associat  ie  Mayor  this  week,  that   body  is 

good  enough  to  refer  t  in  attempting  a  conciliation,  whict 

on  the  th'  c*sed  their  sentiment,  scarcely  coincides  with  their  failure 

to  reply  to  courteous  communication  addressed  with  the  best  of  intentions.     While 

M  understands  that  high  motives  may  a 

parties  e\  <  -heir  own  body,  a  few  simple  lessons  in  qood  manners,  breeding 

and  courtesy,  which   i  easily  learn  from  your  Association,  would,  perhaps, 

make  that  organization  a  little  more  representative  of  the  interests  they  are  supposed 
to  sc 

Yours  truly. 

(Signed)  I..  W.  JACOBS  . 

Public  Statement  of  Mayor  Martin  of  Montreal 

After  his  repeated  efforts  to  bring  about  a  settlement,  which  were  frustrated 
<>  employers'  association,  Mayor  Martin  of  Montreal  issued  the  following 
public  statement,  of  which  an  official  copy  was  furnished  to  us: 

As  the  attempts  I  have  made  to  settle  the  differences  which  have 

en  the  clothing  manufacturers  and  the  clothing  workers  have  been  a 
complete  failure,  I  believe  it  is  necessary  that  the  public  should  exactly  know 
the  nature  of  the  steps  I  have  taken  and  the  reasons  why  the  same  have  been 


On  the  2/th  of  Jam.  I  received  the  following  let!- 

Montreal,  January  *7.  I9'7 
Us  Worship  Mederic  i'.sq.,  M.  P.. 

ntreal,  < 

Honorable  S  of  Montreal,  who  is  daily  brought  into  contact  with 

the  *    rfce  •*«!  by  the  present  clothing:  feel  justified  in  making  on  my 

personal  i  an  urgent  appeal  to  you  to  use  the  power  and  influence  of  your 

High  Office  of  the  Metropolitar  Canada,  as  well  as  the  friend  of  the  working 

man.  in  order  to  effect  a  speedy  settlement  of  the  present  unfortunat 

The  strike  i-  ino.ilonlaMv  damaging  both  to  the  manufacturer  the  worl 

to  the   former,  by  demoralizing  one   of  the  greatest  and  most   productive   ind-; 
in  the  community;  and  to  the  latter,  l.y  the  uiu-rrtainties  and  losses  due  to  unemploy- 
ment, and  this  at  a  per  the  hie!i  living  is  such  an  important  problem 

This  economic  lo*s  and  strife  is  :  rly  deplorable  at  a  time  when 


the  burdens  of  war  are  falling  so  heavily  on  all  classes,  and  when  the  interests  of  the 
nation  and  of  the  Empire,  demand  co-operation  and  un 

Experience  in  dealing  with  >trike  condtions,  has  demonstrated,  that  the  best 
results  are  often  achieved  by  mediation  and  tion. 

1  assure  you,  that  a  large  number  of  citizens,  would  welcome  at  the  present 
juncture,  your  personal  and  official  intervention  and  the  nomination  of  a  voluntary 
Board  of  Mediators,  to  be  headed  by  yourself,  and  to  include  the  Members  of  the 
Board  of  Commissioners  of  the  City,  and  also  Professor  Stephen  Leacock  of  the 
Faculty  of  Arts  of  Mctiill  Univcrnty,  for  the  purpose  of  carrying  out  an  immediate, 
direct  and  impartial  inquiry,  in  order  that  a  basis  of  settlement,  fair  and  equitable 
to  both  parties  shall  be  arrived  at. 

Such  a  finding  would  be  backed  by  the  full  force  of  public  opinion,  and  would 
command  instant  adhesion  and  respect.  It  would  also  eliminate  future  causes  of 
disagreement  and  act  as  a  salutary  curb  to  stubbornness  or  bitterness  on  cither  side. 
Prompt  action  cannot  fail  to  be  a  boon  to  all  interests  involved,  including  the  welfare 
of  the  public,  which  is  exposed  to  unforeseen  loss  and  suffering. 

The  blame  of  prolonging  the  present  struggle,  would  then  be  fixed  definitely  on 
the  faction  refusing  to  accept  the  verdict,  which  would  in  such  event  stand  condemned 
before  the  Bar  of  Public  Opinion. 

This  appeal  is  made  to  you  as  a  public  man.  who  possesses  in  an  eminmt 
degree,  the  courage,  firmness  and  capacity  to  act  authoritatively  to  save  the  situation, 
and  I  venture  to  hope,  that  it  will  receive  your  courteous  and  due  consideration. 

I  remain,  Your  Worship, 

Yours  sincerely, 


Business   Men's   Strike   Relief  Committee. 

I  replied  to  this  letter  as  follows  : 

Montreal,  January  29th,   1917. 
LYON    W.  JACOBS,   Esq., 

Advocate,  Barrister  &  Solicitor, 
Main  Bulding, 

520  St.  Lawrence  Boulevard,  City. 

Dear  Sir: — I  beg  to  acknowledge  receipt  of  your  letter  of  the  27th  inst..  with 
regard  to  the  present  strike  in  the  Clothing  Trade  and,  in  reply  I  wish  to  inform 
you  that  I  am  writing  to-day  to  the  Clothing  Manufacturers'  Association  and  to  the 
Joint  Board  of  the  Amalgamated  Garment  Workers,  asking  them  to  send  representa- 
tives to  meet  me  in  my  office  at  the  City  Hall,  on  Thursday,  February  ist,  at  10 
o'clock  A.  M.,  for  the  purpose  of  stating  whether  they  would  be  prepared  to  accept 
your  suggestion  of  appointing  a  voluntary  Board  of  Mediators  to  whom  both  factions 
would  submit  their  respective  grievances  in  order  that  a  basis  of  settlement,  fair  and 
equitable  to  both  parties,  may  be  arrived  at. 

Trusting  you  will  be  present  at  the  meeting,  I  beg  to  remain,  Dear  Mr.  Jacobs, 

Yours  very  truly, 
(Signed)  NfEDERIC   MARTIN, 


I  instructed  at  the  same  time  my  Secretary  to  transmit  the  following 
letter  to  the  Manufacturers: 

Clothing  Manufacturers  of  Montreal,  Montreal,  January  29th,  1917. 

Attention  of  Mr.  Lyon  Cohen, 
c/o  Freedman  Company, 

Sohmer  Bldg.,  Mayor  Street,  City. 

Dear  Sir:— With  reference  to  a  letter  from  Mr.  Lyon  W.  Jacobs,  B.  C.  L., 
Treasurer  Business  Men's  Relief  Committee  addressed  to  His  Worship  the  Mayor, 
and  relative  to  the  present  strike  in  the  Clothing  Trades,  I  have  been  directed  to 
ask  you  to  send  representatives  to  meet  His  Worship  the  Mayor,  iji  his  office  at 
the  City  Hall,  on  Thursday,  February  ist,  at  10  o'clock  A.  M.,  for  the  purpose  of 
stating  whether  they  would  be  prepared  to  accept  the  suggestions  of  Mr.  Lyon  W. 
Jacobs  of  appointing  a  voluntary  Board  of  'Mediators  to  whom  both  factions  would 


order  that  a  bam  of  settlement,  fair  and  equitable 

to  both  parties  may  »  - 

Trusting    you    *>!!    *ivr    IM-    rr.juest   your    prompt    attention,    1    bey   to   remain, 



Se    - 
I  thm  n-rrived  the  following  reply  from  the  Manufacturers: 

8  Beaver  Hall  Hill. 

Worship  Mederic  Martin,  Eta..,  M.  P.  Montreal.  January  joth.  1917. 

Mayor  of  Montreal, 
Montreal,  QIK 

Dear    I  I   •::»*    the    Clothing    Manufacturers' 

Association  t<  -  vet  to  the  Or  -      iary   itt.  at   10  o'clock. 

<e   of    stating    whether    they    would    be    willing    to    accept    suggestions 

respecting   apj  .try    Board   of    Mediator!   in   conne  n    the 

istry,  was  laid  before  a  meeting  of  our   Association   held 

Aft  -         n  and  while  appreciating  the  kind  offices  of  gentlemen 

.  'Uirsrli.    (.  oiuroller    R<  ».«•*.    Mr  nl    others,    who   a 

prompted  by  the  highest  motives  to  int  -i  the  present  sit 

'••c  obliged  to  ad\  that  they  are  unable  to  entertain   the   sugK 

relative  to  a  Board  of  Mediators. 

Thr  -rs   of   the   Association,   in    the   interest   of   peace   and   harmo 

already  conceded   ••  »:.  with   the  exception   of   the   right   to  control   their   own 

affair-  a  matter  which  may  be  arbitrated. 

Association's  statement  published  in  the  press  a  few  days  ago  fully 
,  >sition  and  shows  what  our  members  have  had  to  contend  with.     We  can  only 
ite   what   we  Micly  stated,  :    shops  are   open  -mployee*. 

whom  we  will  treat  with  fairness  and  justice  at  all  times. 

ile.   as  tfully    decline   to    submit    the  -  lion    of 

•  >f  our  business  to  any  Committee,  no  matter  how  worthy,  we  shall  be  giad 
to  wait  upon  Your  Worship  personally,  if  you  so  desire,  at  any  time  you  may 
appoint,  in  order  to  explain  our  position  more  fully. 

Yours  sincerely. 


Charles  J.  Harrod.  Secretary. 

1  th<n  invited  i!i»-  manufacturers  to  come  and  discuss  with  me  the  causes 
of  the  confl 

CHARLES  J.  HARROD.  Esq.,  Se 

The  Clothing   Manuf,  Association, 

!!    Hill. 

Dear  Sir:  —  1  beg  to  ackr  ,.f  your  letter  of  the  joth  ult..  and  in 

would  .1  representatives  of  your   Association 

call  at   my  ofnre  this  afternoon  at   2  o'clock.     If  the  delay  is  too  snort  to  get  your 
hers  together,  kindly  let  me  know  what  time  \\ 
Bcliexc  me.  Dear  Sir, 

Yours  very  truly, 
(Signed)  MEDERIC   MARTI 


In  the  meantime  I  received  the  following  letter  from  th<*  nothing  Work' 
Union  : 




Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America. 

Office:  37  Prince  Arthur  St.,   Est.  B.   Rishi4cof,  Sec.-Treas.  Phone:   East  318 


Mayor  of  Montr <  Montreal,  February  i,  1917. 

City  Hall,  ( 
Honorable  Sir: 

Confirming  our  conversation  of  this  morning  at  your  office,  I  beg  leave  to  state 
that  if,  as  the  Clothing  Manufacturers  say,  the  only  issue  of  the  present  conflict 
between  our  organization  and  theirs  is  the  discharge  of  the  Shop  Delegate  of  the 
Frccdman  Company,  I  assure  you  that  as  far  as  we  are  concerned  the  matter  will 
be  easily  adjusted  if  we  meet  in  Conference  with  the  Employers. 

I  may  also  add  that  any  other  problem  that  may  properly  be  placed  before  us 
will  likewise  be  solved  as  a  result  of  such  conference.  My  confidence  in  this  is  based 
upon  my  experience  with  similar  situations  in  the  past. 

Thanking  you  for  your  kind  interest,  I  beg  to  remain, 

Very  respectfully  yours, 


General  Secretary, 
Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America. 

I   then  had  an  interview  with  the  representative  of   tlu    Manufacturers' 
Association  and  I  urged  them  to  agree  to  meet  their  employees  or  their  represen- 
ts to  discuss  the  question  at  issue. 

Frcm  what  these  gentlemen  stated  to  me,   I   understand  that  the    Manu- 
facturers were   willing  to  meet  their  employees  but  that  they  did  not  want 
to  have  anything  to  do  with  outside  representatives  of  the  Clothing  Workers' 

In  the  course  of  the  interview,  the  representatives  of  the  manufacturers 
declared  that  they  could  not  comply  with  certain  requests  made  by  their  emp- 
loyees and  that  they  could  not  allow  anyone  to  interfere  with  the  internal 
administration  of  their  work-shops. 

The  manufacturers  pointed  out  certain  abuses  which  they  had  to  suffer 
from  their  employees  namely: 

1.  That  shop  delegates  quit  their  work  and  intervene  each  time  anything  happens. 

The  manufacturers  declared  that  they  did  not  object  to  the  presence  of  repre- 
sentatives of  the  union  in  the  work-shops,  provided  that  they  attended  to  the  business 
of  the  union  outside  of  working  hours. 

2.  That  the  shop  delegates  refuse  to  allow  any  gang  to  dp  the  work  of  another 
gang,  when   the  manufacturers   are  compelled   to  act   thus   owing   to   the   absence   of 

3.  When  a  row  employee  is  engaged  in  any  work-shop,  the  shop  delegate  quits 
his  work,  goes  over  to  this  new  employee  and  asks  him  if  he  has  his  Union  Card; 
if  the  latter  replies   in   the   negative   but   adds   that    he  will   go   and    fetch    it    during 
lunch  hour  or  in  the  evening,  the  shop  delegate  refuses  to  allow  him   to  work  and 
stirs   up  all   the  other  employees.       Moreover,   if   this   new   employee   applies   to    the 
union  for  his  card,  they  refuse  to  give  him  the  same  and  he  is  told  that   there  are 
unionists  on  the  list  before  him  and  that  he  must  wait  for  his  return  to  get  work. 

4.  That  they  sought  to  prevent  the  manufacturers  from  discharging  any  employee 
even   when  there  is  not  sufficient  work  for  everybody,   the   workers  contending  that 
the  shops  should  rather  remain  open  only  during  three  days  per  week. 

The  representatives  of  the  manufacturers  then  withdrew  after  stating  that 

they  would  again  discuss  the  matter  with  the  other  members  of  their  association. 

On  the  4th  of  February,  I  had  an  interview  with  about  thirty  representa- 


lives  of  the  C  and  1  submitted  to  them  the  stat 

made  to  me  by  the  representatives  of  the  employers.    These  gentlemen  asserted 
that  all  the  differences  might  be  easily  settled  if  the  unionists  could  meet  the 


I  then  promised  that  I  would  again  communicate  with  the  manufacturers 
and  hem  to  prevail  upon  loyers  to  meet  the  workers. 

I  thereupon  wrote  the  following  letters: 

\KROD,  Esq..  SecreU:  r^ry  5,  1917. 

The  Clothing   Manufacturer*'   Association  of   Montreal, 
8  U.  :i  Hill. 

ar  Sir:— I   had  a   long  interview,   yesterday,   in   my   office,   with   about   thirty 
representatives    of   the    Garmrnt    Workers'    Union,   and    I    stated    to    them    that    the 
•uo  Hirer*  iiployees  but   were  refuting  to  have 

mg  to  d<  .es  of  any  labor  organize 

H    statcni  i*e    I    understood    from    the    representatives    of    the 

tac Hirers'  Association  of  Montreal,  whom   I  met   last   Friday,  in  the 
t  this  was  the  decision  of  their  association. 

If  the  members  of  your  association  have  not  changed  their  views  on  the  matter, 
to  arrange  to  have  three  workers  of  every  shop  meet   their  employ- 
cans  to  i  -   unfortunate  strike  which  is   paralyzing   the 
v  and  bringing  sufferings  to  such  a  large  number  of  our 
good  citizens. 

Yours  very  truly, 

LYON  W.  JACOBS,  Esq.,  K.  C.  Treasurer, 

Business  Men's  Strike  Relief  Commit  t  Montreal,  February  5.   1917. 


Dear    Sir: — In    pursuance    with    the    understanding   arrived    at    yesterday,    during 
the  Conference  with  the  representatives  of  the  Clothing  Workers'  Union.  I  may  say 
it   I   have  been  told,   I   believe  that   the  Clothing  Manufacturers  would 
:  ling  to  meet  their  own  workers  if  such  meeting  can  be  arranged. 

1  you   kindly  lay  this  matter  immediately  before  the  Garment   Workers  who 
are  presently  on  strike,  to  find  out  if  they  would  be  willing  to  appoint  a  Committee 
of,  say  three  workers  from  each  shop,  to  meet  their  employers. 
An  early  reply  will  oblige. 

Yours  very  t: 
(Signed)  MEDERIC   MART! 

The  manufacturers  transmitted  to  me  the   following  reply: 


.Vorship  MEDKRIC  MARTIN,  Esq..  M.  P.. 
Mayor  of  Montreal,  February  5.  1917. 

Montreal.  Quebec. 

.tr  Sir:— Your  letter  of  the  sth  inst.,  was  submitted  to  a  meeting  of  the  Clothing 
Manufacturers'  Association  held  this  afternoon  and  I  have  been  requested  to  reply 
ns  fallows: 

The  manufacturers  have  not  in  any  respect  changed  their  minds  relative  to  the 

K  their   employees   at    their   respective   offices,    and    in    order    that 

their  position  may  be  made  perfectly  clear  in  the  matter,  they  beg  to  refer  you  to 

the   clause    dealing    with    that    i  •:    their    general    statement    appearing    in    the 

of  January  25th.  and  also  to  the  letter  to  Controller  Ross  of  date  of 

2d,  a  copy  of  which  is  herewith  enclosed. 

Yours  sincerely, 
(Signed)  HARROD. 

Honorary  Secretary. 


1  thereupon  wrote  to  the  manufacturers  the  following  letter: 

CHARLES  J.  HARROD,  Esq.,  Secretary, 

The   Clothing   Manufacturers'   Association   of   Montreal, 
8  Beaver  Hall   Hill.   Montreal. 

mr  Sir:— I  beg  to  acknowledge  receipt  of  your  reply  to  my  letter  of  the  sth., 
.t.  I  am  sorry  to  see  that  the  Clothing  Manufacturers'  Association  do  not  think 
.ible  to  meet  a  delegation  of  their  employees  as  rcpre>r 

to  which  they  belong  but  are  only  willing  to  receive  them  in  the  office  of  the  respective 
shops  where  they  used  to  work. 

I  never  understood  that  such  was  the  way  your  Association  had  decided  to  act, 
otherwise.  I  would  not  have  pressed  the  matter  any  further. 

I  fail  t"  see  the  reluctance  of  your  Association  to  discuss  the  different  questions 
at  issue  with  a  body  of  men  representing  those  directly  intere.ste.i  in  i  <  ttlement  of 
the  present  difficulties;  on  the  other  hand  I  quite  realize  the  objection  of  the  Workers 

ital  importance  to  them  without  proper  sup; 

1  admit  that  the  manufacturers  may  have  had  cause  for  complaints  against  certain 
of  their  employees,  but,  nobody  can  deny  that  if  all  the  grievances  which  the  workers 
have  suffered  were  put  before  the  public,  these  grievances  would  be  found  far  more 
serious  than  the  complaints  of  the  employers. 

I  \\us  tokl  thi>  morning  that  the  Union  had  practically  decided  that  the  whole 
>n  of  the  rights  of  their  members  being  at  stakq  it  was  advisable  to  immediately 
ask  for  additional  wages  and  shorter  hours  to  which  they  claim  they  are  entitled. 
I  succeeded  this  morning  to  have  this  matter  postponed  and  I  promised  to  write 
a^ain  to  your  association  to  urge  once  more  the  advantage  of  having  a  m- 
between  the  employers  and  the  employees,  both  as  representing  their  respective 

I   sincerely  hope   that  you   will   reconsider  your  decision   and   that   you   will   give 
me  the  necessary  help  to  arrive  at  an  early  settlement  o£  the  present   difficulties. 
I  Relieve  me,  dear 

Yours  very  truly. 
(Signed)  M1EDERIC   MARTIN, 


After  sending  this  letter  I  had  a  further  interview  with  the  representatives 
of  the  manufacturers  which  said  interview  had  no  result. 

As  a  l.i-t  shift  I  tried  to  prevail  upon  the  interested  parties  to  agree  to 
the  appointment  of  a  Board  of  Arbitration,  as  shown  by  the  following  correspon- 

This  suggestion  was  accepted  by  the  workers  and  rejected  by  the  manu- 

MR.  LYOX  \V.  .1  Ac  OBS,  Treasurer.  Montreal,  February  9,  1917. 

Busines  Strike   Relief  Committee, 

520  St.  Lawrence  Boulevard,  Montreal. 

Dear  Sir: — I  am  very  sorry  to  see  that  all  my  attempts  to  effect  a  settlement 
of  the  present  difficulties  between  the  clothing  manufacturers  and  their  workers,  have 

now  met  with  no  success. 

I  had  deckled  therefore  to  abandon,  further  negotiations  and  to  lay  before  the 
public  the  whole  situation  as  I  understand  it.  Nevertheless,  before  doing  so  I  will 
make  one  last  suggestion  to  put  an  end  to  the  present  situation  and,  if  this  suggestion 
is  rejected  the  public  will  judge  who  is  responsible  for  the  present  state  of  affairs. 

.rgestion   is  simply   the  appointment  of  an  arbitration   board   composed   of 

three  members,  one  to  be  appointed  by  the  workers,  one  by  the  manufacturers  and 
these  two  arbitrators  to  select  the  third  one. 

This  method  of  settling  difficulties  is  nothing  new  and  should  be  accepted  by 
both  parties. 

I  am  writing  a  similar  letter  to  the  Clothing  Manufacturers'  Association,  and  I 
am  anxiously  awaiting  their  reply  as  well  as  yours. 

Yours  very  truly, 



The  same  letter  was  sent  to  the  Clothing  Manufacturers'  A 

MKDERIC  MARTIN.  E«q.(  M     r  Montreal,  February  u.  1917. 

Mayor  of  Montreal. 

Honor.*'    -  I    beg   le*\r   !-.    knnwledjce    recrijit    fo  your   favor  of 

.tng  Worker »'  Strike  in  which  you  suggest  the  appointment 
of  an   Art  Hoard  composed  of  three   members  one  to  be  apt>  y   the 

*!id  these  ar1>:  •   a  th»r«: 

1   I  this  con    I    have  duly   submitted   this  matter 

Kamated  Clothing  Workers  «•{  America 

sideration  and  rm   you  that   in  line   with   the  estab- 

f   thai  organization   that  the  Joint    Board  are  quite   willing  to  accept 

•    an   Ar  Board   for   the   purpose  of 

i*pute,  with   the  exception  however  of  the  recognition  of 

the  Union  or  the  right  of  the  Workers  to  be  organized  which  is  a  mat'.'  uciple 

J    m.iv  nt    Hoard   will  be  pleased  to  meet  your   Worship  at  any 

•n   t"  y»>»«  >"  this  connection. 

mking  you  for  the  interest  you  have  taken  in  this  strike  and  deeply  appreciating 
the  high  mot  .ive  prompted  you  to  endeavor  to  regulate  thi*  mat! 

Hehexr  :nr.  with  kind  respects, 

Yours  very  truly. 

(Signed)  )N   W.  JACOBS. 


.Vorship  Mi  Dl  KK    MARTIN,  Esq.,  M 

Mayor  of  Montreal,  Montreal,  February  ijth.  1917. 

-.»!,   Uue. 

Your  lr  he  otfi   \n»i..  suggesting  the  appointment  of  an  arbisration  board 

composed  of  three  members,  one  appointed  by  the  Workers,  one  by  the  Manufacturers' 

:<>  select  the  third,  was  duly  placed  before  a  full  meeting  of  the  Associa- 

After  careful  consideration  and  while  appreciating  your  further  efforts,  it  was 

felt    that    the    Ass«  .id    in    thrir    letters    to    you    of   joth    January,    plain 

the  fact   that   the    Manufacturers    had    already    conceded  |    the 

<>f  the  right  to  control  their  own  affairs,  which  is  not  a  matter  that  may  be 

In   our   several   interview*,    with    Your  Worship,   you   have   stated   that   the   »• 
\va«  r  of  wages,  hours  or  working  c  and  Controller  Ross  in  his 

last  statement  publicly  advised  the  men  to  return  to  work. 

must  again  say   that  having  made  our  case  plain,  we   respectfully  decline   to 
submit  our  affairs  to  a  board  of  mediators. 

Yours  sincerely. 


(Signed)  \RROD. 

Hon.  Secretary. 

The  main  fact   which  the  above  correspondence  discloses  is   that  the  employees 
-  that  their  I'nion  be  recognized  and  that  the  employers.  whUe  they  do  not  seem 
to    formally    refuse    to    recognize    such    Union,    seek   the    means   of   supprc* 
refusing  to  confer   with   those  whose  have  organized  the  same  and   are  the   principal 
supporters  thereof. 

have  always  been   an  ardent   Unionist,   and   today,   more   tha      -  i    am   of 

Mian  should  organize,  inasmuch  as  this  is  the  only  means  he 
mg  his  condition. 

The  workers  desire  that  their  Union  be  recognized;   I  approve  them,  for  if  such 
--r  suppressed,  they  would  be  at  the  mercy  of  the  employers  and  treated  as 

Why  do  the   manufactur  ^e   to   meet   their   employees,  as   Unionists,   and 

ss  with  them  the  terms  of  an  arrangement  which  would  permit  of  the  employers 



being  masters  in  their  work-shops  and  which  would  ensure  for  the  workers  the 
protection  of  their  rights  against  the  abuses  of  power  or  caprices  of  a  foreman  or 

an  only   find  one  answer   to   this   question,   namely,   that   the   employer    i.i 
sincerity  when  he  says  that  he  is  in  favor  of  the  Union  formed  by  his  employ 

The  manufacturers  refuse  to  concede  anything;  they  decline  to  discuss  with  their 
employees,  as  and  object  to  arbitration.     In   view  of  this   st  >s  on 

their  part,   I   can   only  repeat   to  the  workers  what    I   already   said   to  them,   ti 
that  they  should  act  with  calm,  but  energetically  insist  on  the  upholding  and  recog- 
D   of  their  rights. 

ll  just  and  will   ultimately   triumph. 


M  ;iyor, 

The  Strike  Spreads 

We  had  a  number  of  conferences  with  the  Mayor  and  other  pu  ited 

citizens  who  were  anxious  to  assist  in  bringing  about  a  settlement  of  tin-  <trike, 
but   the  manufacturers  stubbornly  clung  to  the   famous   Pullman   formula  of 
"Nothing  to  Arbitrate,"  and  refused  to  listen  to  anyone,  not  even  excepting 
iayor  of  the  city.     Their  srtihbcrniv  'he  fact  that  bu 

lull  during  the  strike  period.  That  was  also  the  reason  they  selected  that 
time  for  the  contest.  The  organization  realized  that  as  for  itself  it  was  a 
question  of  endurance.  The  problem  was  then,  Can  we  hold  out  until  sometime 
in  March?  At  the  tiinc  the  Mayor  made  his  statement  public  the  strike  was 
general  throughout  the  industry,  including  fifteen  hundred  workers  in  the 
independent  shops.  While  the  extension  of  the  strike  had  its  advantages,  in 
other  ways  it  had  this  one  disadvantage  that  removed  an  important  source  of 
revenue  while  it  increased  the  number  of  people  who  required  assistance.  There 
were  then  5,000  strikers  instead  of  3,500. 

.   The  rigors  of  the  Montreal  winter  are  well  known.    To  do  picket  duty  at 
six  o'clock  in  the  morning  with  a  temperature  of  twenty-eight  degrees  below  zero 
requires  a  high   sense  of   duty   and  a  spirit  of   self-sacrifice.      Nor   was   the 
inclemency  of  the  weather  the  only  hardship.     The  police  displayed  the  usual 
brutality  towards  the  strikers  except  that  in  addition  to  making  effective  use  of 
their  clubs  they,  being  mounted  police,  literally  rode  roughshod  over  the  strikers, 
who  were  trampled  under  the  hoofs  of  the  horses.     The  aged,  the  your.; 
men  and  the  women,  were  alike  clubbed,  ridden  over,  beaten  up  and  otht 
prosecuted  and  persecuted. 

The  distress  was  acute.  The  Montreal  organization,  very  young  and  con- 
stantly on  the  firing  line,  had  not  an  opportunity  to  prepare  itself  financially 
for  such  an  onslaught.  The  manufacturers  depended  on  the  poverty  of  the 
organization  and  its  members  to  break  the  spirit.  They  had  hoped  to  starve 
them  into  submission.  Financial  relief  came  from  our  general  membership  and 
also  from  a  Business  Men's  Relief  Conference  organized  in  Montreal.  The 
General  Office  contributed  large  sums  of  money.  Still  larger  sums  would  have 
been  contributed  were  it  not  for  the  general  strike  in  Philadelphia  that  was  on 
at  the  same  time  and  required  liberal  support. 



The  financial  assistance  received  t  'rikers  was  far  from  suffkie: 

they  fought  bravely  on.    The  lines  remained  intact  and  the  spirit  strong  until 
We  are  happy  to  attest  to  the  fact  the  Montreal  strikers  proved 
equal  to  the  very  be  he  battles  of  our  organization.    They 

conducted  a  magnificent  fight  again  le  odds. 

The  Settlement 

!»e  course  oi  ;u>  individual  settlements  were  made 

firms  and  on  March  7,  after  a  number  of  attempts  at  mediation, 

iiuluin  was  signed  referring  <versy  to  a  Committee  of 

It  took  eight  weeks  to  prove  to  the  manufacturers  that  the  workers 

could  not  be  pounded  into  renouncing  their  right  to  organize.     Business  was 

beginning  to  revive  and  •  >r  the  employers  to  agree  to  end  the 


The  ".tlinn  of  agreement  which  ended  the  strike  was  signed  for  the 

Board  I  its  attorney  and  member  of  the  Provincial 

nd  for  the  Manufacturers'  Association  by  Mr.   Michael  Hirsch. 
a  prominent  business  man.     The  memorandum  was  as  follows: 

"Whereas  Mr.  Mirliael   Hirsch  and  Mr.   iVter  Bercovitch  have  discussed  ways  and 

-  of  adji:-  -lie  differences  that  exist  between  the  following  dot hmg 

manufacturers  to  wit:  Joh-  k.  Ltd..  Semi-Ready.  Ltd..  Fashion 

Craft.  Ltd.,  Sa;  ncr  &  Co..  Ltd.,  S.  Levinson  &  Co..  The  Frcedraan  Co.,  Samuel 

Hart    &   Co.,    K.    A.    Small    Co.,    Ltd..    Christie    Clothing    Co..    Ltd.,    B.    Card: 

1     Mfg.    Co..    Ltd..    Kaplan    Samuelsohn    &    Co..    Saxe    Clothing 
Co.,  H.  Keller:  &  Sons  and  their  employees,  and 

"Whereas,  they  deem  it  advisable  to  reduce  to  writing  the  suggestions  that  they 
are  prepared  to  offer  to  both  manufacturers  and  employees  as  a  basis  for  an  amicable 
settlement  of  the  difference  and  grievances  which  employer  and  employee  pretend  to 
-  against  each  oil  - 

re  submit   to  the  clothing  manufacturers  and   their  employees  the 
following  suggestions: 

"I.    A  C«  f  Inquiry  is  to  be  appointed  in  the  manner  hereinafter  stated 

with  power  to  im;  all  differences  between  employer  and  employee. 

;it  that  the  disagreement  occurred; 
(b)     Into  all  other  grievances  of  both  part: 

•nmittee  may  make  such  recommendations  as  in  their  opinion  will 
remedy  the  differences  or  grievances  that  exist,  and  suggest  such  means  as  may  avoid 
all  such  differences  or  grievances  arising  in  the  fut 

osed    of    five    gentlemen,    none    of 

i  are  to  he  .  either  directly  or  indirectly   with  the  clothing  industry. 

The  Commit-  be  appointed  as  follows: 

rsch.  and  two  by  Mr.  Peter  Bercovitch. 

and  the  fifth,  who  will  also  act  as  Chairman,  is  to  be  selected  by  the  four  appointed 
as  aforesaid. 

The  employees  >rk  forthwith  without  >f  any  kind. 

The  Committee  will  report  within  four  weeks  from  date,  if  possible,  and  in 
any  event  not  Liter  than  the  first  or 

Both  of  the  parties  hereto  undertake  to  use  erery  effort  to  have  the  report  of 
•mniittee  and  the  remedies  suggested  carried  out  by  both  employer  and  employee. 
"8.    The  report  of  the  Committee  is  to  be  delivered  to  Messrs.  Hirsch  and  Berco- 
vitch as  soon  as  it  is  rendered. 

rt   of  the  Committee,  any   misunderstanding  that  may  arise 
v    Hirsch   and    Bercovitch    whose   decision   in   all   matters 
em  is  to  he  final. 

"Thus  done  and  passed  at  the  city  of  on  this  seventh  day  of  March.  1917. 




When  Brother  Hillman,  who  represented  the  Union  in  those  proceedings, 
submitted  the  report  to  the  Joint  Board  it  was  accepted  and  subsequently 
ratified  by  the  membership  at  a  large  mass  meeting.  Our  im-mbcrs  returned 
to  work,  and  the  following  gentlemen,  chosen  as  a  Committee  of  Inquiry  took 
he  task  assigned  to  them:  John  T.  Foster,  Secretary  of  the  Trades  and 
Labor  Council  of  Montreal,  and  J.  C.  Remmeon,  Professor  nomics  in 

McGill  University,  for  the  Union;  Issac  Freedman  and  W.  N.  Wyrnim  fur  the 
Association,  and  A.  Falconer  chairman.  On  May  nth  they  submitted  the 
following  report: — 

Montreal,  May   nth,  1917 

Dear  Sirs: 

The  Committee  of  Inquiry  appointed  in  accordance  with  the  memorandum  signed 
by  you,  dated  7th  March,  1917,  have  the  honor  to  report  as  folio. 

By   the   reference   we   are   given    power   to   enquire   into   all    differences   "between 
employer  and  employee;  (a)  up  to  the  moment  the  disagreement  occurred,  (b)  iito  all 
other  grievances  of  both  parties;  and  it  is  also  stated  that  "the  Committee  may  make 
such  recommendations  as  in   their  opinion  will   remedy  the  differences   or  griex 
arising  in  the  future." 

We  have  held  almost  daily  sessions  from  the  24th  April  and  at  the  first  sitting 
representatives  of  both  parties  appeared  before  us.  For  the  employees  it  was  stated 
that  no  enquiry  or  report  was  asked  with  regard  to  the  past  save  such  as  the  Committee 
might  think  necessary  for  the  purpose  of  dealing  with  the  demands  under  Clause  (b) 
or  of  making  suggestions,  and  no  evidence  was  offered. 

Grievances  under  clause  (b)  were  put  in  the  form  of  demands  as  follows: 

1.  Union  shops. 

2.  46  hours  to  constitute  a  week's  work. 

3.  A  $2  increase  of  salary  per  week  for  all  workers. 

4.  Time  and  a  half  for  overtime. 

5.  Sanitary   conditions   in   the   shops. 

6.  To  be  paid  for  all  legal  holidays. 

For  the  manufacturers  witnesses  were  called  who  testified  as  to  what  had  happened 
in  a  number  of  instances  given  as  illustrations  of  the  general  situation  and  their 
grievances  were  summed  up  later  as  follows: 

The  manufacturers  objected  to  any  interference  by  any  outside  individual.  <T 
set  of  individuals,  dictating  to  them  as  regards  the  policy  on  which  the  factory  is  to  be 
run,  as  regards  hiring  and  discharge  of  employees,  or  as  regards  wages  or  manner 
of  employment.  The  manufacturers  have  no  objection  to  discussing  individual  diffe- 
rences or  complaints  that  might  arise  between  the  particular  manufacturer  and  1m 
particular  employee  or  employees,  and  that  such  differences  or  complaints  of  the 
employees  be  made  either  by  individuals  or  a  Committee  of  employees,"  and  we  were 
asked  to  fix  the  blame  for  the  strike. 

Under  (b)  it  was  stated  that  there  was  nothing  additional  to  offer,  and  the  Com- 
mittee was  asked  to  suggest  means  to  prevent  a  recurrence  of  interference  such  as 
complained  of. 

In  reply  for  the  employees  it  was  state  that  except  in  one  or  two  cases  covering 
the  incidents  immediately  preceding  the  strike  in  January,  1917,  they  were  not  in  a 
position  to  bring  witnesses.  As  regards  the  incidents  on  which  no  testimony  was 
offered,  their  position  was  stated,  namely:  that  some  of  the  acts  of  interference 
complained  of  were  in  accordance  with  what  they  claimed  to  be  their  rights,  while 
others,  if  they  occurred,  were  unjustifiable. 

When  the  employees  were  called  on  to  present  their  case  as  regards  the  fir-t 
demand  made  under  (b)  "Union  Shops"  the  manufacturers  objected  that  the  Committee 
should  not  deal  with  this  question  as  it  was  not  covered  by  the  references.  They 
claimed  that  the  parties  to  the  references  were  fourteen  named  employers  and  the  r 
respective  employees;  that  the  former  had  throughout  refused  to  discuss  differences 
with  their  employees  with  any  organization  and  that  it  was  understood  that  the  Union 
question  would  not  be  introduced.  Your  Committee  by  a  majority  of  three  to  two, 



ruled  that   although   the  reference  was  undoubtedly   between   fourteen  employers  and 
employees,  yet  the  breadth  of  its  wording  permitted  the  bringing  up  of  this  part 
Kficvance,  especially  at  it  had  been  a  real  question  of  dr 

jpon  the  manufacturers  a:  adjournments  to  give  time  for  consideration. 

then  had  no  option  but  to  proceed.     nfnmmi|a|y 
hear  one  side  on 

Their  case  was  presented  without  calling  witne»*f>  -     ,/  stated  that  reliance 

was  made  on  such  facts  a-  -slight   accept  as  being  generally  known. 

<*r  which  could  be  easily  ascertained  by  the  (  -if  by  reteren  - 

Your  Comt  -:   for  the   proper  understanding  of  the  case  tome  short 

t»  necessary. 

there   had  been   differences,   gradually   increasing   in   number 
the  manufacturers  and  their  employee ».  the  majority  of  whom, 
the  case  of  two  or  three  factories  wrr-  Members. 

Shop  i  <anization.  but  elected  solely  !  -  -iployees 

of  the  shop  or  *rt  m  which  thry  them  -elves  worked,  from  time  to  time  claimed  and 
insisted  or   -  'half  of  the  employee*.  -  e  decision  o: 

•  Kres,   engagement  or  dismissal   of  employees,   conditions   of   labor   and   e.- 

•  tnces  of  questions   in   which   it    was   admitted    that    the:- 

The  employers   consistently,    save    in   a   few   cases,   wheh   serious   trouble 

-  ned    their    position   as   above    stated,    or    refusing    to   recognize    the 
organization  in  any  way  ami  in   many  cases  made  special  objection  to  the  time  and 
rr  of  intr 

M  ally  a  delegate  ••«.  ufter  warning,  was  dismissed  for  improper 

.1    hrt-arh    «>f    discipline.        The    employees    demanded    his    replacement, 
.-  the  ground  that  the  real  reason  of  his  dismissal  was  that  he  was  an  oft 
the  Union,  and   that   an  attempt   was   being  made   to  destroy   the   influence   o: 
organization.     On  reinstatement  being  refused  the  employee}  went  ot 

At  this  t!"ir   the  factory  in  question  had  on  hand  work  under  contract  nearing 
-     ately  made  arrangements  for  its  completion  in  other  factories 
These  factories  gave  directions  to   their  employees  to  complete  these  unfinished 
articles,  were  met  with  a  refusal  and  as  a  consequence  there  was  a  general  cessation 
of  work.     At  thi<  date  there  was  pending  no  claim  for  increase  of  wages  or  grir 
of  any  kind,  other  than  as  above  stated. 

-  .   of  the  step  towards  a  compromise  later  on  referred  to.  your  Comn 
iat  no  good  purpose  can      -  -by  attempting  to  apportion  blame  for  this 

condition  of  affair 

During    the   adjournment    taken    to    enable    the    manufacturers    to    consider    their 
conferences  were  held  between  the  representatives  of  both  parties  with  . 

•he  manufacturers'  withdrawal       Though  unsuccessful   f»r  that  purpose 
they  led  to  a  subsequent  appearance  before  us  of  representatives  of  the  manufa 

ns    indicating    their    readr  '  -    to    me*- 

•    s    demands   and   on   some   specific   points   on   which    the  two   had   not   been 
able  to  come  together,  to  abide  by  the  Committee's  decision.    Although  the  empl 

had   left   town    it   was   made   clear   to   the   Committee   that   he   took   a 
-••••  Me. 

This  action  of  both  parties  has  been  of  great  help  in  avoiding  what  might  have 
u  long  inquiry  into  disputed  facts  and  in  enabling  us  to  reach  an  early  decision 
Dealing   first   with   the   specific   demands   made  by   the   employees    we   report   as 
follows,  taking  them  in  reverse  ord- 

Po  be  paid  for  all   Legal   Holidays:       This  was  admitted  to  be  a   somewhat 
complicated  question  in  local  conditions  and  we  feel  that  no  sufficient  evidence 

to  justify  a  suggestion  that  this  demand  should  be  acceded  to: 
>r  that   it  should  not  now  be  pressed. 

Your  committee  agrees  that  the  employees  have  such  a  right,  but  in  fairness  to 
the  manufacturers   concerned  deems  it  proper  to  state  that  no  specific  grievance  of 

M    put    br 

4    Time  and  a  half  for  overtime:     The  Committee  approve  of  time  and  a  half 
•:ne:  all  difiic  noved  by  the  manufacturers'  declaration  of  tbdr 

•  >  accede  to  this  reqw 



3.  Forty-six  hours  to  constitute  a  week's  work:  Your  Committee  recommends 
that  after  the  first  of  August,  1917,  forty-six  hours  shall  constitute  a  week's  work. 

2.  Wages:  That  there  has  been  a  very  heavy  increase  in  the  cost  of  living,  one 
beyond  any  increase  that  up  to  the  date  of  the  reference  had  been  granted  to  the 
employees,  we  think  is  clear.  To  determine  exactly  what  advance  in  wages  should 
be  approved  would  involve  a  long  and  difficult  investigation,  and  the  Committee  is  glad 
to  have  been  saved  this  through  mutual  concessions  made  by  both  parti 
enable  it  to  recommend  that  an  immediate  increase  of  a  minimum  of  One  Dollar  per 
week  be  granted  and  that  the  manufacturers  should  give  special  consideration  to 
requests  that  may  be  made  for  an  additional  increase  in  special  cases. 

A  difficulty  has  arisen  owing  to  a  statement  made  to  us  that  a  number  of  increases 
have  been  made  since  tl  h,  1917.  We  feel  that  it  is  impossible  to  lay  down 

a  general  rule  which  will  be  fair  in  all  cases,  but  we  suggest  that  in  all  cases  in 
a  general  increase  has  been  made  since  the  ist  of  March,  1917,  such  increases 
be  deducted  from  any  increase  which  may  be  made  in  order  to  comply  with  our 
recommendations.  By  general  increase  we  mean  an  increase  granted  to  all  the  members 
of  a  set  of  employees. 

i.  UNION  SHOP:  On  some  of  the  questions  involved  in  this  claim  the  Committee 
cannot  fairly  be  expected  to  report  with  the  material  put  before  ft.  On  the  other 
'ved,  the  suggestions  made  by  the  manufacturers  and  the  evidence  we 
have  of  the  willingness  of  the  employees  to  accept  for  the  present  a  partial  measure 
of  their  demands  enable  us  to  make  the  following  recommendations  to  aviod  future 
differences: — 

We  suggest  that  a  Conference  Committee  be  established  in  each  factory;  that 
this  Committee  be  composed  of  one  or  more  employees  of  the  factory  interested,  not 
exceeding  four  in  all  unless  there  be  more  than  four  sets  in  the  factory  in  which 
case  this  number  may  be  proportionately  increased;  the  rules  governing  the  election 
other  than  as  herein  laid  down  to  be  fixed  entirely  by  such  employees  provided  that 
all  employees  shall  have  an  equal  voice. 

No  member  of  the  firm,  foreman  or  outsider  shall  be  present  at  the  election, 
except  that  a  foreman  or  member  of  the  firm  may  be  present  if  invited.  Such  election 
to  take  place  every  six  months  or  at  the  beginning  of  each  season.  Should  any 
employee  elected  refuse  to  act  or  should  he  leave  the  firm,  another  employee  shall 
be  elected  in  his  or  her  place. 

If  in  any  factory  be  a  minority,  however  limited  in  number,  they  shall 
have  the  right  to  select  in  any  way  they  see  fit,  one  additional  member  of  the  Committee. 

It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  Committee  to  examine  into  and  report  upon  such 
requests,  complaints  and  grievances  as  any  worker  or  body  of  workers  may  have 
from  time  to  time  with  one  another  or  with  the  firm. 

The  Committee  shall  bring  these  grievances  to  the  attention  of  the  executive 
heads  of  the  firrq,  who  shall  after  conference  with  the  Committee,  deal  with  them  with 
a  view  to  bringing  about  an  amicable  adjustment  if  possible. 

All  mp.tters  of  dispute  shall  be  dealt  with  out  of  working  hours  and  shall  be 
indicated  and  examined  in  a  way  that  will  not  distract  the  attention  of  employees 
from  their  work  or  otherwise  interfere  with  the  operations  of  the  factory. 

e  pleasure  in  stating  that  the  foregoing  recommendations  and  suggestions 
while  they  cannot  be  said  to  embody  an  agreement  between  the  parties  to  the  reference, 
are  nevertheless  for  the  most  part  based  upon  suggestions  made  by  both  in  a  spirit 
indicating  a  willingness  to  compromise  existing  differences  .is  regards;  wapres  and 
conditions  of  work  and  to  assist  as  a  means  of  adjustment  of  future  difficult; 
abstaining  for  the  present  from  urging  all  that  they  think  themselves  entitled  to. 

We  believe  that  the   suggested   Conference  Committee  will  assist   both   employer 
and  employee  to  a  better  understanding  of  th<»  other's  point  of  view  and  in   thi 
should  be  of  appreciable  service  in  securing  a  friendly  adjustment  of  future  difficulties 
and  we  ask  that  it  be  given  a  fair  trial. 

We  feel,  however,  that  if  we  left  the  matter  here  we  should  not  be  doinc:  our 
full  duty.  Our  enquiry  has  made  clear  to  us  that  underlying  all  difficulties  and  standing 
in  the  way  of  both  their  prevention  and  their  settlement  have  been: 

1.  The  want   of  some   means   satisfactory   to   both   employer   and    employee    that 
would  permit  of  full  and  friendly  discussion  of  differences  with  a  view  to  settling  them 
by  mutual   agreement;   and 

2.  The  want  of  some  provision  for  overcoming  deadlocks  in  which   unless  there 



be  tome  third  person  or  body  authorized  to  decide  between  conflicting  views,  a 
frequent  con^  -he  lockout  with  their  attendant  suffering  and 

lots  until  the  weaker  is  compelled  to  yield. 

'tg  the  first  difficulty  the  (  <•  Committee  hat  been 

suggested      It  differs  .-ner   practice   in   that   it   calls   for  presentation  of 

incc*  through  repress:  >ole  body  of  employees  of  the  par 

fact.  ts  bringing  to  bear  on  the  discussion  of  any  uuettion 

i  the  influent  -  ho  mav  be  able  to  take  a  broader  view  than  the 

oyee  or  group  immediately   u 

The  second  difficulty  i-.  more  serious  and  we  offer  no  solution.     Bat  we  suggest 

<lo  something  towards  finding  at  least  a 
•  permitting  a*  an  exj>eriroent  a 
reference  to  arbitration  of  some  difficulty  in  which  a  deadlock  has  been  reached. 

naele  elsewhere  in  connection  with  both  these  difficu 

We  express  no  opinion  as  to  whether  or  not  they  have  proved  successful  as  we  have 
had  no  opportunity  of  informing  ourselves  fully  about  them.  But  we  believe  that 
much  good  would  come  from  a  better  knowledge  of  what  they  were  and  of  the 

•hat   a   careful   and   systematic   study   of   these 

:ts  he  made   with   the   object    of  adopting   and   putting  in    force   any   ideas 
successful  in  practice  or  may  otherwise  commend  themselves  as 
likely  to  j»r«»ve  useful. 

Submitted  as  the  unanimous  report  of  the  Committee. 

ned)  :.  Chairman. 


JO1  >STER. 

W.  ! 

On  May  14,  mir  members  at  a  monster  mass  meeting  accepted  the  report 
of  the  Committtee. 

The  right  to  organize  has  been  vindicated  by  our   Montreal  menrix 

convincing  manner  that  it  is  doubtful  whether  it  will  ever  again  be 
assailed  by  the  employers. 


The  Philadelphia  clothing  workers  were  not  at  the  beginning  in  the  front 
ranks  among  the  wide  awake  men  and  women  in  the  clothing  industry.     While 
other  clothing  centers  were  rapidly  organizing,  successfully   rebelling  against 
y  and  affecting  considerable  improvements  in  their  conditions.  Phila- 
delphia was  looking  on  helplessly  and  hopelessly,  and.  true  to  the  "rduea- 
•n  them  by  the  Bil  islcaders,  dared  not  move  a  muscle 

c  rattle  of  their  chains  disturb  the  peace  of  their  masters.    But  freedom 
is  contagious.    Once  it  £  footing  somewhere  it  spreads  and  "contami- 

•    ' 

\Y  York,  Baltimore  and  other  clothing  centers  marching  onward 

Philadclphi?  was  bound,  sooner  or  l;r  n  line.    And  it  did.    It  repu- 

diated  the   ursurpcrs,   as   did   the   other   clothing   workers   throughout   the 
country,  and  began  a  mobilization  for  better  working  conditions. 

Immediately  before  the  General  Executive  Board  meeting  in  February, 
1916,  the  first  large  mass  meeting  was  held.    Lyric  Hall  was  filled  to  capacity 



and  proved  to  be  far  too  small  for  all  who  sought  admission.  A  fighting 
spirit  not  seen  in  that  city  for  a  long  time  asserted  itself  unmistakably.  It 
was  intended  to  be  a  demonstration  of  the  Philadelphia  clothing  workers. 
Such  demonstrations,  on  the  eve  of  a  big  strike,  arc  usually  dramatic.  This 
one.  however,  had  also  an  element  of  the  tragic  in  it.  One  of  the  largest 
firms  in  the  city,  whose  factory  resembled  more  a  penitentiary  than  a  working 
place  for  free  citizens,  fearing  that  its  employees  might  hear  the  Union's 
message  at  the  meeting,  sent  its  lackeys  in  full  uniform  to  Lyric  hall.  The 
purpose  was  not  to  spy  on  "disloyal"  workers.  A  conspicuous  uniform  is  a 
poor  disguise  for  a  spy.  The  purpose  was  to  terrorize  the  workers.  And  that 
was  accomplished.  No  sooner  did  an  employee  of  that  firm  notice  the  familiar 
uniform  upon  his  entering  the  hall  than  he  rushed  back  with  all  speed  before 
the  wearer  of  the  uniform  could  eye  him.  But  while  the  workers  were  fright- 
ened away  from  the  meeting  the  brutal  action  of  the  masters  engendered  feel- 
ings in  them  that  were  far  from  advantageous  to  the  firm.  It  is  not  at  all 
unlikely  that  the  employer's  agents  purposely  made  themselves  provokingly 
conspicuous  with  their  lackey's  uniforms  and  brazen  manners  in  order  to 
"pull  something  off."  With  such  a  vast  audience  demonstrating  its  resent- 
ment and  protest  against  prevailing  conditions  the  slightest  provocation 
might  prove  to  be  a  spark  in  a  keg  of  powder.  It  was  due  to  the  intelligence 
and  consciousness  of  the  audience  and  the  managers  of  the  meeting  that  the 
employers'  agents  did  not  succeed  in  "pulling"  anything  off. 

A  committee  from  District  Council  No.  2,  appeared  before  the  General 
Executive  Board,  who  met  in  February  in  that  city,  described  the  deplorable 
conditions  in  the  industry,  and  asked  for  permission  to  call  a  general  strike. 
The  General  Strike  Executive  Board,  after  thoroughly  going  into  the  matter, 
took  whatever  action  the  situation  called  for  and  a  general  strike  was  declared 
at  the  end  of  February,  1916. 

As  was  expected,  the  Bible  House  outfit,  true  to  their  record  of  crime 
and  treason,  immediately  rushed  to  the  employers  with  offers  of  assistance. 
They  sent  letters  and  emissaries  promising  to  break  the  strike,  but  they 
could  get  no  strikebreakers  to  carry  out  their  promises.  They  also  invoked 
the  co-operation  of  Samuel  Gompers,  president  of  the  American  Federation 
of  Labor,  who,  according  to  newspaper  reports,  sent  a  telegram  to  Phila- 
delphia admonishing  the  employers  not  to  grant  improvements  in  our  work- 
ing conditions.  But  promises  and  telegrams  make  no  garments.  Members 
of  the  Amalgamated  are  required  to  do  it. 

The  strike  lasted  about  two  weeks.  It  was  wound  up  by  an  agreement 
with  an  association  of  contractors,  limiting  the  hitherto  outrageously  long 
working  week  to  51  hours,  and  granting  an  increase  of  15  per  cent  in  the 

Under  the  circumstances  that  was  the  most  we  dared  hope  for  and 
we  got  all  that  the  most  optimistic  amongst  us  had  expected. 

The  greatest  gain,  however,  was  the  firm  establishment  of  the  organiza- 



tion.    The  concessions  st  .  the  ser  and  the  spirit  thry  ^a\  - 

to  amon^  the  members  left  no  d  ne's  mind  that  the  Amalgamated 

has  come  to  Philadelphia  t«»  May      It  has  become  a  factor  in  the  indust 
that  city  not  to  be  dislodged  by  any  power.     But  it  was  likewise  clear  that 
the  progress  made  was  but  the  beginning  of  a  huge  task.     A  good  idea  of 
what  the  situation  in   PluL  the  fact  that  a 

strike  of  Custom  Tailors  in  November,  1916,  resulted,  besides  an  increase  in 
wag«  of  the  working  w<  .  70  and  80  hours  to  57. 

The  conditions  allowed  to  exist  and  constantly  grow    worse  by  the   former 
of  disorgai  .n  the  part  .  f  the  workers,  and  of  irresponsibility 

on  the  part  of  the  officials,  made  of  the  Philadelphia  clothing  industry  a  veri- 
table Augean  stable.  /It  required  Herculean  efforts  to  g:  ; Toper  clean- 
ing. The  settlement  of  March,  1916,  was  a  long  step  in  that  direction.  But 
still  morr,  very  much  more,  remained  to  be  done.  It  required  patient,  arduous 
and  continuous  toil.  The  organization  met  the  problem  as  good  as  it  could. 
I  general  strike  became  necessary:  (1)  in  order  to  maintain  the 
fruits  of  the  previous  strike ;  (2)  in  order  to  make  further  gains,  particularly 
the  48  hour  week. 

To  those  who  knew  Philadelphia  in  the  years  past,  when  sunrise,  sunset 
and  time  had  no  meaning  for  the  workers  in  the  clothing  industry,  a  demand 

cm  for  a  48  hour  week  sounded  like  a  prim  joke.    Yet  it  was  in  *• 
respect  a  reality.     The  proof  of  the  pudding  is  in   the  eating.     Once   the 
Philadelphia  tailors  tasted  the  benefits  of  an  honest  and  capable  organiza- 
Icarned  how  to  make  the  most  of  it.    The  splendid  victory 
w  York  and  the  48  hour  movements  in  other  clothing  centers  whetted 
their  appetite. 

On  January  11,  1917,  the  Philadelphia  tailors  began  a  general  strike  with 
the  48  hour  week  as  the  principal  issue. 

On  January  30,  our  victory  was  !  by  the  signing  of  an  agree- 

ment with  an  association  of  the  smaller  manufacturers  for  the  48  hour 
week,  one  dollar  increase  in  wages  to  the  week  workers  and  20  per  cent 
increase  to  the  piece  workers. 

thin  a  short  time  like  settlements  were  made  with  individual  firms 
outside  of  the  association,  including  some  of  the  larger  houses  in  the  city. 

The   1916  strike  established  the  organization   in   Philadelphia  and   the 
settlement  was  made  with  the  contractors  only.    The  1917  strike  extended  our 
'.iction.    Settlements  were  made  with  the  manufacurers  and  Philadelphia 
was  brought  in  line  with  th<  iothing  centers  by  the  intro- 

duction of  the  universal  forty-eight  hour  week. 

In  the  course  of  the  past  year  gratifying  progress  has  been  made  in  the 
internal  affairs  of  the  organization.  Philadelphia  can  now  boast  of  an 
organization  which  it  had  never  hoped  to 



Philadelphia  is  entitled  to  special  congratulations  on  the  manner  in 
which  the  uniform  work  has  been  handled.  The  subject  of  military  uniform 
labor  will  be  fully  discussed  later.  We  shall,  then -fore,  not  enlarge  upon  it 
here.  But  there  is  one  matter  in  which  Philadelphia  has  particularly  dis- 
tinguished itself  in  this  connection.  In  that  city  our  organization  has 
reached  an  understanding  with  the  Cloakmakers  Union,  which  is  a  branch  of 
the  International  Ladies'  Carmen  Workers  Union,  for  full  and  complete  co- 
operation. Both  organizations  have  jointly  maintained  a  uniform  labor 
department,  with  a  labor  bureau  and  a  staff  of  business  agents  and  cl« 
workers.  Through  that  joint  department  both  organizations  have  worked 
harmoniously  to  organize  the  uniform  workers  and  protect  their  interests  to 
the  fullest  extent.  The  success  attained  and  the  benefits  secured  for  the 
members  of  both  bodies  have  fully  compensated  for  the  efforts  made.  Not 
only  have  the  conditions  of  the  workers  been  greatly  improved  but  the  fra- 
ternal feelings  always  prevailing  between  us  and  our  sister  organization 
have  been  very  much  strengthened. 


We  reported  to  our  Second  Convention  of  the  conspiracy  of  the  notorious 
crew  who  betrayed  the  Boston  clothing  workers  and  brought  about  a  lockout 
in  that  city,  in  1915,  in  the  hope  of  wiping  out  our  organization.  With  the 
help  of  the  employers,  the  official  "labor  leaders,"  the  police,  detectives,  capi- 
talist press,  traitors  in  our  own  midst,  and  all  other  enemies  of  the  working 
class,  they  succeeded  for  the  time  being.  But  their  joy  was  short  lived. 
While  not  underestimating  the  degree  of  the  ruin  wrought  by  the  destruc- 
tionists  we  lost  no  courage  and  time  in  taking  up  anew  the  task  of  again 
building  up  the  organization.  With  the  staunch  support  of  a  handful  of  mem- 
bers who  had  weathered  all  storms  and  clung  to  their  posts  in  the  face  of  all 
discouragements  we  struggled  on  and  our  efforts  were  rewarded.  We  have 
succeeded  in  raising  a  magnificent  edifice  on  the  ruins  of  the  old  one.  Boston 
now  has  a  strong  organization  to  the  great  chagrin  of  all  of  our  enemies  and 
to  the  still  greater  benefit  of  the  clothing  workers  in  that  city.  Another  illus- 
tration of  the  fact  that  the  class  struggle  cannot  be  smothered.  To  the 
militant  working  class  a  defeat  can  only  be  temporary.  So  long  as  class  rule 
and  the  wage  system  continue  will  the  workers  be  forced  to  band  themselves 
together  in  spite  of  all  opposition  and  raise  the  banner  of  revolt,  ever  learn- 
ing and  profiting  from  past  experiences. 

That  was  what  happened  in  Boston. 

The  patient,  steady  and  systematic  organization  work  brought  new 
life  to  the  old  members.  They  returned  in  a  constant  stream  until  they  again 
formed  solid  ranks  in  a  united  army. 

The  employers  had  not  failed  to  take  advantage  of  the  organization's 



powerlessness  and  reduced  the  working  conditions  to  the  lowest  possible 


':e  oppressive  policy  of  the  employer*  and  the  revival  of  the  spirit  of 
ncy  among  the  workers  made  a  general  strike  in  that  city  unavoidable. 

And  it  camr 

In  the  first  week  of  the  st:  Icments  were  made  for  fifteen  hundred 

members,  wh  med  to  work  with  the  following  gains:  Rec- 

ognition of  the  Unio:  reduced  from  52  and  54  hours,  and 

wage  increases  of  ten  to  •  ;>cr  cent.    Those  who  returned  to  work  con- 

•he  support  of  those  who  remained  on  strike. 

On  the  Sixth  of  June,  1916,  an  ;i  n  agreement  was  signed  with 

the  Cl«»tlnrrs'  Associ  Boston,  providing  for  a  fifty  hour  week,  a  ten 

per  cent  wage  increase  and  machinery  for  the  adjudication  of  disputes. 

Boston  was  again  in  line  with  the  organized  clothing  workers  through- 
out the  r  this  time,  however,  with  more  life,  more  vigor  and  more 

An  Injunction  That  Materially  Failed  and  An  Injunction  That  Failed 

to  Materialize. 

Here  we  could  write  the  won!  "i.  the  story  of  the  shortest,  most 

fruitful  and  least  eventful  clothing  workers  strike  in  Boston,  were  it  not  for 

r<led  here.     It  was  the  never  ending 
Leopold  Morse  affair. 

In  order  to  throw  proper  light  on  the  matter  we  shall  quote  the  follow- 
ing from  our  report  to  the  Second  Biennial  Convention. 

bout  the  same  time  that  we  smashed  the  conspiracy  between  employers  and 
traito  :k  and  crowned  our  victory  with  an  agreement  between  the  manu- 

facturers' association  and  the  union,  an  agreement  was  also  entered  into  between 
the  Leopold  Morse  Company  of  Boston  and  our  organization. 

"We  had  not  solicited  that  agreement.  There  was  no  strike  on  against  the  firm 
nor  was  one  contemplated.  All  of  the  tailors  employed  by  the  firm  were  members 
of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  and  the  firm  evidently  believed 
that  it  would  he  to  its  advantage  to  establish  a  machinery  for  the  adjudication  of  dis- 
To  which  we  had  no  objection  to  raise.  Hence  the  signing  of  the  agree- 

"That  was  February  1st,  1915. 

"On  the  Eighth  of  March,  191 5,  the  workers  -prised  by  an  order  from 

the  firm  to  repudiate  their  own  organization  and  pay  tribute  to  the  traitors  lest  they 
forfeit  their  jobs. 

"That  came  like  a  bolt  from  a  clear  sky.  The  workers  were  amazed.  It  was 
beyond  anyone's  comprehension! 

"The   firm  had  but  a  few  weeks  ago  voluntarily,  without  force  or  compulsion, 
ided  an  agreement  with  the  Amalgamated  Gotning  Workers  of  America.     The 

workers  were  called  upon  to  vote  upon  the  agreement  and  they  did  so,  giving  r 


"They  had  during  those  few  weeks  no  quarrels  with  the  firm,  the  latter  making 
no  change  and   the  workers  presenting  no  new   demands.     The   same   people 
emp!  firm    t'v  and   as  time     of     fi^.ir 

apreemrnt.  The  firm  served  no  notice  upon  the  union  that  it  would  abrogate  the 
agreemctr  :  prised  the  workers  with  an  order  to  LEAVE  the  Amal- 

•od  Clothing  of  America  and  JOIN  the  United  Garment  V. 



America,  with  which  later,  the  firm  informed  its  employees,  it  had  signed  an  agree- 
ment. How  the  firm  could  sign  an  agreement  with  that  body  almost  immediately 
upon  signing  one  with  us;  how  the  firm  could  sign  an  agreement  with  that  so-called 
union  at  a  time  that  none  of  the  tailors  in  its  employ  were  aftiliatcd  with  it,  and  how 
the  firm  could  take  it  upon  itself  to  choose  a  'union*  for  the  workers  and  'assure' 
them  that  that  was  a  'real'  union  while  the  AMALGAMATED  was  not,  were  amoiiK 
the  many  puzzles  of  the  situation  that  the  workers  failed  to  understand. 

.'lie    amazement    of    the    workers    grew    still    more    when    they    saw    a    so-called 
organizer  of  the  'union,'  chosen  for  them  by  the  firm,  enter  the  shops  with  a  re; 
tativc  of  the  firm,  and  under  the  Chairmanship  of  the  latter  attempt   to  haraiiL; 
workers.     The  Judas  in  this  case  not  only  disgraced  Organized  Labor  hut 
masquerading  in  the  disguise  of  Socialism 

"The   workers   were  curious   to   kno\\    why    the   'organizer*   could    not    call    them 
to  a  meeting  in  the  usual  manner  in  which  workers  are  called  and  address  the- 
side  of  the  august   presence  of  the  employer,  as  their  own  and   real   organizer 

were  likewise   inquisitive  as  to   the  nature  of  the   'better'   agreement   with    the 
:-'  union.       When   the  agreement  with  our  organization  was  drawn   the   workers 
every  word  of  it,  deliberated  and  voted  on  it.     No  signature  was  attached   t<>  i: 
for  the  union  before  the  workers  so  ordered.     They  were  anxious  to  know  why  they 
could  not  enjoy  the  same  rights  at  the  hands  of  the  'better'  union.     If  the  firm  had 
the  privilege   of  making  and   breaking  agreements   at  r-rt    will   why   could    not 

the  workers  exercise  their  rights  when  the  new  agreement  was  made  by  somebody  for 
them'  But  those  were  curiosities  that  neither  the  firm  nor  the  'organizer, '  both  of 
whom  acted  in  admirable  unison,  was  capable  of  gratifying.  The  Dr.  Jekyl  masque 
was  quickly  dropped  and  the  firm  and  'organizer'  appeared  in  the  full  hideousness 
of  Mr  Hyde.  A  few  of  the  workers,  the  influence  of  whose  presence  was  very  much 
feared  by  both  parties  to  the  game  of  fettering  the  workers,  were  shanghaied  away 
from  the  factory  and  a  safe  distance  were  told  that  they  were  discharged.  The 
remaining  workers  were  told  bluntly  and  brutally  that  unless  they  stab  their  own 
organization  in  the  back  and  go  back  to  those  who  had  betrayed  them  in  the  past, 
-  would  be  condemned  to  starvation. 

"The  workers,  prompted  by  the  feeling  of  resentment  at  the  black  act  of  treason 
against  them,  told  the  traitor  who  he  was,  showed  the  firm  that  workers  are  no 
contraband  goods  that  may  be  stolen  and  passed  on  to  pirates,  and  left  the  shops  in 
a  body.  That  was  a  splendid  demonstration  of  what  workers  could  da  if  imbued  with 
a  consciousness  of  self  respect. 

it  it  was  not  the  good  fate  of  the   Boston  lockout  to  wind  up  so  gloriously 
in  favor  of  the  workers  as  did  the  New  York  lockout  about  one  month  earlier." 

The  Leopold  Morse  "Union"  had  given  the  firm  carte  blanche  to  impose 
on  the  workers  such  conditions  as  it  saw  fit.  The  firm  reciprocated  by  lending 
Distance  to  the  "Union"  in  the  latter's  efforts  to  keep  the  workers  effectively 
muzzled,  docile  and  submissive  in  the  interests  of  both  the  firm  and  its  "union." 
But  somehow  the  workers  could  not  be  made  dependable.  They  were  bitter 
against  the  firm  and  cursed  its  "union." 

Under  such  circumstances  it  was  little  wonder  that  the  doubly  enslaved 
Leopold  Morse  workers  were  caught  by  the  strike  spirit  the  moment  the 
general  strike  in  Boston  was  proclaimed. 

We  did  not  call  them.  We  had  quite  sufficient  work  in  the  general  field 
ai  d  were  not  in  a  position  voluntarily  to  take  up  something  that  was  bound 
to  make  our  task  more  difficult.  But  the  Leopold  Morse  workers  came  out  of 
their  own  volition.  The  courage  and  spirit  of  their  fellow  workers  gave  strength 
to  those  slaves.  They  quit  work  in  a  body  in  spite  of  the  strenuous  efforts  of 
the  officials  of  the  firm's  "union"  to  hold  them  back.  They  went  straight  to 
the  headquarters  of  their  "enemy,"  the  Amalgamated  Gothing  Workers  of 
America.  Our  striking  members  naturally  received  them  with  joy  and  delight 

That  was  not  the  first  test  of  the  great  "moral"  value  of  the  agreement 



Leopold  Morse  Co.  and  the  United  Garment  Workers,  but  it 
was  the  first  of  such  magnitude 

Instead  of  appc  ponsible"  officers  of  the  "union"  to  live 

up  to  its  agreement  the  firm  took  the  strange  course  of  appealing  to  the 
courts  to  compel  us  to  enforce  its  agreement  with  the  United  Garment 
Workers.  In  its  petition  for  an  injunction  against  us  the  firm  related  of  the 
existence  of  the  agreement,  and  stated  that  one  of  the  provisions  was  to 
the  effect  that  "Should  the  employees  of  the  company  stop  work  in  violation 
of  this  agreement  the  Union  agrees  to  order  their  return  to  work  or  to  fur- 

satisfact  »  *.r  place." 

Why  did  :  firm  demand  of  the  "Union"  to  carry 


Those  who  know  .-my thing  at  all  about  the  labor  movement  know  that 
a  union  who  enters  into  an  agreement  with  an  employer  guaranteeing  that 
"should   the   employees   of    the   company   stop   work   the   union   would   order 
return  or  furnish  others  in  their  place,"  must  be  in  a  position  to  exercise 
sufficient  moral  authority  over  its  members  to  enforce  such  guarantee.     It  is 
clearly  the  business  of  the  contracting  union  to  sec  to  it  that  the  members 
ins  of  the  contract.     It  alone  is  responsible  for  it.     But  in 
this  case  the  firm  did  not  complain  to  the  court  that  the  organization  which 
is  a  party  to  the  agreement  was  <  ;  it  but  that  some  other  organization. 

not  a  party  to  the  contract,  was  guilty  of  such  violation.  The  firm  complained 
"that  all  or  nearly  all  of  said  employees  were  willing  to  continue  in  plain- 
tiff's employ,  but  for  the  acts  of  the  defendants  and  the  members  of  the 
Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America"  who  had  "illegally,  wrongfully 
and  improperly  pursuadcd  and  induced  employees  of  the  plaintiff  who  were 
members  of  the  Union  to  break  the  contract  entered  into  between  the 
tiff  and  the  Union."  Indeed,  a  most  unusual  complaint  for  an  employing 
firm  to  make  to  a  court  of  1  .e  strange  procedure  becomes  still  more 

stranpe  when  we  learn  that  the  firm  admitted  that  it  did  not  ask  its  own 
"Union"  to  carry  out  the  agreement  before  applying  to  the  court  for  an 
order  to  compel  us  to  carry  it  out.  The  strange  procedure  becomes  exceed- 
ingly amusing  when  we  remember  that  that  same  firm  deliberately,  inten- 
tionally and  maliciously  broke  its  agreement  with  our  organization  in  order 
to  make  a  "better  one"  with  the  United  Garment  Workers,  and  then 
demanded  of  us,  whose  agreement  it  broke,  to  enforce  for  the  United  Gar- 
ment Workers  its  agreement  with  the  firm  because  the  United  Garment 
Workers  was  incapable  of  <! 

Our  attorney  asked  the  firm  to  produce  along  with  the  U.  G.  W.  agr 
ment  also  the  agreement  it  had  made  with  us  and  broke,  in  order  to  make 
the  case  complete.     But  the  firm  did  not  think  it  wise  to  do  so.     If  the  case 

resented  by  the  firm  to  the  court  meant  anything  at  all  it  meant  that 
while  the  firm  was  in  a  position  to  force  its  slaves  to  pay  tribute  to  its 
"union"  it  was  not  in  a  position  to  destroy  their  spirit  of  loyalty  to  our 
organization.  All  that  the  firm's  "union"  can  succeed  in  getting  from  its 



"members,"  and  in  an  ever  increasing  measure,  is  enmity,  heartfelt,  soul  <lt>q> 
and  unqualified  enmity.  \\   tint  the  only  hope  for  the  workers  in  the 

indu  \malgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  AHUM 

In  its  injunction  application  the  firm  repeated  ad  nauseum  the  story 
that  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  refused  to  permit  its 
employes  to  carry  out  the  contract  between  it  and  its  "union."  It  finally 
asked  that  we  be  enjoined  not  only  from  refusing  permission  to  men 
of  the  firm's  "union"  to  carry  out  that  "union's"  contract,  but  also  from  ask- 
ing them  to  leave  the  firm's  "union"  and  become  members  of  our  organiza- 

At  this  juncture  it  may  be  well  to  quote  a  very  significant  passage  from 
the  report  of  the  Master  to  whom  the  court  referred  the  case  for  examination. 
It  was  as  follows: 


The  firm's  pitiful  prayer  for  an  injunction  only  served  to  show  the  plight 
it  was  in.  But  instead  of  the  very  sweeping  injunction  that  it  had  asked  for 
it  received  one  so  utterly  useless  that  it  could  find  in  it  not  the  least  consola- 

The  injunction  as  granted  to  the  firm  by  Justice  Morton  of  the  Superior 
Court  was  as  follows: 

"They  arc  enjoined  and  restrained  from  preventing  or  attempting  to  prevent  per- 
•ons  now  or  hereafter  in  the  employ  of  Leopold  Morse  Company  who  are  or 
hereafter  be  under  contract  as  members  of  the  United  Garment  Workers  of  America 
from  working  or  continuing  in  the  employ  of  the  Leopold  Morse  Company  by  picket- 
ing in  and  around  any  of  these  shops  of  the  Leopold  Morse  Company,  or  preventing  or 
attempting  to  prevent  by  the  use  of  violence,  force,  coercion,  intimidation,  threats  or 
persuasion,  such  persons  now  or  hereafter  in  the  employ  of  the  Leopold  Morse 
Company  from  being  employed  or  continuing  in  that  employment." 

Our  attorney  in  Boston,  George  E.  Roewer,  Jr.,  made  the  following  com- 
ment in  a  letter  to  us  informing  us  of  the  injunction : 

"This  did  not  satisfy  counsel  for  Leopold  Morse  for  the  reason  that  they  wanted 
to  prevent  us  from  accepting  members  of  the  United  Garment  Workers  into  our 
organization  and  to  compel  us  to  relinquish  all  of  those  who  have  deserted  the 
United  Garment  Workers  and  joined  our  organization  since  the  beginning  of  the 
general  strike  in  Boston. 

"The  injunction  simply  prevents  us  from  inducing  by  picketing  or  by  the  use 
of  violence  people  now  or  hereafter  working  for  the  Leopold  Morse  Company  who 
arc  under  contract  "as  members  of  the  United  Garment  Workers  of 
Since  there  arc  very  few  now  working  in  the  shops  of  Leopold  Morse  Company  who 
are  under  contract,  and  since  this  injunction  does  not  apply  to  those  who  have 
already  left  the  shops  of  the  Leopold  Morse  Company,  and  who  are  not  now  under 
contract  with  them,  it  is  apparent  that  the  injunction  is  of  no  practical  value  to  the 
Leopold  Morse  Company. 

"In  other  words  we  are  not  permitted  to  induce  persons  who  are  now  under 
contract  to  work  for  Leopold  Morse,  all  other  persons  we  can  induce  by  picketing  to 
join  our  organization  "-kirip  for  the  Leopold  Morse  Company. 

"The  injunction  which  the  Leopold  Morse  Company  desired  contained  eleven 
hundred  words.  They  started  proceedings  on  May  24th  and  expected  to  obtain  an 
injunction  immediately,  but  they  received  no  assistance  from  the  Courts  until  June 



and  at  thr  injum  lion  will  not  affect  the  itrike  one  way  or  the  other  I  have  no 

On  June  24,  some  time  ar  n  the  entire  industry  had  beeo 

settled  and  the  workers  were  all  back  at  work,  the  firm  was  still  struggling  to 
uployees  back.     Though  the  injunction  did  not  materialize  in  the 
swe? i  'i\  desired  t  company  still  tried  its  hand  in  utilizing  the 

injunction   as   it   was   in   order   to   intimidate   its   striking  employees   into 
•ling  back  to  work  and,  incidentally,  deliver  a  blow  to  our  organization. 
firm  on  above  date  instituted  contempt  proceedings  against 
our  local  tl  officers  and  other  active  members,  charging  them 

.;  the  injunction.    In  September,  1916,  all  those  cases  were  dis- 

th  the  help  of  the  official  "labor  leaders"  the  firm  again  succeeded  in 

breaking  the  resistance  of  its  workers  to  slavery  and  oppression.  The  workers 

remember  well  all  the  crimes  committed  against  them  by  the  firm's  "union" 

and  they  will  also  remember  them  when  the  Day  of  Judgment  will  come  for 

Judas  Iscariots. 

Boston  does  not  seem  to  have  a  favorable  atmosphere  for  injunction 
culture.     That  has,  at  any  rate,  been  our  experience.     Bad  as  the  Leopold 
.my  fared  the  story  of  another  firm's  injunction  venture  is  still 

On  January  2,  1917,  the  Barren  Anderson  Company  wished  to  begin  the 
New  Year  with  a  clean  slate  and  therefore  filed  a  petition  for  an  injunction 
against  us  as  the  simplest  and  most  direct  means  of  winding  up  the  strike 
that  was  then  being  conducted  against  it.  The  Judge  thought  that  arbitra- 
tion might  be  a  better  way  of  doing  it  and  suggested  it  to  both  parties.  We 
accepted  the  suggestion  immediately  and  the  firm  took  it  under  considera- 
tion. On  January  26,  after  the  firm  had  uselessly  waited  for  signs  of 
weakening  in  the  strike,  it  decided  to  accept  the  Judge's  view  and  settled  the 
strike  by  arbitration. 

Steady  Progress  in  Boston 

In  October,  1916,  the  custom  tailors  in  Boston  struck  for  the  48  hour 

week  and  got  it;  also  a  ten  per  cent  increase  in  •  iges.    Since  then  the 

48  hour  week  has  been  made  general  for  the  clothing  industry  in  that  city. 

Boston  distinction  of  having  the  first  overall  workers  locaJ  under 

JUT  bam.  t  is  local  union  150.     In  November,  1916,  that  local  h. 

-trike  and  succeeded  in  making  the  following  gains:  Recognition  of 
the  union,  reduction  of  the  working  week  to  50  hours  from  anywhere  between 
54  and  60  and  increases  in  wages.  The  local  had  another  strike  in  November. 
the  48  hour  week  and  a  ten  per  cent  increase  in  wages.  Shortly 
before  this  convention  they  secured  a  further  ten  per  cent  increase  without  a 

A  general  wage  increase  of  10  to  13  per  cent  was  won  by  negotiation 
from  the  Clothing  Manufacturers'  Association  of  Boston,  May  31,  1917.  On 
September  20,  1917,  the  agreement  with  the  association  was  renewed,  making 



the  48  hour  week  definite  and  general.     The  agreement  will  continue  in  force 
until  May,  1919. 

During  the  past  two  years  Boston  has  given  a  good  account  of  itself  and 
we  are  confident  that  it  will  continue  doing  so. 



\\>  rann.-t  pass  Boston  without  paying  our  respects  to  the  robust  and 
lively  organization  in  Worcester,  Mass.,  which  is.  for  our  organization  pur- 
poses, in  a  sense  a  part  of  Greater  Boston.  The  pantsmakers  in  that  city, 
the  only  clothing  branch  there,  are  well  organized  and  doing  splendid  work 
in  promoting  and  protecting  their  conditions.  By  a  strike  in  July,  1916, 
it  increased  wages  and  reduced  the  working  hours  from  60  to  55.  That  was 
for  Worcester  an  unprecedented  victory.  But  progress  was  made  so  rapidly 
that  in  September.  1917,  the  50  h«"ir  \\.-(k  was  established  through  a  g< 
strike  of  one  week,  securing  also  wage  increases.  Our  Boston  organi/ 
has  frequently  assisted  its  Worcester  sister  local.  We  are  particularly 
grateful  to  Brother  Lazarus  Marcovitz,  secretay  of  the  Joint  Board  of  Bos- 
ton, who  is  always  ready  to  represent  us  in  Worcester  whenever  our  assis- 
tance is  equired. 

In  this  connection  we  may  point  out  that  the  small  towns  and  country 
places  outside  of  and  away  from  the  larger  clothing  centers  have  progress  in 
the  future.  We  can  point  with  pride  to  such  places  as  Vineland,  also 
Passaic,  N.  J.,  where  the  workers  are  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Children's 
Clothing  Joint  Board  of  New  York,  Woodbine,  and  Norma,  N.  J.  We  have 
good  organizations  in  those  towns,  alive  and  active.  We  have  also  made 
progress  in  Norwich,  Conn.  The  workers  in  all  those  places  had  always 
been  used  as  strikebreakers,  particularly  against  New  York  and  Philadelphia. 
Sometimes  the  workers  were  unconscious  of  what  they  were  doing  against 
their  fellow  workers.  It  is  different  now.  Not  only  do  the  workers  refuse 
to  act  as  strikebreakers  because  of  their  better  understanding  and  of  their 
sense  of  solidarity  but  they  are  also  steadily  improving  their  own  conditions. 


Chicago  had  a  most  sensational  year  in  1915,  when  its  general  strike 
was  the  headliner  in  the  clothing  industry  for  three  long  months.  A  com- 
plete report  of  that  memorable  struggle  was  made  to  our  1916  convention. 
Over  two  thousand  arrests  were  made.  A  number  of  those  cases  were  still 
pending  at  the  time  of  our  last  convention.  They  included  charges  of  murder 
and  conspiracy.  They  have  all  been  dismissed  since.  The  fact  that  there 
was  not  a  single  conviction  on  all  of  those  most  serious  charges  shows  to 
what  lengths  our  enemies  went  in  their  desperate  efforts  to  prejudice  the 
public  mind  against  us  and  destroy  our  organization. 

While  our  Second  Convention  was  in  session  in  Rochester  we  received 
the  report  of  a  cutter  strike  in  Chicago.  We  did  not  wish  another 



big  fight  in  that  city  so  soon  after  the  battle  of  1915.     But  the  As 

members  precipitated  the  strike  among  the  cutters  by  discharging  all  those 
of  whom  the  firms  lean  II  organization,  who  included 

in  their  number  such  as  had  failed  to  go  out  with  us  in  the  big  strike  of 
1915.  We  considt  rol  it  .,m  «lut>  to  stand  by  the  striking  workers  in  spite  of 
the  past  errors  of  a  number  of  them,  and  our  org.i  :s  fullest 

support  to  the  strikers  in  their  demand  for  the  reinstatement  of  their  dis- 
charged brothers.  All  cutters  and  trimmers  walked  out  and  fought  bravely 
for  v  k  But  conditions  were  not  such  as  to  make  a  favorable 

outcome  possible  tight  was  a  credit  to  the  cutters  even  if  the  desired 

rcsv;  d. 

On  May  12,  1916,  three  days  after  the  strike  had  begun,  Judge  Frederick 
:nith,  of  the  Circuit  Court  of  Cook  County,  issued  the  most  sweeping 
injunction  ever  granted  by  a  court  to  employers  against  their  striking  em- 
ployees. The  court  enjoined  our  organization  and  the  strikers  from  doing 
-.ruing  to  work  on  tin*  employers'  conditions.  The  fact 
that  the  strikers  held  out  for  seven  long  weeks  in  the  face  of  that  injunction, 
besides  other  serious  obstacles,  is  proof  of  the  bitterness  that  had  accumulated 
r  breasts  of  the  workers  during  the  years  of  unmitigated  slavery  under 
the  barbaric  despotism  of  the  industrial  tyrants  who  still  rule  with  the  iron 
rod  of  the  blacklist. 

The  peculiar  spirit  of  justice  and  conception  of  equality  before  the  law 

ich  the  injunction  was  issued  against  us  may  be  seen  from  the  fact 

that  while  no  hearing  at  all  was  granted  us  before  issuing  the  temporary 

order  the  hearing  for  making  the  injunction  permanent  was  set  for  the  end  of 

Ive  weeks  after  the  date  of  the  temporary  injunction.     That  was 

justice  with  a  vengeance! 

We  herewith  reproduce  the  injunction  in  full: 


In    the   Circuit   Court   of   Cook   County,    Illinois. 
B.    20601 

&  Company,  a  corporation;  Rosen wald  and  Weil,  a  corporation; 
'pold,  Solomon  &  Eisendrath.  a  corporation;  Hirsch.  Wickwire  Co.,  a  corpora- 
tion; Schoenberg  Bros.,  a  corporation;  Ederheimer  Stein  Company,  a  corpora- 
tion; Kuhn,  Nathan  &  Fischer  Co  .  a  corporation;  Chas  Kaufman  and  Aaron  K 
man.  partners,  doing  business  as  Chas.  Kaufman  &  Bros.;  Alfred  Decker.  Abe  Cohn 
and  A.  G.  Peine,  partners,  doing  business  as  Alfred  Decker  &  Cohn;  Joseph 
Mayer,  Edward  Mayer  and  Milton  Mayer,  partners,  doing  business  as  Mayer 
Bros.;  Solomon  L.  Abt,  Herman  Abt  and  Jacob  Abt.  partners,  doing  business 
as  L.  Abt  &  Sons, 

Complain  aatft, 


Amalgamated    Clothing    Workers    of    America,    a    voluntary    association,    herer 

referred  to  as  the  union;  Sidney  Hillman,  individually  and  as  president  of  said 
union;  Samuel  Levin,  individually  and  as  manager  of  the  Chicago  joint  board  of 
said  union;  Frank  Rosenblun  .ally  and  as  member  of  the  general  execu- 

-  board  of  the  said  union;  Sam  Rissman,  individually  and  as  president  of  Local 
61  of  said  union;  A.  P.  Marimpietri,  individually  and  as  member  of  the  general 
executive  board  of  said  union;  Stephen  Skala,  individually  and  as  organizer  of 
said  union:  Hyman  Schneid.  individually  and  as  organizer  of  said  union:  Jacob 
Pot  of  sky.  individually  and  as  treasurer  of  the  joint  board  of  said  union;  Sam 
nry  Friedman:  S.  Rubin;  I  \k;  B.  Kleisner:  E.  Sestak;  O.  B. 

Rohden;   Jos.   Gregor;   G.   Lagerholm;  W.  Kobleski;  George  Carroll;  Harry  Wicks; 


Joe  Abrams;   Arnold  Abel;   Frank  Niematz;  Harry  Goldberg;   Frank  Hanus;  Joe 

Tomanck;  E.  Ulmcr;   Robert  Kucera;  William     Runge;     Jack     Nussbaum;     Sam 

Singer;  Sam  Goldberg;  individually  and  as  members  and  representatives  of  said 

union  and  the  local  branches  thereof, 


To  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  a  voluntary  association,  herein- 
after referred  to  as  the  union;  Sidney  Hillman,  individually  and  as  president  of  said 
union;  Samuel  Levin,  individually  and  as  manager  of  the  Chicago  Joint  Board  of  said 
Union;  Frank  Koscnblum,  individually  and  as  member  of  general  executive  board 
of  the  said  union;  Sam  Rissman,  individually  and  as  president  of  Local  No.  61  of 
said  union;  A.  D.  Marimpietri,  individually  and  as  member  of  the  general  executive 
board  of  said  union;  Stephen  Skala,  individually  and  as  organizer  of  said  union; 
Jacob  Potofsky,  individually  and  as  treasurer  of  the  joint  board  of  said  union;  Sol 
Barnctt;  Henry  Friedman;  S.  Rubin;  L.  Kanak;  B.  Klcisncr;  E.  Scstak  O.  B.  Rohden; 
Jos.  Gregor;  G.  Lagerholm;  W.  Koblcski;  George  Carroll;  ;  Joe  Al> 

Arnold    Abel;    Frank    N  Harry    Goldberg  BUS;    .lor 

Ulnier;  Robert  Kucera;  William  Runge;  Jack  Nussbaum;  Sam  Singer;  Sam  Goldberg, 
individually  and  as  members  and  representatives  of  said  union  and  the  local  branches 
thereof,  defendants,  and  to  all  associations,  firms  and  persons,  assisting,  aiding, 
confederating  or  conspiring  with  them,  or  HAVING  KNOWLEDGE  HEREOF,  and 
to  each  and  every  one  of  them,  GREETING: 

\Y  HERE  AS.  it  hath  been  represented  to  the  Honorable  Judges  of  the  Circuit 
Court  of  Cook  County  in  the  State  aforesaid,  on  the  part  of  B.  Kuppenheimer  & 
Company,  a  corporation;  Rosenwald  and  Weil,  a  corporation;  Leopold  Solomon  & 
Eisendrath,  a  corporation;  Hirsh,  Wickwirc  Co.,  a  corporation;  Schocnberg  Bros, 
a  corporation;  Ederheimer,  Stein  Company,  a  corporation;  Kuhn,  Nathan  &  Fischer 
Co.,  a  corporation;  Chas.  Kaufman  and  Aaron  Kaufman,  partners,  doing  business 
as  Chas.  Kaufman  &  Bros.;  Alfred  Decker,  Abe  Cohn  &  A.  G.  Peine,  partners, 
doing  business  as  Alfred  Decker  &  Cohn;  Joseph  Mayer,  Edward  Mayer  and  Milton 
Mayer,  partners,  doin^  cr  Bros.;  Solomon  L.  Abt,  Herman  II.  Al>i, 

and  Jacob  H.  Abt,  partners,  doing  business  as  L.  Abt  &  Sons,  complainants,  in  their 
certain  bill  of  complaint,  exhibited  before  said  Judges,  and  filed  in  said  court  against 
you,  the  said  above  named  defendants,  among  other  things,  that  you  are  combining 
and  confederating  with  others  to  injure  the  complainant,  touching  the  matter  set 
forth  in  said  bill,  and  that  your  actings  and  doings  in  the  premises  arc  contrary  to 
equity  and  good  conscience.  And  Honorable  Frederick  A.  Smith,  one  of  said  judges, 
having  entered  an  order  that  a  Writ  of  Injunction  issue  out  of  said  Court,  according 
to  the  prayer  of  said  bill.  We,  therefore,  in  consideration  thereof,  and  of  the  par- 
ticular matters  in  said  bill  set  forth,  DO  STRICTLY  COMMAND  YOU,  the  said 
above  named  defendants,  and  the  persons  before  mentioned,  and  each  and  every  one 
of  you,  that  you  do  absolutely  DESIST  AND  REFRAIN: 

From  in  any  manner  interfering  with,  hindering,  obstructing  or  stopping  the 
business  of  the  complainants,  respectively,  or  of  their  respective  agents,  servants 
or  employees  in  the  operation  of  the  business  of  the  complainants,  respectively; 

From  picketing  or  maintaining  any  picket  or  pickets  at  or  near  the  promises 
of  the  complainants,  respectively,  or  along  the  routes  followed  by  the  employees 
of  the  complainants,  respectively,  in  going  to  and  from  their  homes  and  to  and  from 
the  place  of  business  of  the  complainants,  respectively; 

From  watching  or  spying  upon  the  complainants'  places  of  business,  and  upon  the 
employees  of  the  complainants,  resp-  and  from  watching  or  spying  upon  those 

who  enter  or  leave  said  places  of  business,  or  who  seek  to  enter  the  employment 
of  the  complainants,  respectively,  or  who  seek  to  do  business  with  the  complainants, 

From  assaulting  or  intimidating  by  threats  or  otherwise  the  employees  of  the 
complainants,  respectively,  or  any  persons  who  may  become  or  seek  to  become 
employees  of  tl*c  -  nts,  rcsj 

From  congregating  about,  or  near  the  places  of  business  of  the  complainants, 
respectively,  or  ?.ny  place  where  the  employees  of  the  complainants,  respectively, 
are  lodged  or  boarded,  for  the  purpose  of  compelling,  inducing  or  soliciting  the 
employees  of  the  complainants,  respectively,  to  leave  their  employment  or  to  refuse 
to  work  for  the  complainants,  respectively,  or  for  the  purpose  of  preventing,  or 
attempting  to  prevent,  persons  from  freely  entering  into  the  employment  of  the 
complainants,  respectively; 

From  entering  upon  the  grounds  or  places  where  the  employees  of  the  com- 
plainants, respectively,  are  at  work  for  the  purpose,  or  with  the  effect,  of  hindering, 
interfering  with  or  obstructing  the  business  of  such  employees  or  of  the  complainants, 



From   interfering   with,    or    attempting    to   hinder    the    complainants,    respectively, 
in     ca  >n     their     respect  way; 

From  following  the  employee!  of  the  complainants,  res,  to  their  ho: 

or  to  <>r  from  calling  upon  such  employees  for  the  purpose,  or  with  the 

effect,  of  inducinK   them  to  lei\  •  complainant*,   respec. 

or  for  the  purpose,  or  with  the  effect  of  :  jch  employees  or 

their  families; 

or  promise  of  money,  employment  or  other  reward*. 

Fr<  ting  or  maintaining  any  boycott  or  boycotts  against  the  complainant*. 

From  compelling  or  inducing,  or  attempting  to  compel   or  induce,  any   of  the 
employees  of  t  .man is.  r  >se  or  to  fail  to  do  their  .. 

m  sending  any  circulars  or  other  communications  to  customers  of  the  com- 
<>r  to  other  persons  who  might  deal  or  transact  business  with 

the  complainants,  respectively,  for  the  purpose,  or  with  the  effect  of  dissuading  such 
us  from  so  d< 

h  subjects  any  of  the  complainants'  employees  to  ha1 
sgrace  or  annoyance  because  of  their  employment  t 

complainants.  resp<-  util  this  Honorable  Court  in  Chancery  sitting,  shall  make 

order  to  the  contrary.     Hereof  fail  not,  under  penalty  of  what  the  law  directs. 
To  the  Sheriff  of  said  County  to  execute  and  return  in  due  form  of  law. 

(Seal)  ness,    JOHN    W.    RA  :  Oerk    of    the    said    Court    and 

the  Seal  thereof,  at  Chicago,  aforesaid,  this  12th  day  of  May. 
A.  D.  1916. 


Solicitors  for  Complainants. 

lie  who  will  succeed  in  improving  on  this  injunction  as  an  instrument 
for  c  earned  immoi  • 

The  big  strike  of  1915  broke  the  ground  so  completely  that  nothing  can 
close  it  again  to  pr<  seeds  of  our  propaganda,  provided 

the  (  :  t  up  steadily.  Chicago  now  needs  patient,  con- 

tinuous and  nt  constructive  work.  This  work  is  now  being  done. 

It  has  al  <d  results.  The  prospects  are  good  for  more  effective 

work  and  more  encouraging  results  in  the  future. 

Inroads  have  been  made  into  m  he  industry.  Thus  the 

bushclmsn  in  the  department  stores  on  State  street  and  the  Northwest  Side 
have  been  organized,  their  considerably  reduced  and  their 

wages  raised.  Agreements  have  been  made  with  the  Associated  Whole- 
Tailors,  emploving  about  1500  workers  and  with  others  of  the  smaller 

In    1  n   New  York  made  the  48  hour 

rd  wuj)  ic  indu>-  asked  for  the  same 

standard  in  the  factories  t  Schaffncr  &  Marx.    The  provisions  of  our 

agreement  of  May  1,  1916.  make  such  a  change  possible  during  the  life  of 

the  agreement.    In  those  factories  and  in  others  the  48  hour  week  was  estab- 

'1  by  our  direct  jurisdiction;  in  the  non-union  houses  it  was  introduced 

by  our  indirect  juri  i    e.  the  fear  of  the  employers  that  refusal  to 

-"voluntarily,"  of  course — would  add  strength  to  the  Union.     The 

of  the  v.  continr  the  injunction  and  blacklist  em- 

In  May.  1917.  we  asked  for  a  wage  increase  for  the  employees  of  Hart 



Schaffner  &  Marx.  The  Board  of  Arbitration  granted  a  ten  per  cent  increase, 
rendering  the  following  interesting  opinion : 

An  application   is   made  to  the   Board  of  Arbitration   of   the   Hart   Schaffner  & 

agreement   for  a   readjustment  of   the   wage   scale  adopted   for   the   three   year 

period  succeeding  May  1,  1916.    The  application  is  made  by  the  workers,  and  is  based 

on  the  clause  of  the  agreement  entitled  "Emergency  Powers,"  which   is  as  follows: 

"If  there  shall  be  a  general  change  in  wages  or  hours  in   the  clothing  industry, 

which   shall   be   sufficiently  permanent  to  warrant   the  belief  that   the   change   is   no't 

temporary,  then  the  board  shall  have  power  to  determine  whether  such  change  is  of 

so  extraordinary  a  nature  as  to  justify  a  consideration  of  the  question  of  making  a 

change  in  the  present  agreement,  and,  if  so,  then  the  Board  shall  have  power  to  make 

such  changes  in  wages  or  hours  as  in  its  judgment  shall  be  proper." 

The  claims  of  the  workers  were  explained  to  the  Board  by  Mr.  Sidney  Hillman, 
international  president  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America.  He  stated 
that  the  application  was  made  primarily  because  of  the  enormously  increased  cost  of 
living  which  had  so  diminished  the  pu  power  of  money  that  it 

tually  equivalent  to  a  reduction  in  wages.  He  stated  also  that  in  response  to  this 
condition  wages  had  been  generally  advanced  in  the  clothing  industry,  that  so  far  as 
human  foresight  could  perceive  the  condition  was  a  permanent  one,  and  that  the  extra- 
ordinary situation  which  existed  fully  met  the  requirements  of  the  provision  of  the 
agreement  under  which  application  for  a  readjustment  of  wages  was  brought.  He 
made  no  specific  demand,  nor  did  he  expect  a  full  equivalent  for  the  losses  sustained 
by  the  workers  by  reason  of  war  prices  and  conditions,  but  he  maintained  that  a 
measure  of  relief  should  be  granted,  and  that  the  workers  should  not  be  required 
to  bear  all  the  burden  of  a  common  calamity. 

The  company,  through  its  representatives,  acknowledged  the  claim  of  increased 
cost  of  living  but  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  since  1915  the  average  earnings  of 
the  people  had  increased  from  thirty  to  thirty-five  per  cent.,  due  to  the  fuller  employ- 
ment brought  about  by  a  larger  volume  of  business. 

More  important,  however,  was  the  fact  that  the  goods  in  the  process  of  manu- 
facture for  the  fall  season  were  already  sold  at  prices  that  were  agreed  on  before  the 
present  claim  was  made,  and  this  fact  should  be  taken  into  consideration  by  the 
arbitrators  in  adjudicating  the  case. 

The  Board  of  Arbitration  approaches  the  decision  of  the  question  submitted  to 
it  with  a  deep  sense  of  responsibility.  The  cause  of  our  common  distress  is  a  national 
calamity  which  it  is  not  in  the  power  of  the  Board  to  remove  or  ameliorate.  All 
that  it  has  power  to  do  is  to  readjust  the  burden  so  that  it  may  not  fall  too  heavily 
on  the  weaker  party. 

It  admits  the  truth  of  the  claim  that  any  advance  granted  in  midseason  must 
come  out  of  the  company,  and  it  recognizes  the  fact  that  ordinarily,  increased  wages 
should  be  added  to  the  cost  of  the  goods,  and  passed  on  to  the  consumer.  But  this 
is  an  extraordinary  occasion.  The  workers  have  already  suffered  heavily  in  the 
diminished  purchasing  power  of  their  wages,  and  throughout  the  clothing  and  other 
industries  wage  increases  have  been  made  in  response  to  the  war  prices  which  afflict 
the  country.  The  Board  believes  that,  on  reflection,  the  company  can  hardly  expect 
to  pass  through  the  present  war  crisis  and  not  share  a  part  of  the  loss  which  falls 
so  heavily  on  its  workers,  and,  indeed,  on  all  members  of  the  community.  It  accord- 
ingly decides  that  the  company  shall  pive  its  workers  a  general  advance  of  ten  per 
cent  to  be  paid  in  the  following  manner: 

All  workers  under  the  jurisdiction  of  this  Board,  except  the  cutters,  shall  receive 
a  horizontal  advance  in  wages  of  ten  per  cent,  to  take  effect  July  1,  1917. 

The  cutters  shall  receive  an  equivalent  of  ten  per  cent  converted  into  a  uniform 
flat  weekly  increase,  which  is  agreed  to  be  $2.35  per  week  for  each  cutter,  whether 
temporary  or  permanent,  and  also  apprentices.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  other  depart- 
ments have  received  more  direct  advances  of  wages  than  the  cutters,  it  is  decided 
that  the  cutters'  increase  shall  go  into  effect  on  June  1,  1917. 

It  is  decided  that  these  increases  shall  be  recorded  separately  by  the  company; 
that  it  shall  take  the  place  of  the  increase  of  pay  asked  for  on  behalf  of  the  week 
workers  in  the  tailor  shops:  and  in  the  event  of  any  other  rbim  being  made  under  the 
emergency  clause  of  the  agreement,  that  such  claims  must  be  made  in  advance 
of  sales  for  the  affected  season  being  made  by  the  company  in  order  to  be  entitled 
to  recognition  by  the  Board  of  Arbitration. 

In  the  case  of  week-workers,  the  increase  shall  be  calculated  from  the  pay  roll 
of  the  last  week  in  May,  1917. 

June  2.  1917. 



With  the  spectre  of  the  union  always  before  them  the  Association  houses 
vise  announced  a  ten  per  cent   increase  to  their  employees,  hoping  in  that 
way  to  continue  k<  out  from  the  organization. 

When  negotiations  uith  the  firm  of  Hart  Schaffner  &  Marx  for  a  wage 
increase  were  taken  up  thi-,  *pring  the  Association  houses  thought  they  would 
a  march  on  us  by  announcing  t  notary"  wage  increase  before  the 

union  had  an  op  port  he  increase  to  the  employees  of  Hart 

Schaffner  &  Marx.    They  considered  that  particularly  good  policy  this  time 
because  •  .  c  organization  campaign  that  has  developed  of  late.    Accord- 

ingly they  announced  a  ten  per  •  crease.    But  those  increases  are  mis- 

leading.   In  the  first  place,  they  are  not  given  as  increases  but  as  bonuses. 
As  such  they  may  b»  .iwn  at  any  time.    In  the  second  place,  while  the 

>yers  speak  of  ten  per  cent,  those  so-called  increases  actually  amount  to 
abount  seven  per  cent.  The  increases  or  bonuses  arc  computed  not  upon  the 
basis  of  the  wages  as  paid  at  the  time  the  increase  is  granted  but  of  wages  as 
they  existed  before  the  series  of  fraudulent  increases  began.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  increases  secured  by  us  are  bona  fide  as  they  arc  not  bonuses  and 
become  incorporated  into  the  wage  scale.  In  the  case  of  the  Association  the 
wage  scale  at  best  rcmai  .nary  in  spite  of  all  M-S"  ;  in  our  case 

every  increase  permanently  raises  the  wage  scale. 

.liter  the  Association  employers  announced  their  fake  ten  per  cent. 
wage  c  we  reached  an  agreement  with  the  firm  of  Hart  Schaffner  & 

Marx  for  a  ten  and  fifteen  per  cent,  increase  as  is  shown  by  the  following 
report  we  received  from  the  Chicago  organization : 

For   the    second   time   during   the    life    of    the   present    agreement   between    Hart 
Schaffner  &   Marx  and   the   Amalgamated   Clothing   Workers  of   America,   it  b*c 
necessary  to  demand  an  i;  :i  wages  due  to  the  high  cost  of  living, 

CM  the  present  agreement  was  signed  in  May,  1916,  a  10  per  cent,  increase 
secured  and  distributed  by  the  Union  to  the  many  sections,  giving  higher  r 
the  lower  paid  sections.     In  the  fall  of  1916,  a  2  per  cent,  increase  was  added  to  the 
workers  on  account  of  reducing  the  hours  from  49  to  48  per  week.     In   May. 
1917,  an  additional   10  per  cent,   increase  .red  through  the  Arbitration   Board 

and  was  applied  horizontally  throughout  the  shops. 

Some  time  ago  it  became  evident  that  another  increase  was  essential  in  order  to 

keep  up,  somehow,  with   the  constantly   rising  cost  of  commodities.     Accordingly,  a 

demand  for  a  wage  increase  was  made.    The  Joint  Board  found  it  advisable  to  call  our 

.t!   President.  Brother  Sidney  Hillman.  to  Chicago,  and  to  conduct  the  negotia- 

Ilr  arrived  in  Chicago  on  Monday,  April  22.  and  immediately  proceeded  to  make 

arrangements  that  resulted  in  a  conference  called  *  F    William*,  the  Chairman 

of  the   Board  of  Arbitration,  at  which   the   representatives  of  the   Amalgamated  and 

the  firm  \sr:<-  j-n-vrut       V  ms  presided. 

In   justice  to  t?  -  "f  the  company,  it  must  be  said  that  from  the 

the  necessity  of  giving  an  increase  to  keep,  as  they  stated. 

•  contented  and  happy  and  each  of  the  high  prices.     This  *  -     ,. 

the  c.i  Mons  \\<  T  limited  to  a  discussion  of  how  much  the  firm  could  gire 

.p  with  its  competitors;  how  little  could  the  workers  accept  under  the 

circumstances;  and  how  could  the  increase  be  applied  to  be  of  equal  benefit  to  all 

workers'      After   a   long   bt;  nendly    discussion    the    following   agreement    was 



A  conference  of  the  chairman  of  the  Board  of  Arbitration  with  repre* 
tives   of   Hart   Schaffner  &   Marx  and   the   Amalgamated   Clothing   \  of 

America  reports  an  addition  to  wages  in  the  form  of  a  payment  to  be  made 
during  the  life  of  the  present  agreement,  in  addition  to  the  increase  granted  in 
June  and  July,  1917. 

KK5:     All  cutters,  ipp-  temporary  and  regular,  on  the  pay  roll 



on  May  2,   1918,  shall  be  granted  an  additional  increase  at  the   rate  of  $3  per 
48-hour  week,  beginning  '  '18. 

TRIMMING  ROOM:  All  employes  of  the  trimming  room  on  the  trimmers' 
pay  roll  on  May  2,  1918,  shall  be  granted  an  additional  increase  at  the  rate  of  $3 
per  48-hour  week,  beginning  May  2,  1918. 

TAILOR  SHOPS:  All  week  workers  in  the  tailor  shops  on  May  2,  1918, 
whose  work  is  directly  productive,  not  including  foremen,  section  heads,  exam- 
iners or  attendants,  shall  receive  an  increase  at  the  rate  of  $3  per  48-hour  week, 
beginning  on  the  first  day  of  the  pay  roll  week  after  May  1.  Persons  who  arc 
working  at  piece  rate  operations  on  a  minimum  weekly  guarantee  shall  be 
considered  as  piece  workers. 

INCREASE  IN  WAGES:  All  piece  workers  in  the  coat,  vr-t  ami  trousers 
factories  beginning  on  the  first  day  of  the  pay  roll  week  after  May  1,  1918.  shall 
be  paid  ?.n  additional  percentage  on  t!  earnings,  including  the  ten 

per  cer-  •  of  1917,  as  folio 

A  list  of  section  1  by  the  sub-committee,  which   includes  all 

'•ly  lower  earning*  during  the  past,  shall 
v  be  granted  an  additional  payment  of  fifteen  per 

Sections  not  in  --hided  in  the  above  list  shall  be  granted  an  additional 
payment  of  ten  per  cent. 

Thr  njrrr  received  and  approved  by  the   Joint  Board  and 

it  will  a  great  stimulus  in  t!ie  r>-  .;n  of  on 

on    in   this   city.     The   Amalgamated   in    this   <  again,   true   to   its   pf 

equality,  thought  of  the  lower  paid  workers,  as  it  can  be  seen  that  a  much  larger 
increase  was  given  to  those  sections  earning  less,  thus  gradually  raising  them  to  a 
level  of  equality  with  the  higher  paid  workers. 

The  above  increases  were  announced  at  a  very  successful  May  Day  cele- 
bration of  the  Chicago  Joint  Board  at  Guyon's  Paradise. 


Toronto  is  next  to  Montreal  as  a  clothing  center  in  the  Dominion  of 
Canada.  The  experiences  of  the  Toronto  Clothing  Workers  with  organization 
matters  in  previous  years  were  in  line  with  those  of  all  other  clothing  cen- 
ters. When  we  entered  the  field  we  found  the  workers  discouraged  and  hope- 
less. After  the  usual  hardships  of  pioneering  we  succeeded  in  arousing  a 
strong  sentiment  for  organization.  The  situation  developed  steadily  until  the 
organization  was  ready  for  action  to  secure  improvements  in  the  working 
conditions  of  its  members.  Immediately  after  the  conclusion  of  the  Mont- 
real strike,  in  March,  1917,  the  Toronto  Joint  Board  sent  a  set  of  demands 
to  the  employers.  On  March  22,  1917,  the  demands  were  granted  as  follows: 
A  44-hour  week,  reduced  from  49,  and  a  wage  increase  of  one  dollar  a  week. 
A  compromise  was  made  in  the  wage  increase,  the  demand  having  been  for 

In  Toronto  as  elsewhere  our  members  considered  a  bigger  reduction 
in  the  working  hours  as  of  relatively  greater  importance  than  a  larger  in- 
crease in  wages. 

As  already  mentioned  above  Toronto  holds  the  palm  for  the  shortest 
working  week.  It  is  the  first,  and  so  far  the  only  city  in  the  clothing 
industry  in  North  America  to  have  a  real  eight-hour  day,  a  forty-four  hour 
week.  Nor  was  a  big  fight  necessary  to  get  it. 

In  Toronto,  the  same  as  in  other  clothing  cities,  all  local  unions  are 
welded  together  by  a  Joint  Board,  which  is  the  central  body  in  the  city.  The 
Joint  Board  is  always  active,  dealing  with  organization  and  individual  prob- 



lems  as  they  present  themselves  and  the  members  appreciate  the  benefits 


Canada,    which    i*    near    Toronto,    was    also    brought    within 
our  folds.    There  we  succeeded  in  establishing  the  48-hour  week  and  secur- 
ing wage  increases.    Conditions  were  not  as  favorable  there  as  they  we- 
Ton-  establishment  of  the  44-hour  week. 

In  July,  I'M 6  1 1  of  Davis  Bros.,  locked  out  its  employees.    The 


Dundas.  a  small   •  -i.  with  om-  clothing  factory,  was 

organized  by  tlu   H.ii:iilt«  n  local  and  made  a  branch  of  it 


The  clothing  vorkcrs  in  St.  Louis  have  had  more  than  their  full  share 

:aitors.  A  number  of  years 

ago  the  rank  and  isrulc  and  corruption.  In  its  efforts 

to  destroy  oppov  1  stifle  criticism  the  ruling  clique  revoked  charters 

of  locals  and  blacklisted  members.  An  agreement  was  forced  on  the  workers 
of  one  firm  which  meant  slavery  and  oppression  to  them. 

The  ma!  »m  the  destinies  of  the  three  thousand  workers  in  the 

industry  had  been  entrusted,  fought  bitterly,  as  head  of  the  Knights  of 
Labor  in  that  cit  >rescntativcs  came  some  twenty-three  years  ago 

to  dt-  (  K.  of  L.  locals  of  the  clothing  workers  by  forming  rival  organi- 

zaion  ncceeded  the  "vanquished"  assimilated  himself  with  the 

"conquerors"  so  well  that  you  cann-  <  11  «mr  fn»m  the  other. 

The  spirit  of  the  St.  Louis  clothing  workers  seemed  so  low  as  a  result 
of  all  they  had  gone  through  that  we  were  greatly  surprised  when  we  received 
from  them  a  charter  application  in  May,  1916,  shortly  after  our  last  conven- 

The  workers  who  formed  the  Amalgamated  local  were  no  members  of 
the  United  Garment  Workers  and  were  employed  by  the  firm  of  Loth  and 

The  U.  G.  W.,  who  were  quite  willing  to  let  the  workers  stay  unor- 
ganized, were  touched  to  the  quit  jealized  that  the  workers 
joined  our  organ  ••ikebreaking  crew  quickly  succeeded  in  con- 
:ie  firm  that  it  will  l>e  to  its  advantage  to  force  its  employees  into  the 
"Union"  they  did  not  wish  to  join.  Accordingly,  the  firm  suddenly  dis- 
covered that  it  entertained  a  special  ;>ffecti«»n  for  "organized  labor"  and 
workers  to  withdraw  from  our  organization  and  join  the  firm's 
"urn  The  first  man  who  refused  was  promptly  discharged.  That  was 
June  29,  1916.  The  other  workers  met  and  decided  to  defend  their  right  to 

ig  to  their  own  union.  On  June  30,  the  entire  force,  nearly  three  hundred 
in  number,  half  of  them  worm:  :  out  on  strike  demanding  the  rein- 

statement of  their  fellow  worker  and  the  right  to  be  organized. 

The  scab  agency  relieved  the  firm  of  the  task  of  fighting  the  strikers; 
it  took  over  that  noble  mission  itself.  All  efforts  of  the  scab  agency  to  fill 



the  shop  with  scabs  having  failed  f<>r  more  than  a  month  the  agency  decided 

to  be  good  to  the  strikers  and  give  them  an  opportunity  to  make  good  the 

bargain   struck  between  the  agency  and   the  firm.     On   July   5,  they  sent 

warning  to  the  strikers  that   unless  they   returned   to  work  by  July   12th, 

their  places  would  be  filled  with  other  workers.     Note,  it  was  not  thr  struck 

firm  that  sent  that  warning,  nor  was  it  the  firm  that  did  many  of  the  other 

criminal  things  against  the  workers;  n<>.  it  was  not  the  firm,  it  was  the  firm's 

"union."     The  workers,  in  self-r<  lid   not  reply  to  the  scab   ai^-ncy's 

•rung,  and  continued  the  strike  long  after  the  12th  of  July. 

Threats  having  failed  the  firm's  "union"  changed  its  tactics.     It  opened 

!la   warfare   against    the   striker  ng  them    up   at   every   occasion, 

treating,  in  that  men  and  women  on  a  basis  of  equality.     The  fol- 

S  quotation  from  one  of  the  r  by  us  will  serve  as  an 


'This  was  an  awful  day.  The  U.  G.  W.  of  A  gangsters,  about  40  in  number, 
•lugged  our  pickets  at  every  opportunity,  with  the  police  winking.  Total  arrests  for 
the  day,  eight.  The  picketing  is  done  by  girls  only  now." 

Please  remember  again  that  that  was  done  not  by  the  firm  but  by  its 

Not  only  were  the  strikers  beaten  up  by  the  scab  agency's  sluggers 
but  they  were  also  persecuted  by  the  politicians,  with  whom  the  scab  agency 
has  exercised  considerable  influence.  Throughout  the  strike  large  numbers 
of  strikers  were  arrested,  big  fines  were  paid  and  several  of  our  members 
were  sent  to  jail,  where  they  were  compelled  to  spend  some  time  before  we 
succeeded  in  liberating  them. 

Some  local  politicians  who  are  posing  as  socialists,  one  of  whom  is  the 
editor  of  a  local  labor  paper,  assisted  the  strikebreaking  agency  against  the 

The  wonder  is  not  that  the  strike  was  lost.  The  wonder  is  that  the  young 
local  organization,  just  formed,  displayed  such  wonderful  fighting  spirit 
and  vitality  as  to  hold  out  about  three  months  against  such  terrible  odds. 

We  now  have  a  good  nucleus  in  St.  Louis  and  are  confident  that  sooner 
or  later  St.  Louis,  too,  will  be  a  well  organized  clothing  center. 


Few  of  our  members  knew  that  Louisville,  Ky.,  had  any  sort  of  cloth- 
ing industry  worth  speaking  of.  We  had  never  heard  of  a  clothing  workers 
organization  or  a  strike  in  that  city.  In  our  minds  Kentucky  had  been  so 
much  associated  with  romance  and  folksong  that  it  would  have  seemed  almost 
a  sacrilege  to  think  of  the  "Old  Kentucky  Home"  as  housing  an  industry 
that  was  built  on  sweat  shopism  as  its  cornerstone,  and  of  "Kentucky  Eyes" 
as  those  of  a  garment  maker  stitching  her  life  away  for  $3.50  a  week. 

We  know  better  now. 

Somehow  the  romanticism  and  poetry  of  Old  Kentucky  have  failed 
to  afford  the  workers  any  protection  from  overwork,  underpayment  and  other 



When  the  rising  cost  of  living  began  to  press  too  forcibly  on  ihe 
waist  line,  and  new  holes  had  to  be  pierced  in  the  belt,  the  workers,  though 
unorganized,  made  demands  for  higher  wages,  and  receiving  no  satisfaction 
were  compc  .ike  action.  The  employees  of  the  largest  firm  in  the 

•  -rmulatc  demands.    They  asked 

for  a  wages.    When  that  was  refused  they  all 

t  out  or.  •      .     250  strong. 

Some  .  !   the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 

i  tea,  and  sent  us  a  request  for  help.    We  directed  Bro.  Samuel  Levin  of 

go  to  i  vi lie  and  make  an  investigation.     He  found  a 

mostly  women,  who  were  ready  to  organize 

and  stay  organized.    Bro   Frank  Roscnblum  was  then  placed  in  charge  of  the 

1  "ii  the  ground  until  the  end  of  the  year  when  the 

It  was  found  that  th^  ample  room  for  improvement  in  the  working 

cond  'ding  houses  in  the  city.    As  soon  as  a  local  union  was 

fon  task  of  securing  improvements  was  undertake 

The  is  mailed   to  all   clothing  manufacturing  firms, 

including  th     •         .        rn : 

Louiiville.  Ky .  July  20.   1917. 

4   copy  of  the   demand*   formulated  and  adopted  by  tne 
Clot!  of   I  .GUI-  Meeting  held  Thursday  evening.  July   19. 

".   your  employees  participated. 

The  undersigned  was  instructed   to   foruurd   the  demands  to  the   Clothing   Manu- 
facturers of  1  -     .<  st  for  a  conference. 

It  »s  t)  <>rkers  and  their  officers  to  maintain  peace  with 

honor  .    Industry    in   tin*   city,   and.   with    that   object   in    view,   we    re- 

spectfully ask  that  you  give  tier  your  careful  consideration  and  prompt  atten- 

tion, and  meet  us  in  conference  for  the  purpose  of  adjusting  any  and  all  questions 


Trusting  this  will  meet  with  your  approval,  and  that  you  will  favor  us  with  an 
early  reply  on  or  before  Tuesday.  July  24  I  am 

pectfully  yours, 

Member  General   Executive   Board. 
Amalgamated    Clothing    \Vor, 
of  America. 

MASS   MEETING    HELD   THURSDAY   EVENING,   JULY    10,    1917. 

AT  !     A.   HALL. 

1      48  hours  shall  constitute  a  week's  work. 

2.  Time  and  one-half  shall  be  paid  for  overtime. 

3.  A  general  increase  in  wages  of  IS  per  cent. 

num  wage  of  $8.00  per  week  for  women  apprentice*. 

5.  Minimum  wage  of  $1600  per  week  for  men. 

6.  There  shall  be  no  discharge  without  just  cause. 

7.  Sanitary  condition*  to  be  established,  with  emergency  rest   rooms  in   shops. 

8.  of  all  tines  and  blacklists. 

9.  Recognition  of  Union. 

10.     The   following  legal  holiday*  to  be  observed,  with   pay:     New   Year's   Day; 
Decoration  Day,  Fourth  of  July.  Labor  Day.  Thanksgiving  Day  and  Christmas, 

11      That  an  Arbitration  Board  be  established  to  adjust  all  future  grievances 
where  both  parties  cannot  agr    - 

The  employers  did  not  As  the  strike  continued  it  extended  in 

scope  until  it  included  the  following  houses  in  addition  to  Shymanski  &  Sons: 



Moses  Rothschild  &  Co.,   Falls  City  Clothing  Company  and   M.   Cohen   & 
Sons.    The  aggregate  number  of  strikers  was  nearly  six  hundred. 

We  cannot  speak  too  highly  of  the  courage  and  loyalty  of  the  strikers. 
particularly  since  that  was  their  first  experience  in  organization  and  strike. 

The  Socialist  Party  of  Louisville  generously  placed  its  large  Karl  Marx 
Hall  at  the  disposal  of  the  strikers  as  their  headquarters,  where  the  striker^ 
met,  sang  and  danced  when  not  on  picket  duty.  The  Socialist  Party  also 
furnished  speakers  to  encourage  the  strikers  and  educate  them. 

We  also  received  the  liberal  support  of  the  United  Trades  and  Labor 
Assembly,  the  central  trade  union  body  in  Louisville. 

The  strikers  participated  in  the  Labor  Day  parade  of  the  United  Trades 
and  Labor  Assembly  and  made  a  most  favorable  showing. 

The  strikers  enlivened  the  city  by  their  wide  awakeness  and  aroused  gen- 
eral interest.  Thus  they  were  on  several  occasions  the  official  guests  of 
various  organizations  in  the  c 

The  United  Trades  and  Labor  Assembly  and  a  number  of  individuals 
made  efforts  to  bring  about  a  settlement,  but  the  employers  were  so  obdur- 
ate that  no  progress  could  be  made.  It  was  evident  that  the  clohing  manu- 
facturers, never  having  seen  any  labor  organization  in  their  industry  before, 
were  determined  to  prevent  it  from  gaining  a  foothold.  But  the  workers 
were  no  less  determined  to  uphold  their  organization.  The  wholehearted 
support  they  received  from  us  has  so  encouraged  the  strikers  that  they  would 
not  under  any  circumstances  go  back  to  the  old  conditions.  They  saw  the 
light  of  working  class  unionism  and  were  inspired  by  it. 

In  October  they  had  the  joy  of  achieving  the  first  victory.  The  firm  of 
M.  Cohen  &  Sons  made  a  settlement  with  the  new  local  union,  granting  the 
48  hour  week,  one  dollar  increase  in  wages,  and  other  concessions.  The 
fruits  of  victory  are  always  sweet,  but  the  fruits  of  the  first  victory  have  a 
particular  relish,  the  invigorating  effect  of  which  lasts  very  long.  The  reali- 
zation of  the  fact  that  they,  the  newly  organized  workers,  cannot  only  fight 
but  also  win,  gave  birth  to  a  new  spirit  of  self  reliance.  And  though  the 
strike  had  already  become  drawn  out  and  protracted,  the  struggle  becoming 
more  difficult  as  the  days,  the  weeks  and  the  months  passed,  the  backbone 
of  the  strike  was  stiffened  by  that  first  victory. 

The  employers,  as  usual,  made  desperate  efforts  to  break  the  strike.  They 
tried  to  get  work  made  in  other  cities  and  partly  succeeded.  In  Cleve- 
land they  were  blocked  by  our  Cleveland  local  union.  They  imported  scabs 
from  other  cities.  In  this  they  were  particularly  unfortunate.  When  the 
"scabs"  arrived  in  Louisville  they  proved  to  be  active  members  of  our  Chi- 
cago organization,  whom  the  firms  gave  an  opportunity  to  visit  their  fac- 
tories and  report  the  exact  conditions  to  the  strikers. 

The  strikers  made  their  acquaintance  with  the  "chivalry"  of  the  police 
and  found  out  where  the  courts  stood  as  between  employers  and  strikers. 

The  brutal  conduct  of  the  police  compelled  our  local  union  to  send  the 



lett«  r   to    l.«lwar«i  :  nc,  chairman  of  the   Board  of   Public 

July  9,  of  this  year,  ftftcr  our  demand  for  an  increase  in  wage*  to  meet  the 
increased  con  ..  had  been  by  our  emplovm.  we  declared  a  strike.    Our 

strike  ha*  •.  orderly  aud  lawful  manner  although  we 

have  been  opprcs-  officers  and  private  watchman. 

to  coin;  .our   board  concerning  the 

outrageous  conduct  of  several  members  of  the  Louisville  police  force  who  have  been 
static  Snead  Building  at  Ninth  and  Market  Streets.     1 

man  '  tmerous  occasions  cursed  and  abused  us  in  an  outrageous 

manner  and  has  even  gone  so  far  as  to  take  hold  of  «•  bodily  and  maliciously  and 
violently  to  \>-  rk  us  about  and  to  shove  us  from  the  sidewalk  into  the  street 

.Is  us  "streetwalkers"  and  his  manner  is  alwavs  malicious  and 

Sergeant  Lee  has  cursed  and  abused  us  unmercifully  and  his  attitude  and  man- 
ner '  ug. 

A  patrolman  bearing  badge  No.  180,  has  cursed  and  abused  us  and  threatened 
us  wi:  tor  no  cause.  This  officer  when  told  by  a  young  lady  that  she  had  done 

no  wrong  and  had  violated  no  law  informed  her  that  his  word  would  go  further  than 
her  word.     He  made  a  statement  that  "we  make  the  law  as  we  go  along." 

:ig  this   ll  have  conducted  ourselves  in  a  lawful,  quiet  and  dignified 

man  n  c  officers  no  cause  for  the  abuse  heaped  upon  us,  and  we. 

ore,  request  that  your  board  make  an  investigation  of  these  charges  and  further 
ask  that  we  be  protected  in  our  legal  rights. 

On  last  Tuesday,  October  24,  our  books  and  records  were  stolen  from  our  head- 
quarters in  Karl  Marx  Hall;  the  theft  was  immediately  reported  to  the  authorities, 
but  no  steps  have  been  taken  to  recover  the  stolen  propc. 

Trusting  you  will  use  your  authority  to  protect  us  Irom  the  insults  and  abuses 
•<>fore  suffered  at  the  hands  of  the  police  and  that  you  will  cause  the 
icnt   to   make  an   effort    to   locate   our  stole*   records  and   to  bring   to 
e  the  parties  of  this  theft,  we  beg  to  remain,  etc. 

(Signed)  ELNORA  SAUER.  Secretary." 

j  may  be  seen  from  the  above  letter  the  union's  headquarters  v. 

burglarized  and  ransacked.    Books  and  records  were  stolen.    There  can  be  no 

ke  as  to  the  p;:  cd  in  stealing  them.     But  that  theft  servexl 

no  useful   purpose.     There   was  nothing   in   the   records   to  embarrass   the 

organization.     Nor  could  their  absence  hamper  the  organization's  work,  as  a 

catc  set  of  records  was  kept  at  another  place  in  order  to  meet  just  such 
an  emergetu 

On  December  12,  a  settlement  was  effected  with  Shvmanski  &  Sons. 
All  the  strikers  returned  to  v..  rk  with  one  dollar  a  week  increase  in  their 
wages,  pay  for  legal  holidays,  time  and  one-half  for  overtime,  and  provisions 
for  jcducing  the  working  time.  More  wage  increases  have  been  secured 
since.  The  fonr  cck  has  by  this  time  been  reduced  to  fifty- 

:h  an  understanding  for  an  ultimate  forty-eight  hour  week.    The 
forty-eight  hour  week  is  in  force  at  M.  Cohen  &  Sons. 

The  as  improved  conditions  in  that  factory  to  such  an  extent  that 

although  the  settlement  was  not  formally  made  with   the  organization  the 
workers  realize  that  their  bet  conditions  of  today  are  due  entirely 

to  their  united  power,  and  they  jealously  guard  that  power. 

ve  a  very  good,  lively  and  thriving  local  union  in  Louisville 
to  the  pride  and  benefit  of  the  local  membership  and  to  the  joy  of  the  general 



We  had  no  organization  in  Cleveland,  and  no  connection  of  any  sort,  until 
late  in  1915,  when  the  big  strike  was  on  in  Chicago.  One  day  we  received 
a  telegram  from  a  friend  of  our  organization  informing  us  that  Chicago  work 
made  its  appearance  in  Cleveland  shoj >-.  \Ve  sent  P.  Xuckerman  into 

that    city,    \\hilr  there    he    organized    a    local    union.      It    grew    slowly 
made  steady  progr«->v     In  a  few  cases  strikes  were  called  and  won.    Agreements 
were  signed  with  several  of  the  smaller  houses  for  better  wages  than  had  been 
paid  before  and  for  a  shorter  working  week,  reduced  in  some  cases  from  as 
many  as  sixty-four  hours. 

The  organization  activity  was  not  kept  up  constantly  and  the  local  union 
in  that  city  was  considerably  weakened. 

Recently,  however,  local  activity  has  been  revived  and  the  ts  are 

good  for  continued  and  fruitful  work. 

On  March  30,  agreements  with  three  firms  were  renewed,  bringing  the 
workers  increased  wages  and  introducing  the  forty-eight  hour  week,  which 
was  reduced  from  50  and  52  hours. 


We  have  grown  so  accustomed  to  continued  and  rapid  progress  and  to 
frequent  and  great  victories  that  an  occasional  adverse  experience  seems  almost 
unnatural.  Yet,  as  a  fighting  organization  we  must  be  prepared  at  times  to 
sustain  a  setback  here  and  there.  Milwaukee  and  Cincinnati  happened  to  fall 
into  that  category  for  the  time  being. 

Milwaukee  had  a  fairly  good  organization  and  conducted  and  won  strikes. 
A  strike  of  the  600  employees  of  Adler  Bros.,  began  May  J.  1917,  ended 
unfavorably  July  11.  K/IJ,  and  had  a  discouraging  effect  on  the  membership. 

In  Cincinnati,  too,  the  local  organization  conducted  strikes  and  gained 
concessions  for  its  members.  But  conditions  were  otherwise  unfavorable  and 
the  progress  made  was  not  supported  by  further  organization  work. 

As  a  result  both  organizations  failed  to  hold  what  they  had  achieved, 
which  confirms  the  rule  that  eternal  vigilance  is  not  only  the  price  of  liberty 
but  also  of  security. 

We  shall  take  up  anew  the  organization  work  in  those  two  cities  and 
1  ring  them  back  into  the  column  of  the  organized  clothim-.  centers. 


Rochester  is  still  within  the  unchecked  power  of  the  Clothiers'  Exchange. 

We  have  not  made  the  progress  we  had  a  right  to  expect  in  that  city 
since  the  last  convention.  But  progress  has  been  made  nevertheless.  We 
have  extended  the  influence  of  the  organization,  raised  1!  ,  t  of  the 
workers  generally  and  aroused  their  faith  in  the  Union.  Satisfactory  prog- 
ress has  been  made  among  the  cutters,  an  unapproachable  element  in  the 



past.    Our  Rochester  organization  has  gained  quite  a  number  of  them  into 
in  ranks. 

The  Syracuse  organization  is  hopeful  of  good  progress  in  the  near  future. 

I  likewise  be  possible  to  organize  the  clothing  workers. 

Until  recently  two  organizers  were  maintained  for  Western  New  York 

with  headquarters  in  Rochester.     They  are  not  on  the  staff  now.     At  the 

mg  a  new  campaign  of  organization  has  been  mapped  out  for 

ive  confidence  that  more  rapid  progress 

\vill  be  madi  ititure  as  the  way  has  been  paved  for  more  effective  and 

constructive  work. 



The  cost  of  living  has  been  rising  steadily  for  many  years,  but  since 
the  beginning  of  the  European  war  the  upward  rush  of  prices  of  the  neces- 
( >f  life  has  been  such  as  if  they  were  consciously  hastening  to  get 
he  reach  of  the  people^.     A  situation  was  created  by  both  natural 
trtificial  causes,  mainly  the  latter,  which  became  menacing  to  the  Amer- 
kers.     Repeated  demands  for  wage  increases  were  dictated  by  the 
'aw  of  self  preservation.    One  of  the  strongest  counts  in  the  indictment 
will  be  its  violent  efforts  to  reduce  the  conditions  of  American 
labor  at  a  hen  the  working  class  was  being  called  to  make  its  greatest 

for  the  country,  give  up  its  sturdiest  sons,  work  hardest  and  in- 
crease still  more  its  thriftiness,  which  means  more  self  abnegation,  in  order 
to  contribute  to  the  Country's  war  chest.  The  interests  of  the  Naiton  and 
the  ii  lid  not  require  the  deterioration  of  the  workers'  con- 

»s;  the  i  <  sts  alone  required  it.     Yet  attempts  were  made 

to  discourage  the  workers'  outcry  for  relief  by  the  charge  of  "treason"  and 
"disl<  i  shouter  of  "treason"  has  swelled  his  fortune  by  the  mis- 

fortunes of  the  human  race. 

It  is  a  very  hopeful  sign,  and  to  the  great  credit  of  the  American  work- 
ingmen,  that  they  have  not  permitted  the  "stop  thief"  cry  of  "treason"  and 
"disloyalty"  to  intimidate  them. 

The  high  cost  of  living  is  of  all  other  economic  issues,  the  burning  ques- 
tion of  the  day  for  the  people.  In  our  efforts  to  meet  it  we,  the  working  class, 
are  placed  at  a  tragic  disadvantage. 

We  arc  informed  by  the  beneficiaries  of  the  present  social  order  that 
hi^h  prices  are  incidental  to  prosperity.     There  may  be  many  reasons  for 
igh  cost  of  things.     It  may  be  the  European  war.     It  may  be  the  in- 
creased output  of  gold.     It  may  be  the  trustification  of  the  necessaries  of 
life.    It  may  be  all  that  and  more.    For  the  worker's  lean  purse  the  cause  of 
ising  prices  arc  immaterial.     The  phenomenon  of  rising  prices  is  the 
all-important  matter. 

When  high  prices  become  general,  when  instead  of  the  high  cost  of 
a  given  product  we  speak  of  the  high  cost  of  living,  what  does  that  mean  in 



the  final  analysis?  It  means  that  we  pay  more  for  what  we  buy  and  receive 
more  for  what  we  sell.  If  Mr.  Retailer  must  pay  to  Mr.  Wholesaler  fifty 
cents  for  what  he  formerly  paid  twenty-five  cents  and  he  receives  from  Mr. 
Consumer  one  dollar  for  what  he  formerly  received  fifty  cents,  Mr.  Retailer 
is  not  the  loser  by  the  change  in  prices.  Nor  is  there  any  disturbance  in  the 
relations  between  seller  and  buyer. 

Our  grocer,  our  butcher,  our  dairyman,  pay  more  now  for  their  wares 
and  they  charge  us  more  for  them.  If  \vc  refuse  to  pay  an  extra  cent  for  the 
bottle  of  milk,  we  may  permit  our  babies  to  go  without  it.  If  we  wish  to 
feed  them  and  keep  them  in  good  health  we  must  pay  the  raised  price. 
There  is  no  extraneous  compulsion  either  on  the  part  of  the  seller  or  the 
:.  Likewise  with  bread,  meat,  clothing  and  all  else.  The  prices  have 
been  raised  automatically.  No  haggling  will  help.  We  may  grumble,  and 
our  grocer  and  butcher  may  sympathetically  grumble  along  with  us,  but  we 
will  pay  the  new  price.  We  know  that  we  must  do  it  if  we  want  to  have 
the  things  that  sustain  life.  Our  dealer's  argument:  "It  costs  me  more  and 
I  must  get  more"  is  unanswerable.  The  law  that  determines  the  increase 
in  prices  operates  with  wonderful  precision  all  along  the  line. 

Yes,  all  along  the  line,  except  at  one  point,  where  it  is  suspended,  as  it 
were.  That  point  is  where  the  wage  earner  is  located.  A  dealer  in  any  line  of 
goods  may  say:  "It  costs  me  more  and  I  must  get  more"  and  without  any 
exception  he  will  get  more.  But  not  so  with  the  workingman. 

The  worker  approaches  his  employer  and  tells  him  that  the  goods  he 
must  buy  and  consume  in  order  to  reproduce  his  labor  from  day  to  day — food, 
clothing,  shelter,  etc. — cost  him  more  now  than  they  did  before.  In  order 
that  he  may  be  able  to  meet  the  higher  cost  he  must  be  paid  more  for  the 
thing  he  sells,  his  labor  power.  He  applies  to  his  case  the  very  same  formula 
that  all  others  have  applied  to  theirs:  "It  costs  me  more  and  I  must  get 
more."  But  here  the  law  that  automatically  raises  prices  stops  short.  There 
is  no  automatic  price  raising  for  labor  power.  The  employer  informs  the 
man  with  the  hat  in  his  hand,  with  indifference,  contempt  or  rage,  as  the 
temperament  of  the  employer  or  superintendent  may  be,  that  if  the  wages 
paid  in  that  factory  do  not  suit  him  he  is  at  liberty  to  look  for  another 
job.  The  worker  must  pay  the  higher  prices  asked  of  him  for  all  he  buys, 
including  the  goods  at  the  making  of  which  he  is  himself  employed.  He  must 
Arguments  are  superfluous  and  useless.  But  in  order  to  get  the  increase 
due  him  he  must — fight! 

A  tremendous  machinery  must  be  set  in  motion.  Large  mass  meetings 
are  called.  Prominent  speakers  discuss  with  the  workers  the  great  injustice 
done  to  them.  Demands  upon  the  employers  are  formulated.  A  strike  is 
called.  The  papers  denounce  the  strikers  as  disturbers  of  the  peace,  dstroy- 
ers  of  our  prosperity.  Strikebreakers,  thugs,  guerillas,  private  detectives  and 
all  other  tools  of  the  employers,  become  the  saviours  of  society.  The  police 
get  busy  clubbing  and  arresting  strikers;  the  courts  get  busy  convicting 
them ;  the  prison  cells  open  wide  to  receive  them.  Feelings  run  high  in  the 



community.  Onr  set  condemns  the  employers,  another  set  the  worker! 
The  latter  are  subjected  to  hunger,  cold,  prosecution  and  persecution  and 
must  appeal  to  other  members  of  their  class  for  help.  And  all  that  for  the 
only  purpose  of  enforcing  the  economic  law  which  is  being  self  enforced  as 
between  a  manufacturer  and  his  customers  and  as  between  his  customers 

When  the  workers  succeed  in  wresting  the  much  needed  increa* 
wages  and  they  make  merry  and  rejoice  over  their  victory,  what  was  it  that 
really  won?    An  improvement  in  their  condition?    We  call  it  so,  but 
t-ality  but  a  check  upon  depredation.     We  assume  that  the  workers 
have  secured  a  ten  per  cent  increase  in  their  wages.    It  is  often  less  and 
seldom  more      With  the  cost  of  living  fifty  or  sixty  per  cent  higher  and 
wages  but  ten  per  cent  the  improvement  is  real  only  as  compared 

with  yi-sterday  and  the  day  before,  but  not  in  the  long  run.    The  deteriora- 
tion of  conditions  has  been  checked  to  the  extent  of  ten  per  cent. 

In  our  days  it  takes  but  a  short  time  and  the  ten  per  cent  in  wages  is 
more  than  wiped  out  by  a  new  rise  in  the  cost  of  living.  The  best  organized 
workers  cannot  possibly  strike  for  higher  wages  as  often  as  the  prices  of 
necessities  of  life  rise. 


In  the  face  of  that  who  is  there  so  cruel  as  not  to  begrudge  the  wage 
earner's  slight  increase  in  his  pay  in  order  to  at  least  partly  restore  its  former 
purchasing  power!  In  the  face  of  that,  too,  what  sane  man  could  credit 
the  possibility  of  employers  repudiating  a  wage  increase  already  granted 
by  them  1 

Yet  that  is  precisely  what  happened  in  New  York. 

Early  in  the  summer  of  1917  we  submitted  to  the  New  York  Clothing 
Manufacturers  a  demand  for  a  wa^e  increase.  After  some  conferences  we 
agreed  on  an  increase  of  one  dollar  a  week.  The  Associated  Boys'  Clothing 
:facturcrs  agreed  to  put  the  increase  into  effect  June  18,  and  the  men's 
clothing  manufacturers  July  1.  At  the  proper  time  our  children's  clothing 
members  received  the  increase  as  agreed.  Not  so  in  the  larger  branch  of 
the  industry.  Hiding  themselves  behind  the  backs  of  the  contractors  a  large 
number  of  manufacturers  attempted  to  rob  the  workers  of  the  increase  due 
them.  The  circumstances  made  it  quite  apparent  that  it  was  the  aim  of 
those  responsible  for  the  manoeuvre  to  discredit  the  officers  of  the  Union  by 
conveying  the  impression  that  the  wage  increase  report  made  by  the  officers 
to  the  members  was  a  fabrication.  The  organization  took  the  matter  up 
with  a  firm  hand.  The  members  were  called  to  a  large  number  of  mass 
meetings,  Monday,  July  16,  where  the  situation  was  fully  discussed.  The  fol- 

:ig  resolution  was  unanimously  adopted  at  all  meetings: 

The  rising  cost  of  living  has  forced  the  workers  everywhere  to  demand  of  their 
employers  wage  increases  in  order  to  at  least  check  in  some  measure  the  deterioration 
of  their  standards  of  life. 

For  the  same  reason  our  organization  was  also  compelled  to  ask  for  raises  in 



wages,  which   have  been  granted  to  our  members  in   different  parts   of   the  country, 
in  some  cases  to  the  extent  of  ten  percent  and  more. 

In  this  city  a  conference  between  our  Organization  and  our  employers  resulted 
in  an  agreement  that  wages  be  raised  one  dollar  a  week,  beginning  July  ist,  1917. 

We  did  not  insist  on  a  higher  rise  in  wages,  such  as  were  received  by  our  fellow 
members  in  other  parts  of  the  country;  nor  did  \  on  the  increase  going  into 

effect  immediately.     We  agreed  to  concessions  both  as  to  the  amount  and  the  time 
because  of  our  anxiety  to  avoid  an  industrial  conflict. 

The  first  of  July  came  and  passed.     We  are  now  already  in   the  third   week  of 
the  month,  but  our  employers  still  refuse  to  give  us  what  has  been  promised  to 
order  to  avoid  a  strike. 

We  feel  outraged  at  this  show  of  bad  faith. 

We  resent  most  emphatically  the  conduct  of  our  employers  in  trying  to  snatch 
from  us  what  is  justly  ours  by  a  definite  and  solemn  understanding  between  our 
organization  and  them. 

By  the  action  of  our  employers  in  withholding  from  us  the  increase  guaranteed 
by  them,  a  situation  has  been  created  in  \vhich  not  the  amount  of  money  but  a  high 
principle  is  involved. 

The  question  for  us  to  answer  is:  Shall  tens  of  thousands  of  workin^men, 
organized  in  a  strong  Union — using  their  organized  power  with  due  regard  for  the 
community  as  a  whole — shall  these  tens  of  thousands  of  workingmen  and  their  families 
allow  themselves  to  be  made  a  football  for  the  entertainment  of  their  employer 

Our  dignity  as  American  citizens,  as  enlightened  workers  and  as  an  organized 
body,  calls  for  the  strongest  resentment  at  the  insult  and  outrage  perpetrated  upon 

Our  answer  to  the  above  question  is:  Our  settlement  for  one  dollar  increase,  to 
begin  July  ist,  1917,  was  made  with  our  employers  in  perfect  faith;  we  now,  as  a 
matter  of  honor,  insist  that  that  settlement  be  upheld.  We,  therefore,  authorize  the 
New  York  Joint  Board  and  our  officers  to  do  all  that  may  be  necessary  in  order  to 
enforce  the  settlement  agreed  to  by  us  in  honor,  good  faith  and  without  any  mental 

We  hope  that  no  extreme  measures  may  be  necessary,  but  we  pledge  ourselves  to 
instantly  respond  to  the  call  of  our  organization,  in  any  emergency,  in  order  to 
enforce  the  condition  of  the  settlement  and  establish  the  fact  that  an  understanding  by 
our  employers  with  us  must  be  respected  not  only  by  ourselves  but  by  the  employers 
as  well. 

The  firm  stand  of  the  organization  had  the  desired  effect.  In  a  number 
of  cases  the  increase  was  immediately  paid  to  our  members ;  in  others  strikes 
were  necessary  to  enforce  payments.  Within  a  few  weeks  all  paid. 


Our  fervent  hope  that  this  country  might  be  spared  the  horrors  of  war 
remained  unfulfilled.  In  April,  1917,  America  became  a  co-belligerent  of  the 
Allies  against  Germany.  The  National  Army  authorized  by  Congress  had  to 
be  clothed  and  the  Government  gave  out  contracts  for  the  making  of  army 

We  were  immediately  confronted  with  that  distressing  problem. 

Before  the  war  the  American  people  had  been  free  from  war  industries. 
With  relatively  slight  exceptions  we  were  all  occupied  in  the  pursuits  of  peace. 
\Ve  all  lived  in  the  happv  illusion  that  this  far  and  distant  country  was  out 
of  reach  for  the  militaristic  monster  of  Europe.  We  were  harshly  disillusioned. 
The  world  encircling  flames  of  the  groat  conflagration  caught  us  and  made  us 
a  part  of  Europe.  The  Western  Hemisphere  became  united  with  the  Eastern  in 
the  great  catastrophe. 

Greedy  profiteers  have  seized  upon  the  war  as  a  godsend  for  their 
further  enrichment.  That  has  been  so  ever  since  men  have  learned  to  carry 
on  warfare  scientifically  and  in  a  "civilized"  manner.  Every  war  in  the  past 



has  swelled  old  s  and  created  new  ones  i  duals  who  were 

perfectly  willing  t-.  amass  wealth  through  the  misery  of  their  fellow  human 
beings.    All  that  i*  "proper,  md  "good  business  policy." 

however,  war  work  docs  not  mean  large  dividends.    To 

means  labor,  toil,  an  opportuity  to  convert  their  labor  power  into 

food  for  themselves  and  their  families.     They  would  much  rather  do  work 

more  to  their  liking.     But  they  don't  do  the  work  they  desire;  they  do  the 

work  they  are  hired  to  do.    They  do  war  work  when  that  is  required. 

That  was  the  attitude  of  the  workers  to  the  making  of  army  uniforms. 

unifoms  made  their  appearance  in  the  industry,  replacing 
tan  d  Mibers  fully  realized  the  meaning  of  it.    The  young  men 

sensible  of  the  fact  that  they  would  be  among  the  ones  to 
wear  them  under  fire  and  shell ;  the  older  ones  were  likewise  conscious  that 
the  very  kh...  ents  they  were  going  to  make  would  be  for  their  own 

sons,  brothers  and  other  dear  ones.     It  is  a  part  of  the  general  and  un; 

ly  of  today  that  with  all  that  feeling  and  consciousness  the  workers 
were  praying  for  the  army  uniform  work  in  order  that  they  might  be  able 

their  bread. 

There   was   widespread     unemployment   in    the   industry.     Very   little 

civilian  clothing  was  being  manufactured.     Partly  because  the  market  was 

dull :  the  young  men  did  not  buy  new  clothing  because  they  expected  to  be 

••d ;  the  older  people  made  last  year's  suit  do  extra  service  because  of  the 

cost  of  and  in  some  cases  also,  because  the  departure  of  the 

young  men  made  general  retrenchment  necessary;  partly,  or  largely  also, 

because  the  mills  were  giving  preference  to  the  manufacture  of  cloth  for  the 


But  when  the  making  of  Army  Clothing  was  finally  begun  very  few  of 
our  members  had  the  good  fortune  of  participating  in  it.  It  looked  as  if  the 
Government  '-n  special  pains  to  avoid  the  union's  jurisdiction.  The 

manufacturers  certainly  did.  The  highly  specialized  process  of  labor  employed 
in  the  making  of  uniforms  made  possible  the  employment  of  unskilled  labor. 
manufai  •  vho  had  secured  contracts,  taking  advantage  of  the  gen- 

eral state  of  unemployment,  hired  workers  from  other  industries  at  ridicu- 
s,  employed  children  and  sent  work  into  tenement  houses. 
Wages  were  slashed,  th<  <ht  hour  week,  for  which  we  fought  so  bit- 

terly,  was   abolished,   and    many    thousands   of   our   members   walked    the 
streets  in  id!  tors  were  employers  who  had  succeeded 

the  jurisdiction  of  the  union  and  were  thus  freed  from  the  neces- 
sitv  ,.f   paying  living  wages,  giving  th  oyes  decent   treatment,  etc. 

\Vhc :  .era  sho  v  inclination  to  demand  improvements   the 

employers  held  the  Government's  contract  as  a  club  over  their  heads,  threat- 
ening with  arrest  and  imprisonment. 

The  state  of  affairs  was  such  that  the  New  Republic  of  New  York, 
was  compelled  to  publish  the  following  complaint  (July  7,  1917) : 

Take  the  situation  in  the  men's  clothine  industry.  The  government  has  gone 
into  the  market  for  tens  of  thousands  of  uniforms.  The  contracts  for  these  uniforms 



arc  let  through  the  quartermaster's  department  in  Philadelphia.  For  some  unknown 
reason,  the  quartermaster's  department  has  followed  the  practice  of  placing  most  of 
these  contracts  with  unorganized  factories  where  the  cheapest  labor  is  employed 
and  with  factories  10  ill  equipped  to  do  the  work  that  their  owners  have  resorted 
to  sub-contraction  which  in  turn  has  spilled  over  into  the  tenements.  Since  the 
beginning  of  the  war  there  has  been  a  conspicuous  recrudescence  of  the  old  sweat- 
shop conditions  which  the  best  manufacturers  and  the  unions  have  struggled  for  years 
to  abolish.  The  quartermaster's  department  has  taken  the  position  that  the  govern- 
ment is  not  concerned  whether  or  not  union  labor  is  employed.  Most  of  the  clothing 
on  government  account  is  manufactured  in  New  York,  Philadelphia  and  Baltimore, 
and  it  happens  that  in  these  cities  approximately  85  per  cent  of  the  industry  operates 
under  the  protocol  agreements  which  provide  not  only  for  the  maintenance  of  decent 
labor  standards  in  the  establishment  of  which  the  manufacturers,  the  workers  and 
representatives  of  the  outside  public  have  had  a  voice,  but  which  also  provide  a  highly 
developed  and  effective  machinery  for  the  modification  of  standards  in  times  of 
emergency  and  the  adjustment  of  industrial  disputes.  With  few  exceptions,  the  fac- 
tories which  have  remained  outside  the  scope  of  collective  agreements  operate  under 
sub-standard  conditions  of  wages  and  hours  give  the  workers  no  voice  in  the  control 
of  the  shop  and  provide  no  machinery  for  the  correction  of  grievances.  Yet  it  is 
such  factories  that  appear  to  be  getting  most  of  the  government  contracts  today  with 
the  result  that  unrest  and  resentment  is  rapidly  spreading  throughout  the  industry. 

Would  not  the  government  be  following  a  wiser  course  if  it  called  into  consulta- 
tion the  representatives  of  the  manufacturers'  associations  and  the  union  which  con- 
trol 85  per  cent  of  the  industry,  made  preferential  arrangements  with  them  for  the 
execution  of  government  work  and  made  them  jointly  responsible  for  the  maintenance 
of  uninterrupted  production? 

The  threats  of  the  employers  did  not,  however,  prevent  uprisings.  When 
the  conditions  of  slavery  became  unbearable  the  workers  in  a  number  of 
places  struck. 

We  took  hold  of  the  strikes  wherever  they  occurred.  We  investigated 
conditions  and  caused  others,  such  as  the  Mayor's  Committee  of  National 
Defense,  of  New  York,  to  make  investigations.  Most  shocking  conditions 
were  revealed.  The  press  gave  publicity  to  our  disclosures  and  called  for 
immediate  action  by  the  Government: 

The  Evening  Post  of  New  York  said  : 

"Investigation  should  be  made  of  the  charge  that  Government  contracts  for 
uniforms  are  being  executed  by  contractors  whose  employees  work  under  sweat- 
shop conditions.  A  good  deal  of  the  agitation  has  been  backed  by  New  York  manu- 
facturers unable  to  meet  out-of-town  bids,  and  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers' 
Association,  which  sees  garment  makers  attracted  from  a  highly  unionized  centre,  like 
New  York,  to  towns  where  the  union  has  comparatively  little  influence.  But  several 
disinterested  and  public-spirited  citizens,  after  looking  into  the  matter  have  declared 
themselves  satisfied  that  unjust  and  unsanitary  conditions  prevail  in  many  establish- 
ments engaged  on  government  work.  If  conditions  are  upon  inquiry,  found  to  be  as 
alleged,  they  should  be  remedied  at  once.  If  the  allegations  turn  out  to  be  untrue, 
a  full  report  should  be  made  of  that  fact  to  the  public." 

When  in  one  case  little  girls  under  sixteen  years  of  age  were  pointed  out 
to  the  naval  officer  who  accompanied  the  investigators,  and  that  they  were 
working  for  four  dollars  a  week,  the  officer  said,  "Well,  those  girls  are  doing 
their  bit."  That  was  the  way  the  workers  were  looked  upon  by  the  em- 
ployers, the  authorities  and  all  who  had  charge  of  the  situation. 

A  photographer  accompanied  our  investigators  and  took  pictures  wher- 
ever possible.  We  reproduce  four  of  them  here.  Let  these  photographic 
records  of  capitalistic  greed  and  industrial  slavery  be  perpetuated  for  the 
coming  generations.  Those  conditions  would  have  prevailed  to  this  day  were 
it  not  for  our  efforts  to  abolish  them. 









S  TAK:          ;MY  UNIFORMS  ON 






Each  picture  represents  child  labor  in  the  making  of  military  uniforms 
for  the  American  Government 

One  was  taken  in  Red  Bank,  N.  J  ,  in  front  of  the  factory  of  the  Sigmund 
Eisner  Company,  where  a  strike  was  on  for  humane  working  conditions. 

The  young  toiler  in  knee  pants,  whose  right  place  is  on  the  playground. 

may  be  one  of  trios-  ave  answered  the  Eisner  Company's  advertite- 

for  "Boys  Wanted"  for  the  cutting  department  to  work  with  machines 

that  maim  and  cripple,  to  scab  it  upon  the  adult  workers,  upon  brcadwin- 

nersners  for  their  families. 

This  picture,  in  order  to  tell  its  full  story,  should  have  been  taken  inside 
of  the  factory,  but,  for  obvious  reasons,  that  was  not  quite  possible.  It  had 
to  b<  -n  the  outside  where  the  child  was  happy  to  breathe  free  air 

again  and  be  on  his  way  home. 

For  for  our  members,  themselves  heads  of  famil- 

ies, and  themselves  being  forced  into  comp  e  children,,  per- 

haps Iron,  the  significance  of  the  picture  is  perfectly  clear. 

child   in   the   photograph   is   not   only   a   young   scab— though   in    his 
sacred  childish  innocence  he  is  unconscious  of  it — against  a  full  grown  man 
who  is  fighting  for  sufficient  food  for  his  family  so  that  he  may  not  be  com- 
pelled by  the  pinch  of  poverty  to  send  his  own  children  to  the  factory  to 
r  own  bread ;  he  is  not  only  a  temporary  club  over  the  heads  of  the 
l>ut  through  the  gate  of  the  government's  uniform  contract,  be  is 
being  brought  into  the  industry  to  stay  and  compete  with  his  father. 

The  employment  of  children,  which  means  the  unemployment  of  their 
fat!  because  of  that,  self  perpetuating. 

It  is  the  other  picture,  hov  .vhich  was  taken  in  our  metropolis. 

that  cries  loudest  to  announce  the  brutish  conditions  under  which  the  uni- 
forms for  our  National  Army  were  being  made.  No  more  powerful  indict- 
ment could  be  drawn  against  barbar  ilism  than  that  picture.  If  reve- 
lations such  as  those  made  by  that  picture  should  fail  to  make  the  lovers 
of  true  democracy  and  c  >n  rise  in  their  wrath  against  those  respoa 
sible  for  the  shameful  conditions,  we  may  well  wonder  what  will. 

Look  at  the  picture  carefully  and  you  will  see  clearly  both  what  the 
camera  has  reproduced  and  what  it  has  not 

The  fact  that  the  two  little  girls  arc  taking  the  military  coats  home  for 
finishing  tells  us  plainly  enough  that  there  is  a  mother  at  the  children's  home 
to  do  the  finishing,  possibly  with  the  assistance  of  these  and  other  children. 
The  mother  could  not  go  herself  to  the  uniform  factory  to  fetch  the  coats  ss 
she,  very  likely,  could  not  leave  her  baby  alone,  who  may  be  sick  with  scar- 
let fever,  diphtheria,  infantile  paralysis  or  small  pox.  She  sent  her  two  oldest 
children.  But  they  are  not  strong  enough  to  carry  the  bundle.  The  problem 
is  easily  solved.  There  is  a  baby  carriage  in  the  house,  bought  before  the 
father  was  competed  out  of  his  job  by  child  labor. 

Ordinarily  the  sight  of  a  baby  carriage  gladdens  one's  heart     I: 
him  that  there  is  in  the  family  a  little  cherub  to  whose 



that  carnage  makes  its  contribution.  The  baby  carriage  never  fails  to 
bring  what  we  may  truly  call  a  divine  smile  to  the  mother's  face  and  a  sacred 
glow  in  her  eyes. 

The  baby's  carriage  is  pressed  into  service  to  assist  in  the  manufac- 
turing of  uniforms  for  the  American  Army  by  child  labor. 

Not  only  is  innocent  childhood  corrupted  by  child  slavery,  corrupted 
physically,  mentally  and  morally,  but  the  glory  of  infancy  is  desccrat 

An  American  army  is  organized  of  the  best  young  sons  of  this  nation 
to  fight  for  world  democracy,  and  the  baby's  carriage  is  used  for  the  carting 
of  uniforms  for  that  army  from  the  factory  to  a  filthy  and  poverty  and  disra"- 
;cken  "hom< 

The  baby  may  by  chance  be  well  and  healthy.  It  is  allowed  to  roll  in 
dirt  because  its  carriage  is  needed  for  industrial  purposes,  to  bring  uniforms 
for  mamma  and  the  sisters  to  work  on  them.  But  the  baby  may  also  be  sick, 
kept  in  the  carriage  whenever  anyone  can  manage  to  take  it  out  for  an  airing 
in  those  fine  summer  days,  and  then  the  germ  ridden  carriage  is  made  to  "do 
its  bit,"  to  infect  the  soldiers'  uniforms  while  transporting  them  from  the 
factory  to  the  tenement  and  back  again. 

Our  efforts  were  rewarded.  The  Government  heeded  our  protests  and 
appointed  a  Board  of  Control  to  guard  labor  conditions  in  the  manufacture 
of  unifoms.  The  Board  was  composed  of  Louis  E.  Kirstein,  manager  of  the 
department  store  of  Filene  &  Co.  of  Boston;  Mrs.  Florence  Kelly,  general 
secretary  of  the  National  Consumers'  League,  and  Capt.  Walter  Kreusi,  of 
the  Quartermasters  Corps,  tl.  S.  Reserves. 

Secretary  Baker  accompanied  the  accouncement  of  the  creation  of  the 
Board  of  Control  with  the  following  statement: 

"Through  this  board  the  Quartermaster  General  will  be  enabled  to  enforce  the 
maintenance  of  sound  industrial  and  sanitary  conditions  in  the  manufacture  of  army 
clothes,  to  inspect  factories,  to  see  that  proper  standards  are  established  on  Govern- 
ment work,  to  pass  upon  the  industrial  standards  maintained  by  bidders  in  army 
clothing  and  act  so  that  just  conditions  will  prevail. 

"The  Government  cannot  permit  its  work  to  be  done  under  sweatshop  condi- 
tions and  it  cannot  allow  the  evils  complained  of  to  go  uncorrected.  Only  through 
the  establishment  of  such  a  body  as  the  Board  of  Control  now  created  will  the  govern- 
ment be  assured  that  army  clothing  is  manufactured  under  recognized  industrial 
standards  and  in  an  atmosphere  of  good  will  between  manufacturers  and  operatives. 
This  alone  will  assure  fit  clothing  and  its  prompt  delivery  for  army  needs." 

The  Government  failed  to  give  our  organization  representation  on  the 
Board.  That  constituted  a  just  grievance  on  our  part,  to  which  we  gave 
expression  in  our  press  in  the  following  manner: 

The  protest  raised  by  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  against 
the  enslaving  and  degrading  conditions  prevailing  in  the  factories  in  which  clothing 
is  being  made  for  the  National  Army  has  brought  one  definite  result:  The  appoint- 
ment by  the  Federal  Government  of  a  committee  to  control  labor  conditions  in  the 
manufacture  of  uniforms. 

We  are  thankful  for  whatever  the  Government  has  done  in  order  to  close  the 
fates  which  its  army  contracts  had  opened  wide  to  child  labor,  tenement  house  labor 
and  conditions  of  slavery  all  around. 

But  we  still  have  a  very  just  grievance. 

No  committee,  such  as  was  appointed  by  the  Government,  can  be  complete  unless 
it  includes  a  representative  of  our  organization.  It  is  a  committee  on  conditions  and 
standards  of  LABOR.  Who,  then,  is  more  vitally  interested  in  the  work  of  such  a 



than  the  workingmen?    Soch  a  conissltlss  should  include  an  official  repre- 
sentative of  our  organisation.    But  it  does  not 

Mr.  Kirstem.  of  the  big  Boston  department  store  firm  of  Filene  *  Sons,  is  a 
man  of  high  character  and  will  bring  much  strengt  roamfttot,  bot  as 

ployer  of  labor  he  cannot  and  he  does  not  assume  to  speak  for  labor. 
Mrs.  KeUey  is  a  most  estimable  lady,  for  many  years  active  in  the  interests  of 
the  people  in  many  ways,  and  a  credit  to  any  movement  she  is  identified  with,  but  she 
is  not  a  repre-  of  labor. 

position  oo  the  comsiittxr  has  beta  oalarly  iliiH  as  repre- 

seating  the  Army  Quartermaster's 


f  customer,  if  of  sufficient  commercial  importance,  could  enforce 

:iane  working  con  %o  inclined.     But  wUk 

rhose   highest   principle   is   to  buy   cheap  and  sell  dear,  caaaot 

^  unrepresCBMu* 

The  relations  of  the  Government  to  the  manufacturer  are  not  those  of  an  ordinary 
customer  in  ordinary  times. 

•i  an  ordinary  customer,  if  of  sufficient  commercial  importance, 
upon  the  manufacturer  hui 

•  ate   customer  whose       _ 

.irily    be   expected    to   concern    himself   with    the    hi 

of  the  condition*  under  which  the  goods  he  bought  are  being  made,  the 
must  make  that  its  concern. 

The  Government  is  the  organ  of  organized  society.     Its  highest  ai 
the  v  the  people. 

If  it  is  its  business  to  enforce  laws  for  the  regulation  of  working 
production  generally,  how  much  more  must  that  be  its  business  in 
is  carried  on  for  the  Government  itself. 

In  this  case  of  Army  clothing  the  Government  is  the  actual  employer. 

"  manufacturer  is  the  immediate  employer  of  our  members;  while  be  is 
doing  the  hiring  and  the  firing  and  is  handing  out  the  pay  envelopes  to  the  workers 
employed  in  the  making  of  uniforms,  he  is.  in  the  final  analysis,  the  agent  for  the 
Govern t  .  as  stated  al>  il  employer. 

\Vr  !,.i .  -  .re,  a  full  right  to  turn  to  the  Government  with  oar 

in  connection  with  the  work  done  for  it. 

The  conditions  inaugurated  by  the  uniform  manufacturers  were  so 
to  force  the  public   press  to  call   for  immediate  remedy.       The  committee 
by  the  Government  has  been  charged  with  the  task  of  applying  such 
prevailing  evils  may  call  for. 

We  regret  sincerely  that  our  organization  was  not  granted  representation  in 
committee.     We   are.   however,   glad   that    the   Government   has   heeded    our 
and  done  as  much  as  it  has  in  order  to  free  itself  from  the  disgrace  of 
clothing  for  the  National  Army  made  by  child  and  tenement  labor,  and 
tions  of  long  hours  and  starvation  wages. 

The  work  of  the  Government  committee,  if  carried  out  with  energy  and  deter* 
mination,  as  we  expect  it  will  be.  and  supplemented  by  the  united  power  of  the 
organized  Clothing  Workers  employed  in  the  industry,  will  eradicate  the  evils  which 
have  crept  into  our  industry  through  the  Army  contracts. 

The  Gov  :  's  action  has  had  a  wholesome  effect  on  conditions  in  the 

industry.  Unorganized  factories  were  brought  under  our  jurisdiction, 
employers  of  our  members  received  contracts,  the  48  hour  week  was  •»ffonniw 
and  good  wages  established.  In  short,  a  situation  was  created  enabling  the 
workers  to  earn  a  living  wage  under  the  Union's  protection. 

Onoe  a  Traitor  Alwmyi  a  Traitor. 

It  was  but  natural  for  employers  to  resist  in  all  possible  ways  the  influ- 
ence of  the  union  and  the  introduction  of  better  conditions  for  the  workers, 
particularly  so  in  the  case  of  an  employer  whose  factory  was  never  unionized 
before.  For  an  employer  who  had  managed  to  withstand  the  progress  of  the 
labor  movement  and  to  keep  intact  the  happy  regime  of  absolute  industrial 
sty  as  regards  his  employees,  it  is  exceedingly  difficult  to  accept 
the  absurd  and  dangerous  theory  that  workers  have  rights  employers  should 



The  firm  of  Mark  Cowen  &  Company  in  New  York  is  such  an  employer. 
The  worst  evils  known  in  the  industry  bloomed  undisturbed  in  the  Cowen 
factories,  including  the  curse  of  subcontracting.  There  were  many  petty 
tyrants  with  the  head  of  the  firm  as  the  Overlord. 

Our  success  in  bettering  the  conditions  of  the  clothing  workers  in 
other  array  uniform  shops  aroused  the  Cowen  employees,  who  were  also 
making  army  clothing,  to  the  possibility  of  making  their  own  lives  a  little 
less  miserable.  They  naturally  called  on  us  to  take  up  their  cause.  Follow- 
ing the  usual  course  those  of  them  who  were  not  yet  members  became  such 
and  we  assisted  them  in  affecting  a  shop  organization  headed  by  a  shop 
chairman.  It  was  perfectly  natural  for  the  firm  to  feel  outraged  by  such  a 
"conspiracy"  on  the  part  of  its  industrial  subjects  even  as  it  was  natural  for 
Nicholas  Romanoff  to  feel  outraged  at  conspiracies  of  his  political  subjects. 
But  unlike  Romanoff,  Cowen  had  no  Siberia  to  exile  his  rebels  to.  Nor  did 
he  have  gallows.  He  did  the  next  best  thing.  He  discharged  the  shopchair- 
man,  hoping  thereby  to  set  an  example  for  the  other  rebels.  The  discharge 
was  very  impressively  accompanied  by  physical  blows  administered  by  a 
gentleman  who  specialized  in  that  line  of  activity.  When  the  shop  chair- 
man woke  up  to  a  full  realization  of  the  firm's  attitude  towards  him  as  a 
representative  of  the  workers  he  found  himself  minus  his  watch  and  chain. 

By  that  action  the  firm  precipitated  a  strike  in  all  of  its  shops  involving 
about  seven  hundred  workers,  who  not  only  demanded  the  reinstatement 
of  the  discharged  chairman  but  also  formulated  their  grievances  and  asked 
that  they  be  remedied. 

Once  the  workers  were  forced  into  a  strike  to  defend  their  right  to  be 
organized  we  were  compelled  to  deal  with  the  matter  vigorously,  and  we 
gave  it  all  the  attention  required. 

The  Board  of  Control  offered  to  mediate.  We  accepted  the  offer;  the 
firm  rejected  it. 

Instead  of  allowing  the  Government's  Board  to  affect  an  adjustment  the 
firm,  in  whose  factories  union  sympathy  has  always  been  considered  a 
capital  offense  punishable  by  immediate  discharge,  turned  for  assistance  to 
the  scab  agency  doing  business  under  the  trade  name  of  United  Garment 
.Workers  of  America. 

The  scab  agency  hastened  to  conclude  an  agreement  with  the  firm  to 
break  the  strike. 

With  all  the  workers  out  on  strike  the  scab  agency  declared  the  Cowen 
shop  "unionized"  and  gave  this  latter  fact  the  widest  possible  publicity. 
The  agency  had  no  scabs  to  furnish,  and  the  agreement  could  not  produce 
garments.  So  the  firm  sent  the  following  letter  to  the  striking  employees : 

To  the  Employees  of  Mark  Cowen  &  Co.: 

You  will  report  for  work  on  Thursday  morning. 

We  will  give  an  increase  of  $1  per  week  to  all  employees,  male  and  female,  be- 
ginning with  the  week  of  September  24. 

The  contracting  system  will  be  abolished  in  the  shop  and  all  the  employees  will 
work  directly  for  and  be  paid  by  the  firm. 



Any  complaints  or  grievance!  will  be  fettled  by  the  employers'  representative*. 
An  agreement  bat  been  made  between  the  firm  and  the  United  Garment  Worker* 
of  America,  which  ogan nation  is  affiliated  with  the  American  Federation  of  Labor. 

It  is  interesting  to  sec  the  firm  notify  its  striking  employees  that  it 
an  agreement  with  the  "union"  and  asking  them  to  return  to  work.     The 
"union"  <!i.|  n.-t  dare  fa<  rs  with  that  message. 

Returning  to  work  would  have  automatically  converted  the  striken  from 
Amalgamated  members  into  members  of  the  scab  agency.  They  failed  to 

opportune.       Instead  of  going  into  the  factory 

to  scab  against  themselves  they  preferred  to  remain  outside  of  it  and  prevent 
i-tl'.r-  scabbing.     And  they  did  it  like  seasoned  fighters. 

There  was  rse,  the  usual  line  up  of  scab  agency,  guerillas,  police 

and  the  rest  of  the  outfit,  who  beat  up,  maimed  and  arrested  the  officers  and 

.is  continued  for  three  months,  and  the  workers  will  forever 

remember  the  scab  agency  with  the  same  feelings  that  outraged  workers 

struggling  for  their  rights  always  remember  gangsters,  traitors  and  strike- 

The   stril  ng   agreement   is    in    the   firm's   office   and    the 

Igamated  union  spirit  is  in  the  hearts  and  souls  of  the  workers.    They 

are  ours  to  a  man. 


The  conspiracy  to  break  the  Mark  Cowen  strike  was  as  good  an  illustra- 
tion as  any  of  the  maxim  that  "there  is  no  ill  wind  that  blows  no  good/'  It 
served  to  bring  two  elements  into  our  ranks  which  until  then  were  under  the 
domination  of  the  scab  agency.  Those  were  the  Shirtmakers  and  the  Overall 

In  our  report  to  the  Second  Biennial  Convention  we  said  the  following 
with  regard  to  the  Shirtmakers: 

It  has  been  the  fate  of  this  organization  to  be  tested  in  all  possible  ways 
emerged  triumphantly  from  all    One  of  them  was  in  a  sense  the  supreme  test  and  oar 
organization  was  probably  the  only  labor  body  in  this  country  to  be  subjected  to  it 

We  refer  to  the  case  of  the  shirtmakers. 

The  workers  in  the  shirt  industry  in  New  York  had  been  disorganized  for  many 

Over  a  year  ago  a  movement  was  begun  to  organize  them.  Through  BO  fault 
of  the  rank  and  file  the  shirtmakers'  union  was  delivered  to  the  United  Garment 
Workers.  Those  responsible  for  it  had  clutched  at  a  burnt  straw.  They  had  hoped 
to  receive  from  those  people  strong  financial  support  and  also  moral,  inasmuch  as  the 
shirt  cutters  were  organized  under  the  United  Garment  Workers,  and  the 
of  the  American  Federation  of  Labor  was  promised.  But  neither  has  mat< 
The  United  Garment  Workers  of  America,  not  having  been  in  the  habit  of 
their  funds  in  the  interests  of  the  workers  when  they  had  money  to  burn,  coul 
tainly  m»t  In-  expected  to  do  it  when  thev  needed  whatever  funds  they  had  to  meet 
their  own  payroll.  The  cutters  stabbed  the  strike  in  its  vitals  at  the  very  beginning. 
lining  up  with  the  employers  against  the  strikers.  But  that  did  not  invalidate  their 
membership  in  the  general  organization.  Scabbing  is  quite  the  natural  thing  m  that 

The  poor  struggling  shirtmakers  were  left   stranded  and  they  tamed  to  their 

.1  kin.  to  their  own  flesh  and  bone,  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 
America.  They  appealed  for  help  to  our  New  York  Joint  Board.  Remember  that 
that  happened  at  the  very  time  when  the  entire  machinery  of  the  United 



Workers,  assisted  by  Samuel  Gompers,  were  busy  trying  to  break  pur  strikes  In 
Philadelphia  and  Baltimore,  to  mention  nothing  of  the  crimes  committed  by  them 
against  us  in  the  past.  Would  it  have  been  surprising  if  the  accummulated  feelings 
of  bitterness  and  resentment  had  caused  our  members  to  give  vent  to  them  by  visit- 
ing punishment  upon  those  who  owe  allegiance  to  the  people  who  had  betrayed  us? 
But  our  members  acted  with  real  working  class  nobility. 

It  was  a  source  of  sacred  inspiration  to  see  these  shopworkers  rise  to  the  lofty 
heights  of  true  working  class  intelligence  and  solidarity. 

Our  members  argued  thus  to  the  shirt  strikers:  "We  have  nothing  but  con- 
tempt for  your  parent  body  and  its  officers,  but  we  have  no  quarrel  with  you.  You 
are  engaged  in  a  struggle  with  our  common  enemy.  You  are  part  of  ourselves  even 
if  your  organization  Has  been  misplaced  into  the  camp  of  our  enemies  instead  of 
being  brought  into  our  ranks  where  you  belong." 

That  showed  a  degree  of  intelligence  and  revolutionary  spirit  that  will  be  a  credit 
to  our  entire  movement. 

The  New  York  Joint  Board  gave  the  striking  shirtmakcrs  three  hundred  dollars. 
Its  only  regret  was  that  it  could  not  make  the  amount  bigger,  as  it  had  just  given 
$1,300  to  the  Philadelphia  and  Baltimore  strikers. 

When  the  shirtmakers  called  another  time  they  received  two  hundred  dollars 

They  also  received  financial  assistance  from  other  subdivisions  of  our  organization. 

We  are  proud  of  our  membership  and  rejoice  in  their  class  loyalty. 

Our  demonstration  of  solidarity  was  not  lost.  Its  effect  sank  deep  into 
the  hearts  of  the  shirtworkers  and  they  proved  it  two  years  later.  The 
Mark  Cowen  strike  was  the  occasion  for  it. 

We  had  made  no  attempt  to  form  shirt  locals  under  our  banner.  We 
steered  clear  from  that  field  and  allowed  the  Shirtmakers  to  work  out  their 
own  salvation  under  the  banner  that  was  supposed  to  be  theirs.  If  the 
Shirtmakers  were  ever  to  free  themselves  from  misrule  and  demoralization 
it  was  to  be  done  upon  their  own  initiative. 

But  the  ways  of  the  labor  misleaders  are  such  that  they  inevitably  make 
for  the  ultimate  undoing  of  those  misleaders.  It  is  in  such  self  destroying 
acts  of  traitors  in  all  walks  of  life  that  the  hope  of  the  honest  men  lies. 

The  Cowen  firm  has  a  shirt  department,  whose  workers  went  out  on 
strike  along  with  the  workers  in  the  clothing  departments.  The  scab  agency 
finding  itself  incapable  of  carrying  out  its  contract  to  break  the  strike,  hit 
upon  the  idea  of  using  the  shirt  department  as  an  entering  wedge.  Is  not 
shirtmaking  its  own  and  legitimate  field?  The  Amalgamated  has  no  shirt 
making  organization  and  the  scab  agency  has.  Accordingly,  the  Shirtmak- 
ers' Union  was  directed  by  the  scab  agency  to  send  its  members  to  fill  the 
vacant  Cowen  shops.  The  highly  specialized  system  of  labor  made  it  pos- 
sible for  shirtmakers  to  work  also  on  many  operations  on  army  clothing 
outside  of  shirts. 

The  Shirtmakers  were  put  to  a  severe  test:  Would  they  pay  us  in  our 
own  coin;  or  would  they  pay  us  with  stones  for  bread?  Did  they  remember 
1915?  Were  they  conscious  of  their  duty  to  their  striking  fellow  workers? 

Great  was  our  joy  when  we  learned  that  the  Shirtmakers  decided  against 
their  then  general  officers  and  in  favor  of  the  striking  wage  slaves.  They 
decided  not  to  become  strikebreakers.  Working  class  consciousness  and  self 
respect  won  out  against  treason. 

"The  Forward"  of  September  25,  1918,  reported  the  action  of  the  Shirt- 
makers  in  the  following  news  article: 




United  Garment  Workers  are  determined  to  become  a 
compel  innocent  union  men  to  become  scabs.    These  creatures  of  the 
want  to  u*f  the  thin  makers  as  a  tool  in  their  shameful  attempt  to  break  the  stria 
of  the  Amilgu:    -  one  of  the  Mark  Cowen  shops. 

According  to  information   from  reliable   source*  the   United  Garment   Workers 
ordered  thr  shirt  makers  to  organize  Mark  Cowen's  shirtshops.    The  executive  board 

of  that  union  promptly  held  a  special  meeting  Saturday  night  regarding  this 

of  the   I  .rment   Wor 

As  an  answer  to  the  order 
the  foil 

-  Board  of  the  Shirt  and  Boys'  Waittmakers*  and  Shirt  Ironers* 
Union,  Local  249.  United  Garment  Workers  of  America,  declare  that  we  have  notb- 

irk  Cow  tailors  are  now  on  strike." 

tcabby  creatures  of  the  Bible  Houte  did  not  stop  their  activity  et 
the   sla;  il    the   hands  of   the   Executive   Board  of  the   shirt 

:o  induce  .il  members  of  the  shirt  makers'  union  to 

the  Amalgamated  tailors  are  < 

The  resolution  of  the  •.  e   Board  of  the  Shirt  Makers'  Union  not  to  be 

Makers  as  strike  breakers  will  be  given  over  to  the 

members  to  vote  upon,  then  the  United  Garment  Workers  will  be  convinced  that 
they  cannot  destroy  a  well  organized  labor  organization  in  order  to  carry  out  their 
personal  sche 

The  leader*  of  the  United  Garment  Workers  art  threatening  to  organize  another 
local  ''"e  shirt  makers  will  persist  in  their  refusal  to  scab.  The  Amalgamted 

-%  them  God  speed.  The  shirt  makers  will  know  how  to  answer  with  dignity 
to  such  a  disgraceful  a  • 

The  Executive  Board  of  the  shirt  makers'  union  is  calling  special  meeUsigl  for 
members  to  discuss  the  m.v 

These  meetings  will  be  held  in  the  following  places: 

Thursday.  8  P.M.,  two  meetings:  One  meeting  in  the  BROOKLYN  *ect>oe. 
in  M«  <  asino.  115  Manhattan  Ave .  another  meeting  in  the  BROWNSVILLE 

Friday,  8  PM.,  the  meeting  of  the  NEW  YORK  section  will  take  place. 

to  be  hoped  that  all  members  will  come  to  those  important  meetings. 

The  scab  agency,  mad  with  rage  at  the  refusal  of  the  shirtmakers  to 
become  a  blackjack  for  the  assassination  of  the  strike,  charged  their  officer* 
with  having  been  bribed  by  us.  The  minds  of  the  scab  agents  are  K>  de- 
praved that  they  arc  incapable  of  conceiving  of  anybody  doing  anything 
honestly  and  without  corruption.  That  was  the  first  time  to  our  knowledge 
that  anyone  was  charged  with  being  bribed  in  order  to  act  straight  and  keep 
his  hands  clean.  Needless  to  say  that  the  bribery  story  was  a  lie  out  of 
the  whole  cloth.  But  it  is  amusing,  and  in  a  way  even  flattering,  to  be 
charged  with  giving  bribes  for  the  purpose  of  keeping  bribees  loyal  to  the 
interests  of  the  working  class. 

The  inevitable  soon  followed.  The  Shirtmakers'  Union  being  a  boot 
fide  organization  had  to  part  company  with  the  scab  agency. 

By  a  referendum  vote  of  the  membership,  taken  in  five  halls,  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  Greater  New  York,  on  October  11.  12  and  13.  1917.  the 
Shirtmakers  almost  unanimously  decided  to  withdraw  from  the  United  Gar- 
ment Workers  and  apply  for  a  charter  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Work- 
ers. Of  968  votes  cast  only  40  were  in  favor  of  remaining  with  the  scab 

On  October  6,  1917,  we  issued  a  charter  to  the  shirtmakers'  Union  as 
local  248  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers.  Within  a  short  time  the 
Shirtmakers'  Union  of  Philadelphia  followed  suit  They  now  constitute 


local  153  of  our  organization.  In  the  early  part  of  this  month  we  granted  a 
charter  to  the  Shirt  Cutters  of  New  York,  who  are  now  known  as  local  246 
of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers.  We  appointed  Bro.  S.  Cutler  as 
general  organizer  for  the  Cutters.  With  the  help  of  our  organizers,  financial 
support  and  general  encouragement  the  Shirtmakers  have  made  satisfactory 
progress.  Of  the  gratifying  record  of  success  the  agreement  with  the 
large  firm  of  Miller,  Sons  &  Co.,  of  Philadelphia,  is  most  noteworthy.  The 
agreement  provides  for  recognition  of  the  union,  substantial  wage  increases 
and  other  improvements  in  the  working  conditions,  and  was  ratified  by  the 
membership  November  19,  1917. 

The  Overallworkers,  Too,  Purge  Themselves  of  Treason. 
Having  met  with  a  crushing  defeat  at  the  hands  of  the  Shirtmakcrs 
the  strike  assassins  turned  hopefully  to  the  Overallworkers.  As  the  highly 
developed  subdivision  of  labor  on  Army  clothing  made  Overallworkers  avail- 
able the  scab  agency  began  to  press  its  Overall  subjects  into  scab  service. 
But  there  is  something  so  vital  in  the  revolutionary  power  of  working  class 
revolt  that  once  it  develops  sufficient  strength  to  assert  itself  it  not  only 
cannot  be  downed  where  it  has  once  raised  its  head  but  it  spreads  con- 
tagiously. In  this  case  it  spread  also  to  the  Overallworkers.  Aside  from 
our  own  immediate  interest  in  the  matter;  as  members  of  the  working  class, 
as  advocates  of  the  closest  labor  solidarity,  and  as  rebels  against  the  regime 
of  treason  to  labor,  we  delighted  in  the  action  taken  by  Overallworkers, 
Local  178,  United  Garment  Workers  of  America,  which  was  given  expression 
to  by  the  following  resolution,  published  in  the  "Forward"  of  October  13,  1917: 

At  the  last  meeting  of  the  Overall  Makers'  Union,  Local  178,  United  Garment 
Workers  of  America,  held  on  Oct.  9,  1917,  at  133  Eldridge  St.,  the  following  reso- 
lution was  accepted: 

Whereas,  our  members  are  being  utilized  as  tools  in  many  places  in  order  to 
break  the  strike  of  the  members  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America, 
Whereas,  many  of  our  members  are  not  familiar  with  the  situation. 
Be  it  resolved  that  no  member  of  the  Overall  Workers'  Union  should  dare  go 
to  work  in  any  place  where  the  Amalgamated   Clothing  Workers   of  America  hare 
declared  a  strike. 

(Signed)  M.  DUBINSKY, 

(Signed)  B.   FOX, 


Resolution  Committee. 

By  their  action  of  loyalty  to  the  working  class  the  Overall  Workers' 
Union,  like  its  sister  organization,  the  Shirtmakers'  Union,  made  its  posi- 
tion within  the  United  Garment  Workers  untenable. 

At  a  special  meeting  held  December  11,  1917,  the  Overall  Workers  of 
New  York,  Local  178,  United  Garment  Workers  of  America,  by  a  vote  of 
one  hundred  against  five,  decided  to  leave  the  United  Garment  Workers  and 
apply  for  a  charter  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America.  A 
charter  was  granted  to  them  on  December  15,  1917,  and  the  Overall  Work- 
ers are  now  a  part  of  our  organization,  known  as  Local  178,  A.  C.  W.  of  A. 

Having  our  hands  full  with  the  industry  of  men's  clothing  we  made  no 
attempt  to  enter  the  field  of  men's  working  garments,  even  as  we  made  no 



attempt  to  enter  the  shirt  industry.    The  Overall  Workers  of  New  York, 
d  he  Overall  Workers  of  Boston  and  the  Shirtmakers  of  New  York 
and  Philadelphia,  came  to  us  of  their  own  aco 

The  overall  industry  is  the  rock  upon  which  the  misleaders  and  traitors 
of  the  clothing  workers  had  built  their  fort  from  which  to  impose  their  rule 
upon  the  workers.  It  was  through  the  overall  workers  that  they  had  fought 
the  clothing  workers  and  it  was  from  the  former  that  they  had  drawn  the 
power  t(  The  magic  that  made  that  possible  was  the  union 


The  union  label!  What  crimes  have  been  perpetrated  upon  the  work- 
ers under  that  guise  1  How  many  workers  have  been  sold  and  betrayed 

ugh  the  medium  of  the  union  label ! 

The  tailors'  label  more  than  any  other  label  was  abused  and  uiiiuscd 
Most  of  all  it  was  misused  in  the  overall  industry. 

In  many  industrial  centers,  as  in  the  mine-fields,  the  workers  demand 
:ii»n  latxl  -n  their  overalls.  They  care  not  to  investigate  whether  the 
label  does  in  reality  represent  good  working  conditions.  Nor  can  they 
do  it.  Til--  label  on  the  working  blouse  is  sufficient  guarantee  for  them. 
In  an  honest  labor  movement  this  would  present  an  ideal  condition  for  the 
It  was  otherwise  and  to  the  contrary  for  the  overall  workers 
The  demand  of  true  unionists  in  other  industries  that  their  clothes  bear  the 
union  label  makes  the  overall  manufacturers  dependent  not  upon  bis  em- 
ployees but  upon  the  general  officers,  who  have  a  large  stock  of  labels 
in  store,  registered  by  the  Government  to  insure  monopoly,  for  which  the 
manufacturers  must  pay  so  much  per  thousand.  If  you  pay  the  price  you 
get  the  linen  certificate,  misleading  you  into  the  belief  that  your  overalls  are 
"strictly  union,"  no  matter  what  slavery  may  exist  in  the  facory. 

When  the  overall  manufacturer  pays  the  price  for  the  labels,  and  as 
financial  agent  for  the  label  dealers  he  collects  or  deducts  from  the  wages 
of  his  employees  their  monthly  dues  for  the  "union,"  he  secures  a  free  band 
over  his  workers. 

Many  of  the  overall  manufacturers  are  located  in  scattered  places  West 

and  South.    They  employ  helpless  girls,  whose  condition  is  so  unscrupulously 

exploited  by  loyers  and  the  "union"  officials  that  most  of  those  poor 

seem  to  feel  that  the  boss,  the  label  and  the  union  are  an  inseparable 

trinity  and  the  workers  must  bow  their  heads  t 

The  following  case  is  a  striking  illustration  of  the  psychology  of  the 
overall  workers  in  the  South  and  the  West  One  of  our  New  York  delegates 
to  the  Nashville  Convention  explained  to  a  woman  delegate  of  an  overall 
local  the  true  nature  of  our  struggle  at  that  time.  He  endeavored  to  show 
her  why  she  should  as  a  m.v  ustice  vote  for  the  seating  of  the  cloth- 

ing workers'  delegates.    She  replied :    You  are  perfectly  right  and  I 
thizt  ou,  but  I  can't  favor  seating  your  delegates  because  my 

warned  me  that  he  would  not  purchase  any  label  from  any  other  president 
than  the  present  one. 



The  boss  instructed  her  what  to  do  at  the  convention.  The  boss  most 
likely  told  her  to  go  to  the  convention,  which  she  could  not  refuse. 

A  representative  of  the  Overall  Manufacturers'  Association  was  also  in 
Nashville  during  the  convention.  He  was  seen  by  the  delegates  giving  direc- 
tions to  the  overall  locals'  representatives  and  instructing  them  how  to  act 
at  the  convention. 

As  between  the  oppressive  employers  and  the  faithless  union  officials  the 
overall  workers  were  pitifully  helpless. 

The  overall  locals  are  mostly  small  in  membership,  but  large  in  number. 
When  the  occasion  calls  for  it  a  local  is  divided  into  two  in  order  to 
increase  the  number  of  delegates.  The  1914  convention  was  purposely  called 
to  Nashville  because  it  was  a  convenient  place  for  the  small  overall  local 
unions.  Thus  the  Nashville  convention  was  packed  by  a  large  number  of 
delegates  representing  a  minority  of  the  membership.  It  was  that  minority 
that  voted  against  the  seating  of  the  clothing  workers'  delegates  who  repre- 
sented the  majority. 

When  at  that  time  the  general  officers  refused  to  submit  to  a  referendum 
vote  a  motion  to  change  the  convention  place  from  Nashville  to  Rochester 
they  did  so  not  only  because  they  feared  that  more  clothing  workers'  dele- 
gates would  come  to  Rochester  than  to  Nashville  but  also  because  they 
knew  that  fewer  delegates  of  the  Overall  Workers  would  come  to  Rochester. 

The  union  label  overall  industry  is  a  gold  mine  for  self-made  rulers. 
The  sale  of  labels  and  the  collection  of  dues  through  the  courtesy  of  the  man- 
ufacturers are  an  endless  source  of  income  that  never  dries  up.  There  are 
no  strikes,  no  other  expenses  that  are  so  big  in  other  unions.  There  is 
also  no  responsibility  to  the  membership. 

This,  in  brief,  is  the  meaning  of  the  overall  industry  to  the  labor  move- 

Since  the  clothing  workers  freed  themselves  from  the  traitors  it  had 
been  generally  conceded  that  the  traitors  were  to  continue  their  undisputed 
rule  over  the  overall  workers.  We  made  no  attempt  to  win  those  workers 
having  had  so  much  work  in  the  clothing  industry.  So  great  were  our  tasks 
in  this  field  that  there  was  no  occasion  for  us  to  look  for  new  fields.  But 
time  did  its  work  and  the  largest  local  of  overall  workers  in  the  country 
with  a  membership  of  about  three  hundred  voluntarily  decided  to  joint  our 

It  is  unnecessary  to  say  that  the  Overall  Workers  are  welcome.  Just 
because  they  are  Overall  Workers  and  just  because  they  come  to  us  on 
their  own  initiative  they  are  doubly  welcome. 

The  Overall  Workers  of  New  York  are  now  a  part  of  the  great  and  cordial 
Amalgamated  family.  They  are  now  our  members  with  all  others  alike. 
They  will  help  us  in  our  great  work  and  will  share  our  joys  with  us. 

In  this  case,  too,  we  are  in  the  fortunate  position  to  report  to  you  that 
since  their  entrance  into  our  ranks,  and  with  our  assistance,  the  Overall 
workers  in  New  York,  have  greatly  increased  their  wages — the  increases 



ing  from  four  to  six  dollars  a  week,  and  otherwise  improved  their 


Another  Army  Uniform  Situation 

Attacks  upon  our  organization  have  been  made  so  frequently  that  they 
have  become  quite  a  normal  condition.  If  our  enemies  should  cease  atu 
tu  we  should  deem  it  our  duty  to  our  membership  to  institute  a  searching 
self  examination  in  ..:•!••:  to  find  out  what  is  wrong  about  us.  No  attack 
could  surprise  us;  no  attack  could  discourage  us.  Yet  we  did  not  expect 
our  enrmirs  to  pay  us  such  a  glorious  tribute  as  they  did  by  the  general 

by  them  md  of  1917.    That  was  a  most  flatt- 

on  of  our  strong 

It  was  our  success  in  ng  the  interests  of  the  workers  in  military 

rm  shops  that  drew  the  fire  this  time  from  the  camp  of  labor's  foes. 

Acting  upon  the  noble  German  principle  of  "Keep  slandering,  something 

is  bound  to  stick/    they  fired  at  us  their  broadside  of  "disloyalty/*    Relying 

upon  'that  that  was  a  charge  that  need  only  be  made  in  order  to  do 

epcated   it   in   various  forms  and  ways.     The  public  was 

:ned  that  all  the  Russian.  Italian,  British  and  American  born  clothing 

workers  in  our  organization,  all  of  them  working  hard  and  honestly  for  their 

hood,  most  of  them  American  citizens,  many  of  them  already  drafted 

or  expecting  to  be  drafted — that  they  were  all  German  spies,  enemies  of 

America,  and  should  not  be  allowed  to  work  on  Army  clothing. 

The  uninitiated  were  led  by  the  skilled  publicity  agents  to  believe  that 
we  not  only  controlled  our  members  but  also  the  United  States  Government 
The  Board  of  Control  which  had  set  itself  conscientiously  to  the  task  of 
eradicating  the  evils  as  above  described  from  the  Army  Gothing  industry, 
was  openly  and  viciously  attacked  because  it  refused  to  play  politics,  dealt 
honestly  and  fairly  with  us  and  did  not  lend  itself  to  the  schemes  of  our 
enemies  against  us.  The  stupid  charge  was  made  that  we  dictated  the 
appointments  of  the  members  while  we  failed  to  get  representation  for 


To  feed  the  sensational  campaign  against  us,  and  in  the  hope  of 
ing  Washington,  "protest"  meetings  of  "unemployed  cloakmakers" 
called  to  denounce  us.  The  meetings  were  called  and  boisterously  advertised 
by  no  responsible  organization  or  individual.  The  magic  name  of  the 
"masses"  was  constantly  employed  as  the  very  intangible  authority  for  the 
"popular  movement."  The  cry  was  raised  that  we  had  monopolized  the  Army 
clothing  jobs,  and  that  because  we  would  not  permit  the  "thirty  thoanttd  idle 
cloakmakers"  to  assist  in  the  work,  there  was  a  shortage  in  clothing  for  the 
National  Army.  The  trained  publicity  staff  of  the  "unemployed  mi  MM* 
— a  staff  which  has  been  conspicuous  by  its  absence  in  all  other  cases  of 
unorganized  and  unemployed  workers — very  diligently  circulated  that  story 
through  the  public  press.  Fortunately,  Secretary  Baker  issued  a  statement  at 
that  time  that  the  shortage  in  clothing  was  due  to  shortage  in  doth.  But 
the  slander  against  us  was  kept  up  and  pushed  with  vigor.  To  the 


observer  it  must  have  appeared  rather  strange  that  only  "traitors"  were 
selected  to  make  Army  uniforms  and  that  all  loyal  citizens  were  carefully 
combed  out  into  idleness. 

The  true  situation  was  this: 

When  we  took  up  the  fight  against  sweatshop  conditions  in  the  Army 
uniform  manufacture,  and  for  the  restoration  of  Union  standards,  the  shops 
were  largely  filled  with  workers  from  other  industries,  mostly  cloakmakers, 
whose  own  trades  were  dull.  It  was  because  they  considered  their  jobs  tem- 
porary that  they  had  contented  themselves  with  any  sort  of  conditions 
offered  to  them.  When  we  organized  those  shops  the  workers  from  the 
other  industries  continued  at  their  Army  uniform  jobs.  For  the  purpose  of 
controlling  conditions  we  only  required  of  them  to  become  temporary  mem- 
bers of  our  organization.  When  we  opened  our  Labor  Bureau  for  Uniform 
work,  from  which  help  was  sent  to  uniform  shops  under  our  jurisdiction, 
we  sent  members  of  the  International  Ladies'  Garment  Workers'  Union 
along  with  our  own  members.  An  investigation  made  by  us  showed  that 
nearly  half  of  the  workers  in  such  shops  were  members  of  the  I.  L.  G.  W.  U. 
Large  numbers  of  our  own  members  were  at  that  very  time  jobless.  The 
union  shops  were  filled ;  the  non-union  shops  were  closed  to  them. 

In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  members  of  both  organizations  were  looking 
to  the  uniform  industry  for  employment  we  proposed  to  the  I.  L.  G.  W.  U. 
to  undertake  with  us  a  joint  campaign  for  the  organization  of  the  entire 
industry,  wipe  out  sweatshop  conditions  everywhere  and  open  up  all  shops 
to  the  members  of  both  organizations.  As  already  stated  above  such 
arrangements  were  successfully  carried  out  in  Philadelphia  to  the  great 
benefit  of  both  unions.  It  is  very  much  to  be  regretted  that  it  was  not  carried 
out  in  New  York.  The  number  of  shops  we  succeeded  in  extending  our 
jurisdiction  to  could  not,  of  course,  absorb  all  of  the  unemployed  workers 
in  the  needle  industry.  Bad  as  the  situation  was  it  was  further  aggravated 
by  the  lack  of  cloth,  which  caused  frequent  layoffs  of  those  who  were  for- 
tunate enough  to  have  jobs.  The  important  point  is,  however,  that  while 
other  organizations  would  in  such  circumstances,  with  perhaps  not  unpardon- 
able selfishness,  keep  whatever  jobs  there  were  for  their  own  unemployed 
members,  we  shared  them  with  the  International  Ladies  Garment  Workers' 
Union.  We  also  permitted  them  to  have  their  own  representative  in  our 
Labor  Bureau  in  order  to  make  sure  that  they  received  thir  just  share  of 

Nor  could  it  be  otherwise.  Our  industries  are  closely  allied.  Many  of 
our  members  hold  membership  in  the  International  and  work  in  their  shops 
and  vice  versa.  The  human  material  is  the  same.  The  same  nationalities, 
the  same  languages,  living  in  the  same  sections  of  the  city,  reading  the  same 
daily  papers,  holding  the  same  social  views,  and  coming  to  one  another's 
aid  whenever  necessary.  The  progressive  views  on  the  labor  movement, 
economic,  political  and  in  matters  of  mutual  aid,  prevail  among  the  mem- 
bers of  the  International  as  well  as  among  the  members  of  the  Amalga- 



ated.     The  members  of  the  International  know  also  that  the  fact  of  our 
being  outside  of  the  so-called  official  labor  movement,  outside  of  the  A    F. 
,  cannot  be  charged  up  to  us  as  the  official  labor  movement  is  respon- 
sible for  it. 

On  :es  seized  upon  the  state  of  unemployment,  charged  us  with 

responsibility   for   it,  and   called   "protest"   massmeetings.     Who  paid   for 
the  expensive  halls,  large  quantities  of  printed  matter,  and  various  com- 
es, whose  personnel  was  not  of  the  altruistic  kind?    The  Goakmakers 
Union  repudiated  those  meetings,  hence,  it  surely  did  not  pay  for  them. 
The  employed  workers  could  have  no  interest  in   paying  the  bills.     The 
>yed  masses"  were  unable  to  pay,  since  poverty  was  the  claim  made 
for  them. 

protest"  meeting  disclosed  some  of  the  elements  in  charge  of 
the  affair.  That  was  a  combination  of  the  Bible  House  scab  agency,  the  trai- 
tor who  was  made  an  outcast  first  by  the  workers  and  then  by  the  employ- 
ers, some  renegades  from  the  socialist  movement,  and  some  employers  who 
had  their  own  reasons  for  assisting  the  "movement"  of  the  "unemployed 

The  thinly  veiled  purpose  of  the  first  meeting  was  to  bring  about  a 
breach  1><  tv.  cen  our  organization  and  the  I.  L.  G.  W.  U.  The  Cloakmakers' 
Union  was,  therefore,  spoken  of  in  very  friendly  terras,  and  fire  was  opened 
on  us  in  order  to  "save  the  Cloakmakers  and  their  Union"  from  our  domina- 

On  the  next  day  the  papers  published  reports  of  that  meeting  with 
such  amazing  headlines  as  "The  Clash  Between  Clothing  Workers  and  the 
Cloakmakers  Growing."  The  officers  of  the  I.  L.  G.  W.  U.  and  of  our 
organization  promptly  denounced  the  conspiracy  and  warned  their 
as  well  as  the  general  public  to  be  on  their  guard.  The  later  "protest" 
ings  were,  therefore,  directed  against  the  I.  L.  G.  W.  U.  as  well  as  against 
our  organization. 

Women's  Wear,  a  trade  paper  for  the  cloak  and  suit  industry,  said  in  an 
issue  in  the  month  of  December,  1917: 

"It   appears   certain    in    the   minds  of   men    familiar  with   conditions  ta 
circles   that   the   protest   meeting,   held   yesterday   on   the   East   Side,   was 
that  certain  individuals  who  have  spent  most  of  their  time  in  recent  years 
from   the  manufacturers  to  the  unions  and  back  again,  according  to  the 
money   involved,  were   responsible   for  the  event    They  saw   to  it   that 

nformed  of  the  gathering. 

"Factors  in   the  cloak  trade  and   students  of  labor  conditions  •  ' 
little    importance   can   be  attached   to   the   meeting  of  yesterday.     They  add   t 

people  were  hired  to  attend  and 

an  investigation  were  made,  it  would  disclose 
contribute  in  the  proceedings," 

This  onslaught  on  us  was  more  vicious  and  desperate  than  all  others  in 

the  sense  that  an  attempt  was  made  to  destroy  us  by  the  cry  of 
to  the  nation  generally — pro-German;  "disloyalty"  to  the  labor 
particularly — secession,     and     "antagonism"     to     the     Qoakmtkers'     U 
inost  especially— denying  their  members  an  opportunity  to  work. 

All  of  the  subsequent  activities  of  that  crew  were  along  the  same  lines  and 
for  the  same  purpose.    They  ran  their  course  and  are  now  forgotten, 



We  were  not  the  losers  by  that  additional  experience. 

The    Board    of    Control    was    discontinued    and    Mr.    Kir.-trin    was    made 

sole  administrator  of  Labor  Standards  in  Army  Uniforms.     Later  Mr.  Kirstein 

resigned  and  Prof.  William  Z.  Ripley  succeeded  him.    But  none  of  those  changes 

tTected  our  organization.    \\  li  it  \ve  have  attained  we  hold  in  the  teeth  of  all 

foes,  all  conspirators  and  all  traitors. 

United  Hebrew  Trades  Refuses  to  Betray  Clothing  Workers. 

The  United  Hebrew  Trades  is  a  local  central  body  of  Jewish  trade  unions 
in  New  York.  Since  the  advent  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 
America  all  possible  pressure  was  brought  to  bear  in  order  to  force  that  body 
sn  the  warpath  against  us.  But  the  U.  H.  T.  has  steadfastly  refused  to  betray 
the  organized  Clothing  Workers. 

In  our  report  to  the  Second  Biennial  Convention  we  gave  a  complete 
review  of  the  case. 

On  March  20,  1915,  the  U.  H.  T.  was  expelled  from  a  fictitious  "Federated 
Central  Body"  for  refusing  to  unseat  our  local  unions  and  substitute  for  them 
the  "local  unions"  of  the  scab  agency. 

On  May  10,  1915,  Samuel  Gompers,  president  of  the  American  Federa- 
tion of  Labor,  appeared  in  person  at  the  meeting  of  the  U.  H.  T.  and  ordered 
the  expulsion  of  our  local  unions. 

At  its  meeting  of  August  16,  1915,  the  U.  H.  T.  received  a  peremptory 
order  from  Gompers  giving  it  two  days  time  to  expel  our  locals.  The  order 
was  not  carried  out,  however. 

The  U.  H.  T.  sent  its  then  secretary,  Abraham  I.  Shiplacoff,  to  the  A. 
F.  of  L.  convention  in  San  Francisco  in  the  hope  of  finding  a  solution  for  the 
vexing  problem.  No  solution  was  found.  The  situation  became  so  acute 
that  on  December  6,  1915,  our  local  unions  voluntarily  withdrew  from  the 
I'  H.  T.  in  order  to  spare  it  the  painful  embarrassment  of  expelling  them. 
The  U.  H.  T.  adopted  a  resolution  pledging  itself  not  to  admit  locals  of  the 
United  Garment  Workers. 

Our  formal  relations  were  severed  but  not  our  actual  relations. 

Our  local  unions,  like  other  large  organizations,  do  not  need  the  assist- 
ance of  the  U.  H.  T.,  but  the  latter  needs  their  assistance  for  those  Jewish 
trade  unions  which  must  look  to  the  U.  H.  T.  for  their  sole  or  chief  support. 
Our  local  unions  have  cheerfully  continued  to  give  liberal  aid  to  such  organ- 
izations whenever  called  upon. 

For  nearly  two  years  the  U.  H.  T.  was  let  alone.  The  withdrawal  of 
our  locals  from  that  body  seemed  to  have  given  our  enemies  some  measure 
of  satisfaction.  In  1917  they  renewed  their  crusade.  The  Central  Federated 
Union  of  New  York,  not  the  Federated  Central  Body  mentioned  above,  whose 
secretary  was  conspicuously  mixed  up  with  a  pro-German  movement,  arrived 
at  the  conclusion  that  the  U.  H.  T.  was  not  loyal  to  the  United  States  and 
must,  therefore,  be  annihilated. 



Accordingly,  the  Central  Federated  Union  caused  a  resolution  to  be  sub- 
mitted to  the  convention  of  the  American  Federation  of  Labor,  in  Buffalo, 
which  is  known  at  resolution  No.  120.  and  is  given  below. 

Back  door  diplomacy  in  Buffalo  resulted  in  the  dropping  of  the  disloyalty 
charge  an  Trades  and  its  new  secretary  assured  Gompert 

that  he  was  against  the  Amalgamated  and  with  the  Bible  House  clique. 
That  seemed  to  have  paved  the  way  for  complete  "exoneration"  of  the 
Unit*  Trades,  although  while  the  secretary  of  the  United  Hebrew 

Trades  professed  oppose  us,  Benjamin  Schlesinger,  president  of  the 

International  Ladies  Garment  Workers'  Union,  insisted  that  all  the  organiza- 
tions affiliated  with  the  United  Hebrew  Trades,  his  own  included,  were  in 
full  acconl  with  the  Amalgamated,  as  they  could  not  be  otherwise. 

The  United  Hebrew  Trades  was  to  stand  the  test  of  "loyalty"  by  admit- 

:  .inks  the  "locals"  of  the  United  Garment  Workers  and  declaring 

t  the  Amalgamated.    That  was  the  substance  of  a  resolution 

the    United    Hebrew   Trades   was   called   upon   to  accept,   and   which   would 

have  been  accepted  without  opposition,  if  the  situation  as  described  by  the 

seer  Buffalo  were  true. 

The  Executive  Committee  of  the  United  Hebrew  Trades  voted  by 
votes  against  four  to  recommend  the  adoption  of  the  resolution. 

For  a  full  month  a  battle  royal  was  waged,  a  vote  having  been  postponed 
from  meeting  to  meeting. 

The  matter  was  finally  brought  to  a  head  at  a  meeting  of  the  United 
Hebrew  Trades  on  Wednesday,  Feb.  6,  1918.  After  a  fierce  battle  of  words 
until  the  small  hours  of  the  morning  the  resolution  as  recommended  by  the 

-  utivc  Committee  was  rejected  by  ninety  votes  against  twenty-six.  The 
fight  for  the  resolution  was  led  by  the  secretary,  Max  Pine,  and  the  fight 
against  it  by  Benjamin  Schlesinger,  Assemblyman  Shiplacoff  and  others. 

While  the  Amalgamated  has  been  made  the  target  for  the  attacks  of  the 
reactionary  oligarchy  in  the  official  labor  movement,  those  attacks  have  really 
been  aimed  at  the  progressive  and  radical  spirit  of  the  Jewish  unions.  Two 
years  ago  that  point  was  generally  lost  sight  of  because  of  the  fact  that  the 
Amalgamated  was  the  only  organization  directly  and  immediately  involved. 
This  time,  however,  the  Amalgamated  enjoys  the  pleasant  company  of  the 
Capmakers'  Union.  If  the  recommendation  of  the  Executive  Committee  had 
been  accepted  by  the  United  Hebrew  Trades,  it  would  have  meant  warfare 
not  only  against  the  Amalgamated  but  against  the  Capmakers'  Union  as 
(Tnion  which  is  now  a  credit  to  the  labor  movement,  though 
officially  an  outlaw,  would  have  been  branded  as  a  "band  of  traitors,  dis- 
loyalists, etc,"  and  a  scab  ai  milar  to  that  of  the  Bible  House  would 
have  taken  its  place  in  the  United  Hebrew  Trades, 

itus  of  the  Capmak  :on  in  addition  to  that  of  the  Amalga- 

mated has  forcibly  brought  home  to  the  delegates  the  fact  that  it  is  not  * 
tion  of  this  or  that  organization  but  of  a  great  principle:  The  right  of 
the  workers  to  have  honest  and  progressive  unions.     If  submission  to  the 
arbitrarim-«s  of  the  official  "labor  leaders"  meant  war  against  the  Amalga- 



mated  in  1917,  war  against  the  Capmakers'  Union  in  1918,  why  may  It  not 
also  mean  war  against  the  Cloakmakers'  Union  in  1919,  against  some  other 
union  or  unions  in  1920,  until  the  entire  progressive  labor  movement  would 
be  disrupted? 

The  realization  of  this  great  fact  fired  the  spirit  of  the  United  Hebrew 
Trades.  The  delegates  realized  that  by  submitting  to  the  highhandedness 
in  our  case  tv.  :tp>  they  did  not  stop  it  but  encouraged  it.  They  now 

decided  to  act  with  courage,  and  they  did. 

No  sooner  did  the  action  of  the  United  Hebrew  Trades  become  known 
than  the  C.  F.  U.  secretary  of  pro-German  propaganda  notoriety  rushed  into 
print  to  denounce  the  U.  H.  T.  as  disloyal,  pro-German,  traitors,  etc.  In 
other  words,  the  loyalty  of  the  United  Hebrew  Trades  to  the  nation  is  not 
to  be  determined  by  the  manner  in  which  it  discharges  its  duties  to  the 
country,  by  the  number  from  its  ranks  in  the  National  Army,  and  other 
criteria  usually  applied  to  citizens,  but  by  whether  the  United  Garment 
Workers  are  affiliated  with  it  or  not.  If  that  dead  body  had  been  admitted 
the  United  Hebrew  Trades  would  have  been  pronounced  loyal  and  patriotic. 
Because  it  was  not  admitted  the  United  Hebrew  Trades  is  branded  as  dis- 
loyal and  pro-German. 

That  may  give  one  a  fair  idea  of  the  value  of  the  indiscriminate  cry  of 
"disloyalty"  or  "pro-German." 

The  proposition  on  which  the  Central  Federated  Union  was  willing  to 
purge  the  U.  H.  T.  of  the  false  charge  of  disloyalty,  and  allow  it  to  live, 
is  contained  in  the  following  letter  from  Gompers: 

Washington,  D.  C,  Jan.  25,  1918. 



Dear  Sirs: 

The  Executive  Council  of  the  American  Federation  of  Labor  will  shortly  hold  a 
meeting  at  headquarters.  It  will  be  necessary  for  me  to  make  report  to  my  col- 
leagues of  the  E.  C.  regarding  the  Hebrew  Trades  matter  as  dealt  with  by  Resolution 
No.  120  of  the  Buffalo  Convention  of  the  A.  F.  of  L. 

There  have  been  two  hearings  on  the  Hebrew  Trades  matter  and  several  con- 
ferences. At  one  of  these  meetings  the  representative  of  the  New  York  Central  Fed- 
erated Union  submitted  the  following: 

"All  unions  affiliated  to  the  American  Federation  of  Labor  as  local  unions  or 
through  international  unions,  making  application  for  representation  to,  and  in  the 
United  Hebrew  Trades,  must  be  seated  by  that  body,  and  full  and  sincere  support 

'.!  independent,  dual  or  seceding  unions  at  present  seated  in  the  United  Hebrew 
Trades  must  be  unseated  until  they  affiliate  to  the  American  Federation  of  Labor 
direct  or  through  International  Unions  so  chartered. 

"The  United  Hebrew  Trades  shall  not  by  resolution  or  otherwise  endorse,  sup- 
port, or  assist  any  dual,  independent  or  seceding  organization." 

As  yet  the  representatives  of  the  Hebrew  Trades  have  not  answered.  It  will  be 
necessary  that  I  have  that  answer  to  report  to  my  collagcucs  of  the  E.  C. 

I  am  therefore  writing  to  request  that  you  let  me  have  an  answer  so  that  the 
entire  matter  may  be  in  proper  shape  for  report  to  the  Executive  Council. 

Fraternally  yours, 

(Signed)  SAM'L  GOMPERS, 




In  accordance  with  its  action  of  February  6.  the  U.  H.  T.  sent  the  fol- 
lowing letter  to  the  American  Federation  of  Labor: 

Executive  Council. 

American  Federation  of  Labor,  New  York.  February  9.  1911 

Washington.  D.  C 

Dear  Sirs  and  Brother • 

The  tried  policy  of  the   United  Hebrew  Trades,  during  the  thirty  year*  of  their 
existence,   was   to  organize  migrant   Workers   with   the   view   to  affiliate   such 

organization!  i  '-deration  of  Labor.     That  policy  bar  b— 

•  r  as  well  at  in  spirit.     At  no  time  did  the  United  H 

Trades  fail   to  urge  and   in   tot  >ce   compel   trade   unions   ot*anized   by 

affiliate  with    •  of  L  either  as  federal  locals  or  through   t  ieir    National  or 

International  bod; 

\S  have  been  and  are  not  now  directly  affiliated  %cith  the  A.   F    of 

L  we  have  at  -i  worked  in  harmony  with  you.     In  the  break  that  occurred 

in    O  in    the    ranks    of    the    men's    garment    workers,    the    United    Hebrew 

Trades  had   no  hand.     In   the   two  years   subsequent   to  the   secession   of  the   tailors 
from   the  Workers  the   U.    H.  T.   left   no  stone  unturned  to   r 

.md   to  bring  about   harmonious   relations   between   the   men's 

garment  workers  and  the  official  body,  recognized  by  the   A.    F.  of    L.   but   in   rain 
our  efforts  because  of  the  stubbornness  of  the  officers  of  the  United  Garment 
Workers.     The  resignation  of  the  locals  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  wa* 
then  affected   to   satisfy   the   demands   of  the   Executive   Council  of   tf  of   L 

and  ;»  >n  was  then  adopted  a  copy  of  which,  is  in  the  hands  of   Mr    Samuel 

Com;  h  reads  "UNTIL  THE  EXECUTI  >F  THE  AMERI- 

CONDITION    THE    U.    H.    T.    SHOULD    REMAIN    NEUT 

Ac    therefore    cannot    possibly    adopt    the    resolution    of    the    Central 
i  of  New  York.     If  we  were  to  do  so  it  would  demean  us  and  destroy 

fulness.     Our  loyalty  and  service  to  the  cause  of  Labor  during  the  last  thirty  years 
thr  lie  to  thr  insinuation*  contained  in  the  wording  of  the  proposed  resolution 
of  the  Central  Federated  Union,  as  we  have  no  seceding  or  opposition  unions  in  our 

We  take  this  occasion  to  impress  upon  you  and  the  membership  at  large  of  the 
American    Federation    of    Labor,    that    we    will    at    all    times    serve    and    support    the 
American    Federation    of    Labor    in    its    activities    and    require    trade    unions    •ln 
affiliated  with  us  or  not  to  affiliate  with  the  American   Federation  of  I.ah< 
also  v  effort  in  our  power  to  bring  about  harmony  in  the   labo 

whether  it  be  in  the  needle  trade  or  any  other  trade. 

•h  assurance  of  good  will  and  loyalty  to  the  cause  of  labor,  we  beg  to 

Very  Fraternalh 

(Signed)  M.  Feinstone.  Asst  SecV 

Samuel  Gompers  sent  the  following  letter  to  the  International  organiza- 
tions affiliated  with  the  A.  F.  of 

Washington.  D.  C.  March   12. 

Dear  Sir  &  Broth 

The  Buffalo  Convention  of  the  American  Federation  of  Labor  when 

ution  No.  120.  dealing  with  the  subject  of  the  United  Hebrew  Trades,  declared  as 
follows:  — 

1.  That  a  conference   be   held  at  thr  possible  time   in   the  city  of   % 
York  at  which   five   representatives  of  the  United  Hebrew  Trades  should  meet 
five   representatives  of  the   Central   Federated  Union   of   New   York. 

2.  That  a   representative  of  utive   Council  of  the   American    Federation 
of  Labor  shall  preside  and  participate  for  the  purpose  of  endearorinf  to  carry  out 
the  program  of  unity,  solidarity,  as  well  as  loyalty  to  the  American  trade  union  move- 
ment as  represented  by  the  A.  F.  of 

That    the    representatives  of  the    Executive   Council   of  the   A.   F.   of  L    shall 
report  the  results  of  the  conference  to  the  following  meeting  of  the  Executive 



4.  That  until  after  the  conference  and  report  as  above  provided,  Resolution  No. 
120  be  held  in  abeyance. 

5.  That  unless  a  more  satisfactory  situation  be  established  the  Executive  Council 
shall  be  authorized  and  empowered  to  carry  the  provisions  of  Resolution  No.  120  into 

In  conformity  therewith,  on  December  16,  1917,  the  undersigned  called  and  par- 
ticipated in  a  conference  in  New  York  City,  between  the  representatives  of  the  United 
Hebrew  Trades,  and  the  repre.«  of  the  New  York  Central  Federated  Union. 

e derated  Union  made  the  following  proposition: 

'1    unions   affiliated   to   the  -i    Federation   of   Labor   as    local    unions   or 

through    international    unions,   making   application    for    representation   to    and    in    the 
:   Hebrew   Trades,  must  be  seated  by  that  body,  and  full   and   sincere   support 

All  independent,  dual  or  seceding  unions  at  present  seated  in  the  United  Hebrew 
Trades  must  be  unseated  until  they  affiliate  to  the  American  Federation  of  Labor 
direct  or  through  International  Union  so  chartered. 

The  United  Hebrew  Trades  shall  not  by  resolution  or  otherwise  endorse,  support 
or  assist  any  dual,  independent  or  seceding  organization." 

The  United  Hebrew  Trades  asked  that  another  conference  be  held.  The  con- 
ferees decided  for  a  further  conference. 

January  6th  another  conference  was  held  in  New  York  City.  At  that  conference 
the  United  Hebrew  Trades  asked  for  extension  of  time  so  as  to  prepare  those  whom 
they  represented  for  the  acceptance  of  the  recommendation  of  the  previous  meet 

The  matter  was  held  until  the  latter  part  of  January,  when  on  the  25th  of  that 
month  I  wrote  the  United  Hebrew  Trades  and  insisted  upon  an  immediate  answer 
so  that  the  matter  might  be  reported  to  my  colleagues  of  the  E.  C.  at  their  meeting 
scheduled  for  February  loth. 

February  7th  I  was  officially  notified  that  the  United  Hebrew  Trades  had  declared 
against  the  proposition  of  the  Central  Federated  Union. 

The  whole  matter  came   before  the    E.   C.   at   its   meeting,   February   10-17.     The 
directed  that  the  instructions  of  the  Buffalo  convention  as  contained  in  Resolution 
No.  120  should  be  put  into  effect.     The  resolution  is  as  follows: 

'Whereas,  a  serious  condition  exists  in  the  clothing  industry  in  Greater  New 
York,  caused  by  what  is  known  as  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers,  who  seceded 
from  the  United  Garment  Workers  of  America,  with  the  intent  of  destroying  that 
recognized  organization; 

Whereas,  the  United  Hebrew  Trades,  a  body  consisting  of  various  local  unions 
of  different  trades  and  which  is  not  chartered  by  the  American  Federation  of  Labor, 
renders  all  possible  support  to  the  seceders,  and  is,  therefore,  antagonistic,  and 

Whereas,  the  United  Hebrew  Trades  fathered  and  abetted  and  is  in  sympathy 
with  the  organizations  known  as  the  "People's  Council"  and  "Workmen's  Council," 
who  have  declared  in  public  print  their  intention  of  organizing  one  thousand  branches 
in  the  United  States,  the  purpose  being  to,  if  possible,  supplant  the  American  Federation 
of  Labor;  be  it,  therefore 

Resolved,  That  the  Thirty-seventh  Annual  Convention  of  the  American  Federation 
of  Labor  direct  all  international  unions  whose  local  unions  are  represented  in  the 
United  Hebrew  Trades  to  order  all  such  local  unions  to  withdraw  from  that  body, 
and  in  case  such  local  unions  refuse  to  withdraw,  to  reorganize  them  under  the  banner 
of  the  American  Labor  movement." 

Therefore,  the  object  of  this  letter  to  you  is  to  officially  advise  you  of  the  action 
taken  upon  this  matter  and  to  ask  that  the  local  unions  of  your  international  union 
represented  in  the  United  Hebrew  Trades  in  New  York  City,  take  necessary  steps 
to  conform  to  the  directions  of  the  Buffalo  convention,  and  that  you  advise  me  in 
regard  thereto. 

That  the  American  Federation  of  Labor  and  the  Executive  Council  have  been 
absolutely  fair  and  just  in  the  course  followed  in  the  United  Hebrew  Trades  case,  no 
one,  I  am  sure  wHl  dispute.  There  is  a  bona  fide  central  body  in  New  York  city  affil- 
iated to  the  A.  F.  of  L.,  that  is,  the  New  York  Central  Federated  Union;  there  is 
no  need  for  another  central  body  in  New  York  City,  particularly  one  organized  on 
a  racial  or  political  basis.  In  addition  it  is  prejudicial  to  the  good  name  when  such 
a  body  is  not  only  organized  but  refuses  to  accord  equal  advantages  to  all  bona 
fide  trade  unions.  The  A,  F.  of  L.  counts  upon  your  prompt  co-operation  and  com- 
pliance with  the  declaration  and  decision,  that  if  any  local  union  of  your  international 



rj  in   the   Unite,!    Hebrew  Trades  of   New   York  d  u   be 

directed  to  withdraw  therefrt 

Trusting  that   1   may  hear   from  you  at  your  early  convenience  and   with   kind 
regards.  I  am, 

Anally  yours, 

(Signed)        SAM.   CONFERS, 

President  American  n  of  Labor. 

us  add  here  that  the  effect  of  the  anathema  pronounced  against  us  by 
the  A.  F.  of  L.  it  its  1914  convei  Philadelphia  was  the  reverse  of  what 

it  was  intended  to  be.     We  hav  n  and  prospered  and  loomed  bigger 

eh  succeeding  convention  of  the  Federation. 

The  191  :  idclphia  declared  that  whether  right  or  wrong 

\vr  i  heard.  That  was  supposed  to  seal  our  fate.  It  did,  but  not 

in  tl.  onal  sense.  It  served  to  enhance  the  determination  of  our  mem- 

bership to  fight  their  depending  entirely  upon  their  own  strength. 

\vonderful  powers  of  self-reliance  were  thus  developed  in  our  organization. 

The  1915  convention  in  San  Francisco  found  the  rlq**"rfg  worker  strong 

ai  d  militant  <  :ihk-  worry  to  our  enemies  in  that 

•    the   1916  convention,   in   Bait  he  cause  of  the  Amalgamated 

found  a  powerful  echo  in  open  charges  of  strikebreaking 

madt  floor  of  the  convention,  in  the  sight  of  the  delegates  and  visitors 

:i  thr  hearing  of  the  entire  labor  movement,  against  John  Ferguson,  ores- 

Baltimore   Federation  of   Labor,  because  of   his   strikebreaking 

conspiracy  against  us  in  that  i 

At  th<  i.  in  Buffalo,  our  organization  was  more  than  once 

the  storm  center  of  discussion  both  in  comi  >oms  and  at  the  plenary 

sessions  of  the  i  >n. 

The  labor  movement  is  I-  to  realize  that  we  cannot  be  exterminated 

by  persecution,  and  also  that  it,  the  labor  movement  generally,  is  the  loser 

•r  being  oftic  idc  of  its  ranks. 

Our  Press 

When  we  met  in  second  convention,  May,  1916,  in  Rochester,  our 
sted  of  two  weekly  publication-      Fortschritt   in   Yiddish  and   Lavoro  in 
.n.     It  has  since  grown  to  five.    Our  message  is  now  carried  to  our  mem- 
bership in  five  different  languages.    You  all  know  their  great  educational  value, 
«•]  that  1  of  them.     While  bringing  to  our  mem- 

bers regularly  the  news  of  our  organization  we  are  striving  to  make  our 
journals  as  much  as  possible  general  working  class  educators.  We  believe  that 
we  have  fully  succeeded. 

Our  papers  in  the  order  of  their  appearance,  are  as  follows: 
Fortsch  Idish  Weekly,  began  publication  April  2,  1915. 

Lavoro,  Italian  Weekly,  began  publication  September   n.   1915. 



Advance,  English  Weekly,  began  publication  March  9,  1917. 
Industrial  Democracy,  Polish  bi-weekly,  began  publication  March  9,  1917. 
Industrial  Democracy,  Bohemian  bi-weekly,  began  publication  October   ir 

We  hope  to  still  further  increase  the  number  of  our  publications  so  that 
we  may  eventually  reach  our  members  in  all  languages  spoken  by  them. 

In  this  connection  we  desire  to  call  your  attention  to  the  necessity  of 
inr.king  subscription  for  our  official  journals  obligatory.  It  will  serve  the  double 
purpose  of  bringing  our  papers  regularly  to  the  members'  homes  and  of  providing 
a  sound  foundation  for  the  papers.  The  publication  of  five  papers,  which  number 
we  hope  to  increase,  is  a  tremendous  financial  burden  to  the  organization.  It 
cannot  be  met  by  voluntary  subscription.  Subscription  must  be  obligatory. 
The  subscription  should  be  included  in  the  regular  dues  by  adding  one  cent  a 
week  to  the  per  capita  tax.  This  system  has  been  adopted  by  a  number  of  our 
local  organizations  but  it  should  be  made  general. 

Educational  Work 

We  have  never  failed  to  emphasize  the  great  importance  of  general  educa- 
tional work  among  our  membership.  The  press  cannot  cover  the  entire  field. 
It  must  be  supplemented  by  lectures  and  other  means  of  education.  For  a 
time  it  had  been  impossible  for  us  to  undertake  such  general  educational  work. 
The  problems  of  the  moment  were  too  many,  too  pressing,  and  in  most  cases 
of  an  emergency  nature.  During  the  last  lecture  season  we  did  finally  make 
a  beginning.  We  met  with  most  encouraging  success  in  Baltimore.  All  lectures 
were  attended  by  large  audiences.  Frequently  many  people  were  turned  back 
because  of  lack  of  space.  Among  the  lecturers  were  prominent  educators  from 
Johns  Hopkins  University.  Our  members  benefitted  greatly  by  last  season's 

Our  Chicago  organization,  too,  had  a  very  successful  lecture  season  with 
very  prominent  lecturers. 

We  laid  out  elaborate  plans  in  New  York,  where  the  Board  of  Education 
co-operated  with  us  by  placing  school  facilities  at  our  disposal,  and  we  were 
also  assisted  by  very  prominent  and  capable  lecturers.  The  experiment  in  New 
York  did  not  meet  with  the  desired  success.  But  that  simply  means  that  the 
methods  must  be  further  studied  for  the  purpose  of  revising  them  so  as  to 
insure  success.  It  is  our  intention  to  make  the  educational  work  a  permanent 
feature  of  our  organization.  We  realize  that  we  will  for  some  time  be  con- 
fronted with  obstacles  in  this  new  field  but  we  are  determined  to  overcome  them. 

Higher  Per  Capita 

At  several  of  our  sessions  we  faced  the  financial  problem  which  was 
becoming  more  serious  and  compelling  as  our  work  was  progressing.  We 



have  been  constantly  called  upon  for  increasingly  greater  assistance  in  organ- 
m   work,  strike  support  h   »oon  became  clear  to  us  that  a  per 

i  of  fifteen  cents  a  month  could  not  yield  sufficient  revenue  to  meet  the 
ing  obligations  of  our  organization.    We  repeatedly  postponed  action  to 
per  capita  in  the  hope  that  we  might  be  spared  that  uninviting 
task.     But  every  succeeding  Board  session  found  the  necessity  for  a  large 
revenue  greater      \\ V  t'uuiu    ..,..-;.•'-. 1  the  inevitable  and  presented  the  situa- 
tion to  the  membenh  i       \\  -d  a  motion  to  raise  the  per  capita  tax 
from  fifteen  cents  a  month  :  five  cents  and  it  was  carried  by  a  : 
endr.;  The  new  rate  went  into  effect 
cginning  of  the  year  1918. 

At  our  February,  1918,  session  we  decided  to  set  aside  twenty  per  cent, 

out  of  each  tw«  cents  per  capita,  for  a  strike  fund.    We 

hat  is  a  mere  formality,  for  if  the  amount  thus  set  aside  should 

-  sufficient  the  balance  of  the  treasury  would  be  drawn  upon  if  necessary, 

1  to  create  the  fund  as  the  consciousness  of  the  existence  of  such 

•id  will  -ivr  :nbers  a  larger  sense  of  scur 

Relief  Outside  of  Our  Own  Ranks 

Our  meml  t  been  frequently  called  upon  to  lend  a  helping  hand  to 

their  fellow  members  who  were  struggling  for  a  better  and  happier  life.  Thus 

B  to  the  assistance  of  th<  Chicago,  Philadelphia,  Baltimore, 

.  Boston,  Louisville.    Rut  they  also  contributed  liberally  to  other  noble 

and  \vnrthy  causes.    1  -us  cases :  When  the  Cloakmakers* 

Union  in  New  York  was  fighting  for  its  life  our  members  raised  some  twenty 

odd  thousand  dollars  for  it.    About  eighteen  thousand  dollars  passed  through 

the  General  Office,  besides  various  amounts  that  were  sent  by  our  members 

through  other  channels. 

••  contributions  were  also  made  by  our  members  to  the  defense  fund 
for  Mooney  and  his  colleagues,  generally  known  as  the  San  Fi 

t  n  the  tef  Committee  undertook  its  various  enterprises  for 

the  collection  of  of  the  Jewish  War  Sufferers  in  Europe 

again  contributed  liberally.     At  the  end  of  1917  a  campaign  for 
a  five  million  dollar  fund  was  inaugurated.    Our  local  organizations  volunteered 
their  co-operation  and  plans  were  laid  out  which  if  carried  out  completely, 
1  have  yielded  an  enormous  amount  of  money  as  our  members'  share. 
Unfortunately,   howc%  fuellcss   Mondays   interfered    with   these   plans. 

•ig  to  the  shortage  in  coal  the  Government  proclaimed  a  number  of  Mondays 
as  holidays  for  the  purpose  of  suspending  industrial  activities  on  those  days  and 
<s  in  working  time  made  the  successful  execution  of  the 
impossible.    But  substantial  amounts  of  money  were  raised  by  our  mem- 
bers for  the  People's  Relief  Fund. 


In  connection  with  this  relief  work  we  issued  the  following  appeal: 

To  the  District  Councils,  Joint  Boards  and  Local  Unions  of  the  Amal- 
gamated Clothing  Workers  of  Ameru 


About  two  months  ago  some  of  our  local  organizations  undertook  to  raise  funds 

for  the  relief  of  the  sufferers  in  the  European  war  zone.     The  prospects  for  success 

It    looked   as    if   our    organization    would    add    one    more    great 

ment  to  its  glorious  record  of  successful  accomplishments.     Speedy  and  liberal 

relief  for  the  suffering  multitudes  is  so  urgent   that  no  speed  may  be  too  great  and 

no  amount  of  money,  ho\v<  e,  may  be  too  liberal. 

t  while  our  will  was  there  our  power  was  not.  A  new  factor,  entirely  unforeseen 
and  unexpected — the  Government's  order  for  the  suspension  of  industrial  activities  for 
a  number  of  days— served  to  temporarily  check  our  work  for  the  great  cause.  It 
made  effective  work  impossible  for  the  time  being. 

That  order  for  the  suspension  of  industrial  activity  has  now  been  rescinded.  Our 
members  are  again  in  a  position  to  work  full  time.  The  duty  to  resume  the  fulfillment 
of  our  self  imposed  task  now  becomes  still  more  imperative.  The  need  for  relief  is 
surely  no  less  now  than  it  was  a  few  months  ago.  A  great  deal  of  valuable  time  has 
been  lost.  We  must  see  to  it  that  effective  work  is  done  from  now  on. 

The  General  Executive  Board,  at  its  session  in  Philadelphia  last  week,  devoted 
much  of  its  time  to  the  consideration  of  this  matter.  After  a  thorough  discussion  the 
Board  unanimously  decided  to  issue  an  appeal  to  the  membership  to  renew  the  activity 
for  the  relief  of  the  war  sufferers  and  to  do  all  in  their  power  to  make  it  a  success. 

Our  sister  organization,  the  International  Ladies  Garment  Workers'  Union,  had 
designated  Washington's  Birthday  as  War  Relief  Day.  That  day  is  one  of  a  group  of 
legal  holidays  for  which  the  cloak  manufacturers  pay  their  employes,  in  accordance 
with  an  understanding  between  them  and  the  Union.  The  Union  proclaimed  that 
Washington's  Birthday  should  this  time  be  celebrated  by  work  instead  of  by  rest. 
That  meant  two  days'  pay  for  that  day's  labor.  The  additional  pay  was  set  aside 
for  the  War  Relief  Fund.  It  yielded  a  large  amount  of  money,  which  is  a  credit  to 
the  workers  and  a  blessing  to  the  war  victims. 

Our  organization  has  no  understanding  with  our  employers  in  the  matter  of  legal 
holidays  and  cannot  carry  out  a  plan  based  on  such  an  understanding  as  our  sister 
organization  did.  But  the  duty  to  come  to  the  rescue  of  our  suffering  brothers 
and  sisters  rests  on  us  nevertheless. 

We  must  find  our  way  of  extending  a  helping  hand  to  them.  The  General  Execu- 
tive Board  appeals  to  you  to  make  your  best  efforts  in  this  noble  task. 

While  originally  the  appeal  was  made  to  our  Jewish  members  only,  and  for 
Jewish  war  sufferers  only,  the  General  Executive  Board  appeals  to  all  of  our  mem- 
bers, regardless  of  race  or  nationality,  and  urges  them  one  and  all  to  co-operate.  The 
contributions  received  from  each  national  group  of  our  membership  will  go  to  the 
corresponding  nationality  for  its  own  war  relief  purposes.  The  funds  raised  by  the 
Jewish  members  will  go  to  the  Jewish  war  sufferers;  the  funds  raised  by  the  Italians 
will  go  to  the  Italians,  and  so  on. 

The  slogan  of  the  relief  campaign  when  it  was  first  opened  was  A  DAY'S  WAGES. 
This  should  also  be  the  slogan  now.  The  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America 
does  not  levy  this  as  a  compulsory  assessment  upon  its  membership.  It  is  a  call  from 
our  International  Organization  for  voluntary  contributions.  Wherever  a  full  day's 
wages  is  possible  that  should  be  the  contribution. 

While  it  is  true  that  with  the  present  high  cost  of  living  a  day's  wages  means  a 
great  deal  to  a  workingman,  we  must  remember  the  greatness  and  the  urgency  of  the 
cause  for  which  this  money  is  being  solicited. 

Many  millions  of  people  of  our  own  blood,  connected  with  us  by  the  closest 
family  ties,  are  suffering  the  tortures  of  a  long,  ruthless  and  unparalleled  war.  Our 
own  country  has  been  at  war  less  than  a  year,  is  geographically  at  a  safe  distance 
from  the  enemy  and  economically  prosperous,  yet  we  have  already  felt  very  strongly 
the  effect  of  the  war.  How  great  then  must  be  the  sufferings  of  those  unfortunate 
who  have  been  in  war  three  and  a  half  years,  with  their  homes  wrecked,  their 



countries  devastated  and  their  lives  mined?     Practically  all  of  Europe  is  crying  wftfc 

und  anguish. 

No  one  can  bring  them  help  except  wt  JHft.  in  this  country.     We  are  still  f< 

-ough   to  be  the  least  affected  of  all  nations  engaged  in  this  war.     It   is  our 

duty  to  help  those  who  are  dying  from  lack  of  food,  clothing  and  shelter.     The  call 

coming  to  us  from  the  other  side  of  the  ocean  has  been  heeded  by  large  numbers  of 

our  fellow  citi/rns  in  this  count  now  our  turn  to  do  our  share      We  have  not 

m  any  field  of  activity  to  which  we  were  called    Let  us  do  our  full 


Most  of  us  come  from  those  very  countries  where   this   terrible   conflagration  is 
now  raging.     We  have  found  a  home  of  refuge  in  this  country.     Were  it  not  for  the 
accident  of  our  having  left  the  old  world  before  the  war  began  we  would  * 

been  among  the  great  suffering  let  now  crying  to  us  for  a  crumb  of  bread, 

l  fo 

Let  us  be  grateful  for  having  reached  these  shores  before  the  scourge  now  torturing 
Europe  overtook  us.     Let  us  show  that  we  are  worthy  of  the  advantages  w< 
in  this  country  by  responding  to  the  cry  of  despair  coming  from  our  fellow 

Europe  overtook  us.     Let  us  show  that  we  are  worthy  of  the  advantages  we  enjoy 
is  country  by  responding  to  the  cry  of  despair  coming  from  our  fellow 
,:•»  on  the  other  side  of  the  globe  and  giving  them  whatever  help  we  can. 

A  day's  wages  is  a  large  sum  for  a  workingman  to  deprive  himself  of.    But  sacri- 
are always  made  in  proportion  to  the  needs.     The  Cause  calling  to  us  compels 
'i   should  be  made  willingly  and  cheerfully.     Remember  that 

vitli  our  day's  wages,  given  up  in  the  happy  consciousness  of  perform- 
ing a  sacred  dur  -ular  daily  occupations,  we  continue  taking 

care  of  our  families  and  providing  for  their  comfort  and  welfare.    The  giving  up  of  a 
on  ;:•!  for  this  noble  cause  is,  after  all,  no  greater  financial  hardship  than  the 

loss  of  wages  because  of  a  fuelless  Monday,  a  strike  or  any  other  cause  that  may 
affect   our   earnings.     The    unfortunates   for   whom   our   contrih  the 

saving  of  untold  numbers  of  human  lives,  possibly  the  saving  of  the  entire   ge 

hysical  and  moral  ruin,  have  at  present  no  occupations  or  means  olli   - 
hood.     Nor  will  they  have  any  until  the  lives  of  the  peoples  generally  become  normal 

Pol  he  example  set  by  many  of  our  own  members  our  contributions  may 

be  thout  any  financial  hardships  on  us.     In  a  number  of  cases  our  members 

have  arranged  with  their  employers  to  work  overtime  in  order  in  that  way  to  earn  the 
ra  money  needed  for  the  contribution.     In  that  way  our  contribution  is  labor  and 
not  a  part  of  our  regular  earnings.     The  additional  physical  exertion  for  a  few  : 
hours  in  a  given  period  is  surely  a  sacrifice  that  every  one  of  us  can  well  afford  to 
In   fact,  it  ought  to  be  considered  a  pleasure  and  a  privilege  to  make  that 
physical   effort   for  the  alleviation   of  the   suffering*   of   millions   of  people.     If   such 
ngements  were  possible  in  some  cases  they  may  be  possible  in  many  m 

A   number  of  our   members   made   their   contributions   before   the   industrial   sus- 
sion  order  went  into  eiTrrt.    Our  appeal  is  directed  to  those  who  have  not  yet  con- 
tributed or  who  have  not  contributed  their  full  share. 

In  the  name  of  our  great  and  militant  Organization,  which  is  dear  and  beloved  to 
all  of  us,  we  appeal  to  you.     Respond  to  the  call  of  the  suffering  millions  freely  and 

rartmess  and  enthusiasm  which  have  always  been  c 

acteristic   of  our   membership.     Take   action    immediately.      Let    there    be   no   further 
delay.      Starvation    and    Death   don't    wait.      Relief   must,    therefore,   also   make    hast*. 
You  may  send  your  collections  to  the  local  relief  committees,  if  any,  in  your  re*pecf 
cities,  or  directly   to  the   undersigned.      In   all   cases,  however,   you   will   please   send 
complete  reports  to  the  undersigned. 

Urging  you  again  to  live  up  to  the  true  Amalgamated  spirit  in  this  case  as  yom 
did  in  all  others,  we  greet  you  in  the  hope  of  sucrr 

Very  fraternally  you 


JOSEPH  SCHLOSSBERG.  General  Secretary. 
Manifesto  on  the  Situation  as  Created  by  the  World  War. 

1  our  banner  in  the  clothing  imiustry.  at  the  end  of  1914, 
the  present  world  war  had  just  begun.     The  general  impression  prevailing 



at  that  time  was  that  a  war  conducted  on  so  colossal  a  scale  must  burn  itself 
out  within  a  short  time.  "Authorities"  had  predicted  the  end  of  the  war 
within  a  few  months.  But  the  war  has  been  fiercely  raging  nearly  four  years, 
and  the  end  is  not  in  sight  yet.  Contrary  to  all  hopes  the  war  has  steadily 
gjown  extensively  and  intensively  until  it  has  staggered  human  imagination. 
Both  hemispheres  with  half  of  the  world's  population  are  now  in  the  war. 
The  civilized  world  has  developed  such  amazing  powers  as  had  been  incon- 
ceivable before  they  were  brought  forth  by  the  pressure  of  necessity.  To 
sustain  so  much  destruction  of  life  and  treasure,  so  much  devastation,  with 
the  best  blood  withdrawn  from  economic  and  social  life,  for  four  long  years, 
with  the  burdens  growing  ever  heavier  rather  than  lighter,  requires  a  genius 
and  a  vitality  that  the  human  race  had  not  been  credited  with  before  it  was 
put  to  the  test.  The  thought  naturally  suggests  itself:  If  the  vital  forces 
of  the  people  can  withstand  so  much  misery,  suffering  and  desolation-  how 
much  joy,  happiness  and  prosperity  could  the  people  give  to  themselves  if 
they  were  free  to  apply  those  awakened  forces  to  such  purposes.  This  war 
disposes  of  the  last  shreds  of  dismal  Malthusianism. 

As  stated,  our  hopes  for  a  speedy  end  of  the  war  failed  to  materialize. 
Mot  only  is  the  war  in  Europe  raging  with  growing  fierceness,  but  since 
Ajjnl,  1917,  our  own  country,  which  had  been  hopefully  looked  to  by  the 
suffering  world  as  the  logical  peacemaker,  has  been  one  of  the  most  active 
belligerents.  The  entrance  of  our  country  into  the  European  war,  actively 
battling  on  the  other  side  of  the  ocean,  has  more  than  any  other  single  factor 
emphasized  the  internationalization  of  the  world.  Modern  economic  life  has 
completely  destroyed  the  provincialism  of  the  previous  generation.  It  is  mak- 
ing of  all  nations  and  races  one  great  human  family,  mutual  and  interde- 

The  world  is  radically  different  now  from  what  it  was  four  years  ago. 
One  need  not  be  a  great  statesman  or  philosopher  in  order  to  realize  that  the 
world  is  being  remade.  That  can  be  seen  with  the  naked  eye  by  every  hum- 
ble mortal.  It  has  particularly  been  visualized  by  the  emancipation  of  Russia 
from  autocracy,  the  revolutionization  of  the  British  labor  movement  and  the 
emerging  of  a  new  proletarian  International  from  the  smoldering  ruins  of  the 
old  one. 

Briefly  the  situation  is  this: 

The  war  came  against  the  wishes  of  the  labor  movement  of  all  the  world, 
and  we  are  now  in  its  grip. 

With  the  war  came  the  long  train  of  accompanying  conditions  which  are 
against  the  interest  of  the  people,  but  we  are  helpless  in  the  face  of  them. 
They  are  here.  The  working  classes  have  been  unable  to  shape  the  situa- 
tion in  accordance  with  their  desires  and  can't  help  taking  it  as  it  is. 

But  with  all  our  grief  at  the  war  and  the  ruin  it  has  wrought,  we  cannot 
shut  our  eyes  to  the  constructive  events  that  have  happened  as  a  result  of 



the  upheaval,  the  shaking  up  of  the  foundation  of  the  old  social  order  and 
the  releasing  of  vast  democratic  forces,  which  will,  without  a  doubt,  destroy 

racy  political  as  well  as  economic.  With  the  seas  of  human  blood 
and  tears  steadily  swelling.  c  groans  of  tortured  mankind  filling 

aing  curses  forcing  themselves  on  our  lips  for  those  respon- 
sible for  the  all  the  misfortune  and  distress,  we 
must  pause  to  greet  the  reju  •:  of  the  world,  the  coming  emancipation 
of  manki  that  is  v  forces  born  out  of  the  world's  agonies  will 
achieve  While  we  cannot  at  present  halt  the  process  of  destruction  we  hail 

joy  the  forces  of  construction  issuing  from  it.  So  strong  is  our  faith 
in  the  birth  of  the  new  democracy,  the  new  freedom,  the  new  social  order, 
that  we  make  bold  to  believe  that  when  this  war  will  be  over  the  outraged 
peoples  of  the  world  will  be  so  thoroughly  aroused  against  their  rulers  and 
oppressors  that  inilit  .vill  be  allowed  to  continue  after  the 

might  mean  armed  revolution.  It  may  not  at  all  be  a  wild  exaggeration 
to  in  ir  will  be  over,  autocracy,  or  what  may  be  left 

of  it.  will  find  itself  between  the  devil  of  militarism  that  might  rise  against 
it  as  Russian  militarism  rose  against  Czarism,  and  the  deep  sea  of  non-mili- 
tarism in  which  autocracy  must  suffer  shipwreck  upon  the  rocks  of  the 
people's  opposition. 

In  a  word,  it  is  our  firm  belief  that  autocracy,  in  its  all  inclusive  sense, 
is  now  digging  :  .  grave.     The  trenches  from  which  it  conduct 

operations  lead  directly  to  it 

In  view  of  this  situation,  which  in  the  above  sense  is  magnificent  I 
all  of  its  hidcousness  and  inspiring  with  all   of   its   shocking   cruelties,   we 
thought  it  our  duty  to  issue  a  pronunciamento  for  the  guidance  of  our  mem- 
We  have,  therefore,  issued  the  following  manifesto,  which   we  are 
sure  has  met  with  the  full  approval  of  our  membership: 

Manifesto  on  the  Present  World  Crisis  to  the  Membership  of  the 

A.  C.  W.  of  A. 

The  World  War  i  -ear.    Much  as  the  great  drama  has 

touched  every  human  heart  in  the  civilized  world  from  its  very  beginning,  it 
has  been  brought  home  to  the  working  class  in  this  country  during  the 

ve  mon<  iculary  through  three  events  which  stand  out  boldest 

of  all.  They  are,  in  their  chronological  order :  The  great  Russian  revolution, 
the  entrance  of  the  United  Stat<  e  war,  and  what  we  may  truly  call 

the  new  birth  of  the  British  Labor  Movement. 

The  Russian  revolution  was  in  every  respect  the  greatest  and  most  far 
reaching  of  all  revolts  and  uprisings  of  the  oppressed  of  the  world  against 
their  oppressors  recorded  in  human  history.     It  was  the  greatest  contribution 
•ie   democratic   forces   in   all   countries,   and   of  greatest   historical   signi- 
ficance to  the  working  classes  of  the  world. 

America's  entrance  into  the  war  added  one  hundred  million  souls,  and  the 



vast     resources    of     tlu>    count rv.     to    the    nations    allied    against     Prussian 


The  ringing  message  of  the  British  Labor  movement  to  their  fellow  work- 
ers everywhere  proclaiming  the  struggle  for  a  NEW  SOCIAL  ORDER,  and 
calling  upon  the  peoples  of  the  world,  those  of  the  enemy  nations  included, 
TO  DECLARE  THEMSELVES,  has  thrilled  the  soul  of  every  liberty  lov- 
ing man  and  woman  battling  for  a  free  and  democratic  Industrial  Common- 
wealth, without  classes,  without  imperialism  and  without  wars. 

In  the  course  of  the  past  year,  too,  Prussian  militarism  has  thrown  off  all 
restraint  and  challenged  Civilization  in  the  most  amazing  shamelessness  and 
brutality,  surpassing  all  of  its  past  records  of  vandalism  and  ruthlessness  in 
Belgium,  Serbia  and  everywhere  else.  German  militarism  now  stands  as  the 
brigand  of  the  world,  employing  all  the  attainments  of  thousands  of  yean  of 
civilization  in  assassinating,  crushing  and  plundering  nations. 

Brave  Russia,  with  its  limbs  still  aching  and  its  wounds  still  bleeding 
from  the  slavery  of  centuries  of  which  it  had  just  freed  herself,  is  heroically 
struggling  against  the  Prussian  military  monster  who  is  seeking  to  destroy 
her.  Our  hearts  go  out  to  heroic  Russia;  we  are  tempted  to  say  holy  Rus- 
sia, martyred  Russia.  Russia's  role  in  this  frightful  world  tragedy  gives  the 
struggle  against  German  militarism  new  meaning,  new  substance. 

In  the  past  year,  too,  President  Wilson  has  infused  a  new  spirit  in  the 
peace  discussions  among  the  nations,  proclaiming  democratic  terms,  aiming 
at  a  general,  democratic  and  lasting  people's  peace.  President  Wilson's  re- 
cent addresses  to  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  have  given  force  and 
vitality  to  the  people's  demand  for  a  peace  on  the  basis  of  no  annexations, 
no  punitive  indemnities  and  self-determination  of  the  nations. 

President  Wilson  has  thrown  the  weight  of  his  high  authority  in  the 
scale  against  the  establishment  of  militarism  in  this  country. 

Militarism  is  militarism  with  all  the  horrors  that  it  implies,  wherever  and 
whenever  it  may  exist. 

Prussian  militarism  is  the  greatest  horror  of  the  world  only  because  it 
has  attained  the  highest  degree  of  development.  Any  other  militarism  de- 
veloped as  fully  and  as  completely  would  be  a  like  menace  to  the  nations 
of  the  world.  It  is  the  fervent  hope  of  all  mankind  that  the  termination  of 
this  war  will  end  war  forever.  The  imposition  of  a  permanent  militarism 
upon  the  people  can  have  no  other  meaning  than  preparation  for  another 
war.  President  Wilson  has  earned  the  gratitude  of  the  American  people  by 
his  firm  stand  against  inflicting  the  scourge  of  militarism  on  us. 

President  Wilson  has  also  voiced  the  sentiments  of  the  American  people, 
particularly  of  the  working  class,  by  his  inspiring  message  of  cheer  and  hope 
to  the  Soviet  Congress  of  the  Russian  nation  in  Moscow. 



The  hearts  of  all  liberty  loving  people  of  the  world  arc  with  Russia.  They 
have  been  yearning  for  an  opportunity  to  send  to  Russia  a  word  of  sympathy 
and  encouragement  in  her  great  crisis.  President  Wilton's  heartfelt  mesttgt 
has  gratified  that  burning  desirr  It  has  shown  isolated  Russia  that  American 
democracy  is  ready  to  extend  to  her  a  helping  hand  and  bring  her  closer  to 
the  democracies  of  the  world  so  that  she  may  draw  strength  from  a  cordial 
sisterhood  of  free  peoples). 

With  President  Wilson  we  hold  that  we  are  not  at  war  with  the  Teutonic 

peoples.    They  are  suffering  under  their  militarism  more  than  do  other  peo- 

always  h  them  in  times  of  peace  as  well  as  in  riflict 

ir.    Unfortunately,  for  themselves  as  well  as  for  the  rest  of  the  world* 

they  have  not  as  yet  the  strength  to  free  themselves  from  it.    We  want  their 

cooperation,  as  soon  as  we  can  get  it,  in  overthrowing  all  militarism  and  all 

We  joyfully  take  this  occasion  to  reaffirm  our  attitude  as  repeatedly 
<-d  in  our  press  to  the  effect  that  we  stand  by  President  Wilson  in  bis 

efforts  for  a  democratic  and  durable  peace,  as  shown  by  his  recent  addresses 
e  Congress  of  the  United  States,  by  his  message  to  Russia  and  by  bis 

steadfast  opposition  to  militarism. 

The  Labor  Movement  of  the  world  cannot  progress  fully  and  attain 
highest  goal  unless  its  chain  encircling  the  globe  is  complete  and  has  all  links 
as  defeat  for  any  nation,  as  distinguished  from  its  rulers  and 
oppressors,  will  be  an  injury  to  mankind,  and  an  imperialistic  peace  wi: 
the  foundation  for  more  wars,  so  will  the  enmity  of  the  working  class  of 
one  country  for  that  of  another  because  of  the  crimes  of  their  masters,  destroy 
that  spirit  of  solidarity  which  is  indispensible  in  the  international  struggle 
for  the  NEW  SOCIAL  ORDER.    The  modern  labor  movement,  like  modern 
civilized  life  generally,  is  interdependent  and  international. 

History  is  moving  with  bewildering  speed.  The  working  class  of  the 
world  is  today  the  biggest  factor  in  this  task  of  rapid  history  making.  The 
world  is  being  recast  and  remoulded.  Radical  and  revolutionary  changes  in 
our  accepted  modes  of  life  have  themselves  become  a  normal  condition.  The 
interests  of  the  human  race  call  upon  the  working  class  to  step  forward, 
assume  power  and  save  civilization  from  disaster.  In  Russia  and  in  England 
the  worker*  have  made  giant  strides  in  the  direction  of  carrying  otr 

ion  history  has  assigned  to  them.  In  Russia  the  working  class  did  it  in 
the  only  way  possible  in  that  :\  country.  In  England,  where  the  work- 

ing class  was  fortunate  enough  to  live  under  more  civilized 

izcd  methods  arc  possible. 

We  congratulate  the  British  Labor  Movement  upon  its  epoch 
declarations,  which  have  the  approval  and  support  of  the  labor  movements 
in  the  several  countries  represented  in  the  Inter-Allied  Labor  Conference  in 



We  speak  for  the  great  masses  of  the  organized  workers  in  our  industry, 
each  and  everyone  of  whom,  we  know,  hails  with  joy  the  ennobling  utter- 
ances of  our  British  fellow  workers. 

We  extend  most  fraternal  greetings  to  the  Mission  sent  to  this  country  by 
the  working  classes  of  the  Allied  countries  in  Europe  and  bid  them  a  hearty 

Long  live  true  social  democracy ! 
Long  live  th<   now  working  class  International! 
the  General  Executive  Board  of  the 


General  President.  General  Secretary. 


Lengthy  though  this  report  is  it  does  not  tell  the  full  story  of  our  activities. 
Our  organization  is  so  young  and  our  tasks  arc  increasing  so  rapidly  that  the 
recording  of  our  work  must  be  done  with  the  greatest  of  haste.  As  we  said 
on  a  former  occasion :  We  are  too  busy  making  history  to  be  able  to  write  it. 
This  report  was  written  so  close  to  the  convention  that  a  more  complete 
record  and  a  fuller  discussion  of  the  many  problems  we  dealt  with  and  of 
those  we  are  confronted  with  could  not  be  attempted.  In  this  concluding 
part  we  shall  present  to  you  only  a  few  brief  memoranda. 

Uniform  Financial  System  for  the  Local  Unions. 

Since  the  last  convention  we  have  made  great  improvements  in  the 
financial  methods  of  our  local  organizations.  You  who  arc  familiar  with 
the  system,  or  lack  of  system,  prevailing  under  the  former  regime,  where 
records  were  mostly  conspicuous  by  their  absence,  and  seldom  served  any 
useful  purpose  by  their  presence,  will  appreciate  the  great  value  of  the 
uniform  and  modern  financial  system  we  have  devised  for  our  local  organ- 
izations. We  thought  it  worth  while  going  to  the  big  expense  of  printing 
uniform  ledgers,  day  books,  cash  books,  vouchers  and  other  paraphernalia. 
We  have  urged  all  our  local  unions  to  adopt  them.  While  we  have  not 
made  the  use  of  our  system  compulsory  and  not  all  of  our  local  organizations 
have  adopted  them  as  yet,  the  number  of  those  who  have  is  steadily  growing. 
The  smaller  local  union  is  thus  in  a  position  to  enjoy  the  benefit  of  a  modern 
and  up-to-date  system  of  financial  accounting.  We  feel  that  it  will  not  take 
long  before  the  system  introduced  by  us  will  be  installed  throughout  our 

Our  official  auditor,  Mr.  Victor  Benedict,  has  audited  the  books  of  a 
number  of  our  local  organizations  in  different  parts  of  the  country,  including 
also  Montreal,  Canada.  In  all  cases  the  locals  have  found  those  audits  and 



the  improvements  in  bookkeeping  made  by  the  auditor  of  great  benefit.  One 
of  the  greatest  advantages  is  the  fact  that  those  audits  made  under  oar 
direction  tend  to  strengthen  the  confidence  of  the  membership  in  the 

We  have  also  laid  out  plan^  for  the  gathering  of  all  such  si 
may  be  of  interest  to  our  organization.    We  are  making  efforts  to  educate 
our  local  officers  to  the  necessity  of  such  data.     We  arc  sure  that  in  time 
11  become  a  very  useful  source  of  information.    We  hope  to  be  able  to 
•how  t  s  in  our  report  to  the  next  convention. 

Bonding  of  Local  Officers. 

We  havr  entered  into  an  arrangement  with  a  bonding  company  for  the 

bonding  of  the  local  officers.     According  to  this  arrangement  the  office  it 

instead  of  the  particular  officer.    This  is  a  great  advantage  for  the 

local  unions,  as  it  dispenses  with  all  the  red  tape  incidental  to  bonding  and 

makes  it  unnecessary  to  -roccdurc  when  a  new  officer  is  elected. 

!>ond  is  continuous  for  the  office  regardless  of  who  the  officer  is.    The  fee 

is  most  desirable  that  all  of  our  subdivisions  should  avail 
selves  of  this  opportunity.    The  necessity  of  it  need  hardly  be  emj 

Our  Organization  Active  on  AH  Fields. 

Our  members  have  not  confined  their  activities  exclusively  to  the  ii 
trial  field.     There  is  hardly  a  branch  of  social  activity  along  the  lines  of 
progress  in  its  best  sense  as  understood  by  the  modern  working  cla- 

•i  our  organizations  have  not  participated.  In  the  progressive  labor 
world  the  Amalgamated  has  been  recognized  as  a  definite  and  powerful  factor 
for  the  promotion  of  the  great  cause  of  labor.  The  Amalgamated  has  never 
failed  to  line  up  with  other  labor  bodies  in  various  undertaking*  of  the 
progressive  labor  movement.  Outside  of  orr  immediate  field  the  most 
important  contribution  was  quite  naturally  made  by  our  organizations  and 
members  on  the  political  field.  When  the  socialist  campaign  comes  we  are 
second  to  none  in  our  contributions  of  funds,  labor,  enthusiasm,  CimliditM 
cteil  officials.  We  made  a  particularly  great  contribution  last 
November  in  the  State  of  New  York.  Of  the  Socialist  officials  and  lawmakers 
elected,  the  following  arc  members  of  our  organization :  Judge  Jacob  Panken, 
of  Local  156,  New  York.  Assemblyman  Abraham  I.  Shiplacoff  of  Local  213. 
New  York.  Alderman  Baruch  C.  Vladeck  of  Local  3,  New  York.  Alderman 
Abraham  Bcckcrman  of  Local  4.  New  York.  Supervisor  Jacob  J.  Levin  of 
Local  14.  Rochester,  Nf.  Y.  Alderman  George  Stahley  of  Local  14,  Roch- 
ester, \  V 

We  are  proud  of  the  fact  that  the  labor  movement  activity  of  our  members 
is  broad  and  general,  and  are  also  proud  of  their  doing  their  full  share  in  all 
cases.  With  this  magnificent  spirit,  vast  fund  of  energy 


of  self  reliance,  all  of  which  are  growing  and  increasing  as  our  members  arc 
doing  their  work,  who  can  doubt  that  we  will  attain  our  great  goal  I 

Recent  Wage  Increases 

While  this  report  was  being  written  our  membership  in  different  parts  of 
the  country  has  secured  new  and  additional  wage  increases,  some  of  which 
have  already  been  recorded  here  and  some  have  not.  To  mention  but  a  few : 
ten  and  fifteen  per  cent  to  the  employees  of  Hart,  Schaffner  &  Marx  in 
Chicago;  ten  per  cent  to  the  employees  of  Strouse  &  Brothers  in  Baltimore; 
two  dollars  weekly  increase  to  all  the  Children's  Clothing  workers  in  New 
York  on  May  first;  two  dollars  to  all  clothing  cutters  in  New  York  the 
first  week  in  May;  also  increases  to  the  Shirtmakcrs  in  New  York  and 

In  connection  with  the  recent  wage  increases  we  are  glad  to  note  a  new 
policy  that  has  lately  been  inaugurated  by  some  of  our  local  organizations. 
In  New  York,  Boston,  Philadelphia,  Chicago,  and  probably  also  in  other 
places,  the  members  voted  to  contribute  the  amount  of  the  first  week's  wage 
increase  to  a  special  reserve  and  defense  fund  which  the  organization  may 
fall  back  upon  in  case  of  an  emergency.  The  wisdom  of  such  action  ; 
obvious  that  we  heartily  congratulate  those  organizations  who  have  taken  it 
and  recommend  it  to  those  who  have  not. 

Great  Victory  for  Children's  Clothing  Workers. 

Just  before  leaving  New  York  for  the  convention,  May  7th,  we  were 
happy  to  record  a  victory  in  the  strike  against  the  firm  of  Samuel  Glass, 
Brooklyn,  after  a  struggle  of  more  than  three  months.  For  the  first  time 
the  working  conditions  in  the  plant  of  that  factory  will  be  under  the  juris- 
diction of  the  Joint  Board  of  the  Children's  Clothing  Trades. 

May  Day  Celebration. 

We  cannot  close  without  a  word  about  our  May  Day  celebrations. 

The  first  of  May  is  a  legal  holiday  of  our  organiatzion.  Each  year  we 
have  asked  our  members  to  celebrate  it  in  a  fitting  manner,  and  they  never 
failed  to  do  so.  This  year,  that  day  had  a  special  significance. 

It  was  the  first  May  Day  with  our  country  as  an  active  participant  in 
the  world  war;  the  first  May  Day  with  free  Russia  as  an  established  fact, 
all  the  unfortunate  conditions  in  that  country  notwithstanding;  finally,  the 
first  May  Day  with  the  inspiring  messages  of  the  British  Labor  Party  and 
the  Inter-Allied  Labor  Conference  as  the  property  of  the  working  classes  of 
the  world.  Such  a  May  Day  it  was  our  duty  to  celebrate  in  a  manner  that 
should  give  true  expression  to  its  spirit.  Our  members  rose  to  the  occasion. 
Never  before  did  this  country  see  such  a  May  Day  celebration.  As  was 
expected,  New  York  led.  The  New  York  Joint  Board  boldly  hired  Madison 
Square  Garden,  the  largest  meeting  hall  in  the  country,  for  its  May  Day  dem- 
onstration. Its  members  did  not  go  to  work  that  day.  They  responded  to 



the  call  of  their  organization  to  celebrate  the  International  Labor  Day.    Over 
and  of  them  paid  a  relatively  high  admission  fee  and  filled  the  vast 
ithratrr      In  a  !  iition  to  addresses  and  resolutions  expressing  the  aea- 
tinients  ..f   the  occasion,  our  members  had  the  joy  of  hearing   lyric   and 
musical  artists  of  the  highest  order,  members  of  the  Metropolitan  Open 
Company,  who  rendered  classic  music  and  revolutionary  hymns.    Our  dem- 
onstration aroused  universal  interest.     For  an  organization  of  one  imhtttiy 
to  fill  Madison  Square  Garden  by  a  voluntary  sale  of  ticket*  was  sufficient 
to   ta  imagination   of    the    most   optimistic.      That    was   not   or 

May  Day  demonstration  in  the  accepted  meaning  of  the  term ;  it  was  at  the 

-  lime  a  revelation  of  the  wonderful  powers  of  our  organization.  How 
much  good  may  these  powers  yet  bring  for  our  own  members  and  for  the 
working  class  generally!  The  Madison  Square  meeting  also  netted  * 

:sand  dollars  for  the  relief  of  the  War  Sufferr 

same  spirit  was  manifested  at  the  May  Day  meetings  of  oar 
ization  in  other  parts  of  the  country. 

Thanks  To  Our  Friends 

We  close  with  an   expression  of  sinccrest   thanks  to  all  labor 

izatiuns  and  individuals  who  have  faithfully  stood  by  us  in  all  of  our 

trying  struggles      \Vhilc  we  cannot  enumerate   them   here  we  shall  ever 

remember  them  all.     Gratefulness  for  the  good  done  to  us  is  one  of  the 

>;cst  characteristics  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America. 

To  you,  delegates,  and  through  you  to  our  great  membership,  we  cipctat 
our  heartfelt  gratitude  for  the  trust  and  confidence  reposed  in  us.     It  is  an 
honor  and  a  privilege  to  serve  a  movement  so  virile  and  so  imbued  with  the 
of  the  revolutionary  mission  of  the  working  class  of  the  world. 

We  have  fought  and  we  have  won.     Our    success    and    victories    r- 
brought  to  us  greater  tasks  and  heavier  responsibilities,  and  we  have  under- 
taken them  all  with  absolute  confidence  in  our  ultimate  triumph. 

.ts  are  moving  fast.  When  the  war  will  end  the  change 
war  life  to  peace  life  might  come  with  a  jerk  that  will  shake  out  from  their 
moorings  those  who  will  be  caught  unawares.  The  enemies  of  labor  will 
take  advantage  of  the  transition  in  order  to  reduce  labor  to  the  level  of  the 
dark  days  of  old.  Woe  to  those  who  will  find  themselves  unprepared.  The 
now  fills  the  world  with  the  call  to  labor  to  prepare  itself  fully 
and  effectively  for  the  events  that  arc  yet  to  come.  Those  who  will  heed 
this  call  will  be  saved. 

In  obedience  to  our  own  spirit  as  a  progressive  and  militant  organisation; 
in  obedience  to  this  special  call  to  the  proletariat  of  the  world,  and  in 
encc  to  the  general  mission  of  the  working  class,  let  at  reaffirm, 
and  strengthen  our  dctr  ^n  for  a  one  hundred  per  cent  enlightened 

organisation  of  the  Clothing  Workers  of  America. 

On  to  Victory! 



At  the  conclusion  of  his  report,  the  reading  of  which  took  nearly  four  hours,  the 
Secretary  received  an  ovation,  everybody  rifling,  cheering  and  applauding  for  several 

Secretary  SCHLOSSBERG,  rising  in  response  to  the  demonstration,  said:  When 
artists  are  applauded  they  usually  play  or  sing  their  part  over  again.  Do  you  want  me 
to  read  the  report  over  again?  (Laughter.)  I  want  to  add  this  to  the  report.  The 
program  of  the  Inter-Allied  Labor  Conference  and  the  New  Social  Order  of  the 
British  Labor  Party  were  inserted  here  for  the  benefit  of  the  delegates,  so  that  they 
may  be  able  to  read  them  and  familiarize  themselves  with  them.  Unfortunately,  these 
documents,  which  should  have  been  made  most  popular  amongst  the  working  men 
In  this  country,  are  least  known  among  them,  while  non-working  men  know  them 
better  than  the  working  men.  We  have  inserted  them  here  so  that  you  delegates 
really  should  take  the  trouble  and  time  to  read  them.  You  have  heard  a  great  deal 
about  them,  but  have  never  read  them.  I  also  want  to  say  that  the  financial 
will  be  read  at  the  next  session,  and  that  the  General  Executive  Board  will,  no  doubt, 
have  some  recommendations  to  make  as  a  part  of  its  report,  also  at  subsequent  sessions. 

President  HILLMAN:  I  received  a  telegram  yesterday  from  Professor  Ripley 
that  on  account  of  our  strikes  in  Philadelphia  he  could  not  come  here.  Professor 
Ripley,  as  I  explained  before,  is  Chairman  of  the  Board  of  Labor  Standards,  lie  has 
authority  to  decide  in  every  controversy  between  us  and  the  employers  in  the  making 
of  uniforms.  For  the  last  few  days  we  had  a  strike  and  a  lock-out  in  the  city  of 
Philadelphia.  He  had  to  proceed  to  Philadelphia  and  New  York.  He  wired  me  today: 
"Afraid  my  chance  to  address  convention  lost,  as  I  must  go  to  New  England.  Sin< 
Charles  Ripley."  I  am  sorry  that  we  will  not  have  the  opportunity  to  listen  to  him. 

Report  of  Committee  on  Miscellaneous. 
Chairman  William  Drubin  reported  for  the  Committee  on  the  following  resolutions: 


Whereas,  the  co-operative  movement  helps  the  working  people  to  free  themselves 
from  the  exploitation  of  the  capitalist  class; 

Whereas,  such  a  movement  affords  the  workers  an  opportunity  to  become  accus- 
tomed to  manage  industry  for  themselves; 

Resolved,  That  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  go  on  record  as  favoring 
the  co-operative  movement  among  their  members. 

LOCAL  51,  A.  C.  W.  OF  A., 

P.  DeLucca, 
Adopted:  Ulisse  De  Domlnicii. 

WM.  DRUBIN,  Chairman. 

F.  J.  BARTOZ,  Secretary. 

The  committee  recommends  the  adoption  of  this  resolution. 

President  HILLMAN:  You  have  -heard  the  report  of  the  committee.  The  recom- 
mendation is  to  concur  with  the  resolution. 

Delegate  LEVIN.  Brother  Chairman  and  Delegates — Before  you  vote  on  this 
resolution  consider  whether  it  will  benefit  the  working  class  as  a  whole.  The 
co-operative  movement  will  not  relieve  in  any  way  the  working  class.  I  would  like 
those  who  introduced  the  resolution  to  answer  this  question:  Where  the  necessities  of 
life  are  lower,  is  the  working  class  better  off?  I  don't  see  the  importance  of  applying 
the  energy  of  this  organization  In  such  a  direction  where  the  working  class  as  a  whole 
will  not  benefit  by  it.  Therefore,  I  am  opposed  to  this  resolution. 

President  HILLMAN:  I  want  to  make  clear  that  this  resolution  simply  encour- 
ages that  movement  amongst  our  locals,  if  they  desire  to  take  it  up. 

The  resolution  was  adopted  with  one  dissenting  vote. 

RESOLUTION   NO.    7,   BY   LOCAL   63,   NEW   YORK,   ON    HIGH    COST    OF    LIVING. 

Owing  to  the  excessive  and  uncontrolled  cost  of  living,  which,  as  the  Government 
statistics  show,  has  risen  much  higher  than  the  wages  of  the  workers,  be  it  resolved, 
that  this  convention  requests  the  co-operation  of  other  friendly  organizations  for  tht 
purpose  of  curtailing  any  further  increase  in  the  necessities  of  life. 



Be  It  Further  Resolved.  To  urge  ear  sismbsrs  to  start 
order  to  destroy  profiteering  of  the  middleman. 

Be  It  Also  Further  Resolved.  That  the  local  onions  be 
view  of  the  incessant  rising  of  the  cost  of  living,  s  raise  of 
meet  the  necessary  demands  of  life. 

As  to  the  second  clause  of  this  resolutloa. 
mends  that  this  be  done  locally,  not  In  the  name  of 
In  other  words.  It  means  non-concurrence. 

President  HILLMAN:     You  have  heard  the  resolution  read.    The 
la  "non-concurrence."    Are  you  ready  for  the  question? 


'u.s.  it  is  fitting  that  labor  conventions  be  held  in 
population  is  greatly  In  sympathy  with  organised  labor;  aad 

...ess.  the  workers  of  Brownsville  have  built  a  labor  Ijnism.  whldb  to  not 
only  the  pride  of  the  community,  but  also  one  of  the  finest  **^^»*«gT  of  Its  **»d  to 
the  wor  .  ;  and 

oreas,  the  A.  C  W.  of  A.  have  had  a  great  share  In  the  creatloa  aad  mala- 
tenance  of  the  Institution; 

Be  It.  Therefore.  Resolved.  That  the  next  convention  of  me  A.  C    W.  of  A.   be 
held  in  the  Brownsville  Labor  Lyceum. 


WILLIAM  mirwx.  Chairman. 
BARTOZ.  Secretary. 

Presldt  \LAN:     We  advise  the  delegates 

earn  at  to  make  nominations.    We  have  an  order  of 
place  for  the  next  convention  is  on  that  order.     The  coot 
resolution  at  this  time. 

Brother  Rosenblum   will   read   a  communication   from 

Letter  from  the  Rsnd  School. 

Comrades  and  Friends:  On  behalf  of  the  Rand  School  of  Social  Sal  SIM,  aad  by 
instruction  of  Its  Board  of  Directors.  I  send  you  hearty  coagratulalioas  oa  ta*  great 
work  your  union  has  done  within  the  few  years  of  Its  exist  eace.  aad  wish  you  the 
utmost  success  in  the  tasks  that  are  still  before  you. 

We  know  that  the  Amalgamated  offers  a  splendid  example  of  militant  aad 
•tractive  trade  unionism  beosase  its  officers  an 

combine  efficient,  orderly  and  disciplined  action  ta  tae  dally  routine  of 

«t  and  unde 

work  with  a  clearness  of  vision  and  understanding  of  theoretical  principles  which  to 
all  too  rare  in  the  labor  movement  of  this  country.  Ta*  service  you  are  rsaisrtag 
is  not  rendered  to  the  men  and  women  of  the  clothing  Industry  aloas.  but  to  the 
whole  working  class. 

An  important  element  in  your  success  Is  the  fact  that  you  have  always 
the  Importance  of  education  as  aa  essential  pan  of  the  trade  union  work-that  you 
not  been  content  to  get  members  Into  the  organisation,  but  are  always 
make  them  understand  Its  purposes  and  its  needs. 

he  Rand  School  can  be  of  service  to  you  la  promoting  tae  wart  of 
education  among  the  tnassss  of  your  members.  i^jbaU  count  It  a  prlrttege  to  have 

We  should  like  to  call  your  sttentioa  to  the  efforts  the  Raad  School  to  maktat 
in  the  direction  of  a  more  spirlaimtd  aad  thorough  lastruotioa  aad  tralaiag  of 
wage  workern  for  the  purpose  of  equipping  them  for  senrlc*  oa  the  miastllU  as 
well  as  the  political  field  as  organisers,  propagandists,  secretaries,  aad  a  all  etaer 



capacities.  We  shall  be  pleased  if  representatives  of  your  organization  will  confer 
with  us  and  see  if  the  work  can  be  furthered  by  regular  conference  and  co-operation 
between  your  body  and  ours. 

With  repeated  congratulations  and  good  wishes,  I  am, 

Fraternally  yours, 

Educational  Director. 

President  HILLMAN:  If  there  is  no  objection,  we  may  refer  this  to  the  Committee 
on  Education  to  brine  in  a  recommendation  to  this  convention. 

Secretary  8CHLO66BERG:  There  is  a  letter  here  from  the  Kropotkln  Publication 
Society.  This  is  an  organization  that  has  made  It  its  purpose  to  publish  in  Yiddish, 
Socialist  and  revolutionary  classics  from  different  languages.  They  addressed  a 
communication  to  this  convention. 

(Secretary  Schlossberg  read  the  following  English  translation  from  the  Yiddish:) 

"New  York,  May  14,  1918. 

"To  the  Third  Convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America, 

"Baltimore,  Md. 

Tellow  Workers:  It  is  now  six  years  since  the  Kropotkin  Literature  Society 
has  been  circulating  Yiddish  Socialist  education  among  the  Jewish  laboring  masses. 
We  issue  two  large  books  a  year — two  Socialist  classic  works  translated  into  Yiddish. 
Last  year  we  published  two  large  parts  of  the  greateet  work  of  Karl  Marx,  'Capital,' 
and  are  now  in  the  process  of  publishing  the  third  and  last  part.  The  society  is 
publishing  those  books,  not  for  the  puipose  of  making  profits.  Most  of  the  work 
is  being  done  without  compensation,  as  is  amply  proven  by  the  fact  that  we  have 
published  eight  large  volumes,  though  we  had  no  funds. 

"We  ask  you,  a  great  Jewish  labor  organization,  to  recognize  our  work  and  to  find 
ways  and  means  to  enable  us  to  serve  more  directly  the  educational  needs  of  yonr 
great  body. 

"We  greet  your  efforts  and  wish  you  success. 

"For  the  Executive  Committee. 

"DR.  1.  J.  A.  MARYSON,  Treasurer." 

Brother  Rosenblum  read  the  following  communications: 

Rochester,  N.  Y.,  May  15,   1918. 

On  behalf  of  the  Italian  Local  of  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  I  wish  most  ardently  that 
the  convention  will  find  ways  and  means  to  deal  with  the  industrial  oppression  in 
this  city.  May  our  freedom  rise  from  the  ruins  of  the  present  slavery.  We  send  our 
fraternal  wishes  to  all  the  delegates. 

G.  Artoni,  Organizer. 

Baltimore.  Md.,  May  16,  1918. 

Congratulations  and  best  wishes.  May  the  work  of  the  convention  result  in 
your  building  a  still  better  and  stronger  organization. 

Boston,   Mass.,    May   15,   1918. 

Brothers,  accept  our  congratulations.  Your  record  of  achievements  is  the  pride 
of  the  Jewish  labor  movement.  We  are  proud  to  have  your  locals  affiliated  with  ••. 
Best  wishes  on  the  road  to  success. 


M.  Hamlin,  Secretary. 

New  York,  N.  Y.,  May  15,  1918. 

We,  th«  chairmen  of  L.  Barash's  district,  greet  the  delegates  to  this  convention. 
We  rejoice  in  the  great  achievements  of  our  organization.  We  hope  that  in  time  the 



entire   labor 
Only  then  can  we 
and  hope  yon  will 
success,  such  as  short 
should  make  tbe 

nentr-higber.   higher,  higher! 
of  Arnt-r 

LEON  BARABH.  I.  WE1TZ.  U    Ml  MCH.  N.  WOLF.  II. 
A.  flABEI.ER.  N  OLUN8KY.  8   RUDOLF.  ft. 

t'ERLASF.  H.  BLUM.  J.  NEEDLE.  M.  HUDB8. 

Now  York.  N.  Y .  May  U.  till. 

u      Hugo*,  car*  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America. 

Garden  Theatre,  Baltimore.  M 

Take  my  place.     Greeting  convention  heartily  in  behalf  of 
my    regret*.      Sickness.      "Forward"    admires    splendid 
growth  of  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers.    Pledge  snj 
and  devotion. 

New  Yor  May  U.  l»ll. 

Greeting*  and  best  wishes  to  tbe  officer*  and  ilslsgife*     May  the 
the  men's  clothing  worker*  united  In  one  organisation  within  the  fold  of  the 
of  Labor. 

International   Ladies*   Garment   Workers' 

Now  York.  N.  Y .  May  IS.  111! 

Congratulations.     Beat  wisbea  to  your  convention.     May  yow  fighting  sptrtt 
your  great  cause  bring  greater  bappinea*  for  yoor  snssibor*.     1%e 
Good*  Worker*  will  never  forget  tbe  great  aid  and  ssslstaaoa  rendered  to  o*Jr  nlom 
in  the  time  of  need  by  tbe  Amalgamated  Clothing  Worker*  of  America. 


Report  of  the  Resolutions  Committee. 
Delegate  PAUL  ARNONB  reported  for  tbe  resolution* 

Whereas,  tbe  percentage  system  in  making  iStfltaeajti  U  a 
tow  paid  workers,  bo  a  re*olved.  that  this   convention  goo*  on 
that  when  *ettlement*  are  made  with  employers  the  poroeejtago  rate  of 
bo  abolished  and  tbe  Increase  snail  be  on  equal  basis  to  all 
Tbe  committee  reonenmend  Hie  adoption  of  this  resolution  a* 
President  HILLMAN:  The  committee  rinn»MiM<li  •oncurrenrw  with  the 

What  is  your  pleasure. 

Delegate  ZORN:     What  does  it  mean? 

President  HILLMAN:  It  means  that  tf  It  Is  a  $2  Increase  for  the  shop  as  a 
whole.  It  should  not  be  a  $1.60  Increase  for  the  $16  man  and  $160  for  tbe  $»  BBS*. 
That  Is  the  sense  of  this  resolution.  As  the 
now.  the  workers  who  received  more  motjey  got  a 
The  resolution  roads  that  Is  the  sense  of  this 
ofloers  and  the  local  officers  to  co-operate  la  that 
are  arranged  for  they  should  be  given  In  the 

Delegate  ZORN:     I  believe  that  tbe  experience  In  this 
question  can  only  bo  sol  red  by  having  a  mini 
will  be  lost  Just  the  same,  for  the  reason  thi 
care  of  himself  and  the  km  wage  man  Is  always  at  the 
heard  of  a  resolution  with  roforosjos  to  a  minim  on  wage.    We 
setts.    There  1*  a  minimum  wage  law  IB  that  Stats 

President  HILLMAN:     May  I  segaost  to  the 
do  with  the  resolution. 

Delegate  ZORN:     I  know,  but  If  we  adopt  the  resolstlosx  lot  »s  s4opt  It  *%ly  If 



it  can  be  carried  out.  In  my  own  personal  experience  it  did  not  work.  Perhaps  in 
the  future  it  will  work  better,  but  the  minimum  wage 

President  HILLMAN:  The  minimum  wage  has  not  been  reported  on  as  yet.  The 
delegate  will  speak  on  that  when  that  resolution  comes  up. 

Delegate  KROLL,  of  Local  61:  Might  I  give  the  brother  some  information  on 
that  proposition?  We  received  a  percentage  Increase  now  in  the  cutting  and  trimming 
trade.  Our  Local  61  fcas  got  that  percentage  increase  and  we  have  figured  what 
the  average  wage  was,  and  every  man  in  that  cutting  and  trimming  room  received 
the  same  amount  Our  last  increase  was  $3.  Everybody  in  the  shop  got  the  same 
increase.  And  to  my  way  of  thinking,  it  is  the  best  system  that  we  could  possibly 
devise,  because  after  all  when  there  is  a  flat  percentage  increase  some  men  get 
$4.60  and  others  get  80  cents.  I  think,  as  a  labor  organization  this  is  the  most 
vicious  system  we  could  inaugurate,  because  we  are  building  capitalists  in  our  own 
ranks.  I  think:  that  resolution  should  be  adopted,  and  we  Should  make  every  effort  to 
put  it  into  effect  (Applause.) 

Delegate  YELLOWITZ:  I  would  like  to  ask  the  Chair,  first  of  all,  whether  this 
resolution  applies  to  piece  work  or  to  week  work. 

President  HILLMAN:     Piece  work  and  week  work. 

Delegate  YDLLOWITZ:  Well,  this  resolution  may  seem  to  be  very  good  and 
justified.  I  believe  it  will  be  impossible  to  carry  it  through,  for  the  simple  reason 
that  our  work  is  sectionalized.  You  may  find  two  people  working  side  by  side  at 
the  same  section,  one  earning,  let  us  say,  $20  a  week,  the  next  one  earning  $36, 
making  the  same  kind  of  work.  Now,  how  can  you  go  to  work  and  divide  an  increase 
on  an  equal  basis?  This  man  may  leave  the  shop  today  and  a  faster  man  will  come 
up  tomorrow.  How  are  you  going  to  do  it?  You  will  make  it  so  that  the  slower 
man  will  have  to  get  a  higher  price  than  the  faster  man  will  get.  As  far  as  the  week 
work  system  is  concerned,  it  is  a  very  good  thing.  It  can  be  accomplished.  But  as 
far  as  the  piece  work  system  is  concerned,  it  will  make  it  impossible  to  accomplish 
that.  I  believe  that  with  regard  to  the  piece  system  this  should  be  left  to  the  local 
unions  or  to  the  executive  board,  so  that  the  lower  part  should  not  be  discriminated 
against  as  far  as  an  equal  division  is  concerned  of  increases,  which  will  make  it 
impossible  for  one  man  working  at  the  same  part  right  next  to  the  other  man,  to  earn 
$10  and  $15  a  week  more. 

Delegate  VASTANO:  From  the  experience  that  I  have  had  In  the  shop,  I  am 
able  to  say  that  every  time  that  there  is  an  increase  we  are  put  in  the  position  of 
bargaining,  as  much  as  we  can,  for  the  piece  workers.  I  say  that  when  an  increase 
comes  up,  and  we  place  an  increase  on  the  basis  of  10  per  cent,  as  our  brother  out- 
lined to  you,  we  have  very  much  difficulty  in  settling  a  price  and  satisfying  every 
one.  On  the  other  hand,  in  some  cases  we  are  put  in  the  position  of  accepting  a 
certain  amount  on  the  garment,  and  then  we  are  confronted  with  the  proposition 
of  bargaining  with  the  contractors.  I  believe  the  remedy  for  this  evil  would  be 
that  each  and  every  one  in  the  industry,  regardless  of  his  output,  should  get  the  same 
amount  of  Increase.  If  there  is  an  increase  of  $1,  let  each  and  every  one  get  an 
Increase  of  $1,  regardless  of  whether  they  are  working  piece  work  or  week  work. 

Pelegate  JACOBSON:     Previous  question,  Mr.  Chairman. 

i  Delegate  I  of  Rochester:  A  point  of  information:  I  would  like  to  ask 

the  Chair,  since  he  has  had  the  experience  on  mediation  boards,  whether  this  will 
not  be  used  by  the  manufacturer  as  a  means  of  lowering  the  percentage,  as  heretofore 
the  higher  paid  man  received  a  larger  amount  than  $2  or  $3,  and  the  consequence 
will  be 

President  HILLMAN:  Is  this  a  point  of  information  or  a  speech?  Which  is  it? 
I  will  also  take  the  opportunity  to  make  a  speech  in  answering  your  point  of 

Delegate  BECKERMAN:  A  point  of  information:  Will  this  establishing  equal 
increases  mean  no  larger  increases  for  the  higher-priced  man? 

President  HILLMAN:  The  sense  of  this  resolution  is  that  whatever  increase 
we  may  be  able  to  receive,  and  that  depends  on  the  strength  of  the  organization, 
should  be  equalized  so  that  the  lower-priced  man  should  not  be  at  a  disadvantage, 
which  he  always  has  been.  I  wish  you  also  to  understand  that  this  does  not  become 
part  of  our  constitution.  It  is  an  instruction  from  the  convention  to  the  officers  to 
use  their  efforts  in  that  direction.  It  does  not  become  part  of  the  constitution. 

Delegate  ARNONE:  Brother  Chairman  and  Delegates— The  committee  found 
that  most  of  the  trouble  happens  wherever  there  Is  piece  work.  I  remember  a  case 



•way  back  la  1912.    The  nun  offered  7  per  eeat  sacreaae.    Now  Imagine— the  peoato 
who  made  110  got  70  cents,  and  those  who  made  $20  »  week  got  $L40.    No* 
settlement  is  mad.  r  everybody  to  the  factory  that  is  all  well  and  food.    We 

do  away  wife  the  percentage  to  creases  to  such  a  way.  so  that  the  man  receiving  the 
low  wages  receives  the  same  Increase  as  the  man  receiving  the  niche 
(President  HUsmaa  put  the  resolution  to  a  vote  aad  It  waa  carried.) 

>U   ii"\   NO.  36.  BY  LOCAL  21ft.  ON  A  SCALE  OF  WAGES. 

Whereas,  we.  the  hasters  aad  tailors  of  Local  lift,  affiliated  with  the  New  York 
Joint  Board  of  n  have  made  every  effort  to  uphold  the 

It  is  nevertheless  beyond  our  power  to  maintain  the 
Whereas,  a  minimum  scale  of  wages  will  relieve  ehe  serious 
paid  labor,  he  It  therefore 

Resolved.  That  the  Third  Convention  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  Is  hereby 
to  establish  a  minimum  scale  of  wages. 

LOCAL  21S. 
Amalgams  ted  Clothing  Workers  of 

The  committee  recommends  to  refer  the  same  to  the  General 
for  investigation  and  consideration. 

President  H1LLMAN:    The  motion  is  that  this  matter  be  referred  to  the 
O.  E.  B.  for  Investigation  and  consideration  of  the  matter.     You  all  heard  the 
Are  you  ready  for  the  question? 

This  resolution  was  unanimously  adopted. 


Whereas,  our  fellow  workers  of  Italian  origin  have  now  reached  a  stafu  of 
industrial  organization  that  has  made  them  a  strong  **d  riniptiHii  factor  In  the 
labor  movement  of  this  country;  and 

Whereas.  In  order  to  better  carry  on  their  propaganda  among  the  two  DitllteE 
working  men  and   working   women   who  speak  the   Italian   language   aad   are  still 
unorganised,  and.  therefore,  a  great  menace  to  the  welfare  and  future  of  the 
masses,  they  are  now  about  to  start  a  dally  paper  which  shall  be  the 
mouthpiece  of  the  hopes  and  aspirations  of  the  working  class  and  shall 
ultimate  emancipation  from  wage  slavery; 

Be  It.  Therefore.  Resolved.  That  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 
in  convention  assembled,  hereby  endorses  this  Initiative  of  our  Italian  workers 
pledges  its  moral  and  material  support  to  the  establishment  of  such  a 
and  calls  upon  all  labor  organizations  to  do  likewise, 



D.  Dl  NARDO. 
Italian  Ttalantlon  of  New  York. 

The  committee  recommends  that  the  resolution  be 

President  HILLMAN:     You  have  heard  the   ••••lilliii   of  the 

Committee.    Are  you  ready  for  the  question? 
This  resolution  was  unanimously  carried. 


Whereas,  it  Is  a  proven  tact  that  political  power  when  to  the  bands  of  the 
class  Is  a  strong  weapon  to  the  struggle  against  capitalism,  and 

Whereas,  Socialist  victories  at  the  polls  have  given  new  courage  aad 
to  the  working  class  for  Socialism,  be  It 


Resolved,  That  this  convention  urge  Its  local  unions  throughout  the  country  to 
work,  support  and  vote  for  the  candidates  of  the  Socialist  party  in  the  coming  State 
and  Congressional  elections.  r 

LOCAL  63,  A.  C.  W.  OF  A. 
Paul  Arnone, 
B.    Romano, 
O.   Vaatano, 
A.  Bellanca, 
D.  Dl  Nardo. 
"*Mf*-%»      +**&*^^^-Jt  nMt&£ypfUi& 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence  in  this  resolution  and  moves  its  adoption. 
This  resolution  was  unanimously  carried. 


Whereas,  there  are  two  labor  leaders  in  San  Francisco  in  jail,  Thomas  Mooney, 
sentenced  to  die,  and  Warren  K.  Hillings,  sentenced  to  life  imprisonment,  for  crimes 
they  never  committed,  and 

Whereas,  it  will  be  one  of  the  greatest  blows  to  organized  labor  in  America  if 
both  these  sentences  should  be  carried  out,  and 

Whereas,  such  an  act  of  injustice  has  already  been  committed  by  hanging  four 
labor  leaders  in  Chicago  many  years  ago,  therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  That  this  convention  ask  for  a  new  trial  for  Mooney  and  Billings,  so 
that  they  may  have  a  chance  to  prove  their  innocence. 

H.  TAYLOR,  LOCAL  142. 

Committee  recommends  its  adoption,  and  that  telegrams  be  sent  to  President 
Wilson,  the  Governor  of  California,  Tom  Mooney  and  Warren  K.  Billings. 

President  HILLMAN:  You  heard  the  recommendation  of  the  Committee  and  the 
motion  for  its  adoption.  Are  you  ready  for  the  question? 

Secretary  SCHLOSSBERG:  Mr.  Chairman  and  Delegates — The  remarks  I  want 
to  make  now  are  not  so  much  for  the  purpose  of  informing  those  who  are  here — I 
know  that  you  are  all  familiar  with  the  Mooney  case — but  for  the  purpose  of  having 
this  go  on  our  record,  so  that  if  any  one  should  have  occasion  to  run  across  it  in  the 
future,  let  him  know  our  true  feelings  in  the  matter.  The  Mooney  case  is  different 
from  all  other  such  cases  in  at  least  this  one  respect.  There  have  been  many  cases 
that  are  usually  called  labor  cases — charges  against  representatives  of  the  labor 
movement,  and  attempts  by  the  representatives  of  capitalism,  either  to  imprison 
them  for  a  long  time  or  to  bring  them  on  the  gallows.  But  this  is  the  first  time 
where  the  innocence  of  the  people  involved  has  been  proven  so  conclusively,  and 
the  attempt  of  the  conspirators  to  secure  their  conviction  by  all  possible  means,  not 
stopping  at  perjury  or  anything  else,  has  likewise  been  proven  so  conclusively  that 
we  have  prominent  men  in  this  country,  not  connected  with  the  labor  movement, 
raising  their  voices  in  behalf  of  these  people.  And  we  have  this  peculiar  situation: 
The  President  of  the  United  States  intercedes  in  behalf  of  Mooney,  sends  a  telegram 
to  the  California  Governor,  urging  a  new  trial  for  him,  and  lends  his  support — the 
full  support  of  his  great  prestige — to  a  committee  that  has  made  a  special  investiga- 
tion upon  his  order,  and  that  committee's  report  shows  that  there  was  a  foul 
conspiracy  carried  out  against  Mooney  and  his  colleagues.  And  we  have,  on  the  other 
hand,  that  disgraceful  spectacle  of  fourteen  official  representatives  of  organized  labor 
In  that  very  city  publicly  and  officially  giving  their  support  to  Prosecuting  Attorney 
Fickert  in  a  campaign  for  his  recall.  It  was  with  the  support  of  these  traitors  to 
organized  labor  that  Fickert  won  out  in  the  recall  election  at  the  time  that  Mooney 
and  the  others  are  struggling  for  their  lives.  We  (have  the  shameful  demonstration 
of  the  helplessness  of  the  labor  movement  in  this  country,  that  when  the  President 
of  the  United  States  raises  his  voice  and  he  says  that  "Mooney  is  innocent,  and  I 
lend  the  power  of  my  prestige  to  ask  for  him  a  new  trial  so  that  he  may  go  free 
because  of  his  Innocence,"  official  representatives  of  the  labor  movement  call  upon 
the  workingmen  In  that  very  city  to  stand  by  the  man  who  was  battling  to  bring 
them  on  the  gallows  and  they  won  out.  It  is  not  only  a  case  where  we  have  to  stand 
by  men  and  women  of  our  own  class — to  stand  by  them  and  defend  them  against  any 
attempt  that  might  be  made  upon  their  liberties  or  their  lives,  but  it  is  a  case  where 
we  have  to  make  the  demonstration  as  great,  as  strong,  as  powerful,  as  impressive  as 
possible,  so  that  those  traitors  may  be  held  up  to  the  condemnation  of  the  working 



class  and  that  the  liberation  of  Moo 0*7  should  not  to  only  the  liberation  of  ihat  one 
human  being  and  the  others  who  are  with  him  la  jail  la  San  FrancUco.  but  that  It 

should  at  the  same  time  also  to  a  vindication  of  the  intelligence  of  the  workings  clans, 
repudiating  the  traitors,  and  holding  them  up  to  the  condemnation  and  ridicule  of  the 
working  claas  of  today  and  of  the  working  class  that  is  to  come.  And  let  this  Union 
stratlon  also  to  one  of  the  great  factors  which  will,  in  tto  very  near  future,  acsjsm 
the  emancipation  of  the  American  labor  movement  from  all  the  traitors,  from  all 
the  enemies  within  who  are  now  holding  the  labor  movement  under  their 
(Great  applause.) 

President  H1LLMAN:     Are  there  any  further  remarks?     Ton  heard  the  r 
mendation  of  the  committee. 

This  recommendation  was  unanimously  carried. 

Be  It  resolved  that  this  convention  orders  the 
to  initiate  a  movement  to  form  a  needle  trades)  department  in  the 

•:»at  the  International  Ladles'  Garment  Workers'  Union,  the  Journeymen  Tailors' 
Union,  the  Cap  Makers'  Union  and  the  Furriers'  International  Union  to  Invited  to 

It  is  the  experience  of  every  organiser  when  to  goes  for  organisation  work  In 
cities  where  there  Is  no  organisation,  that  lack  of  co-operation,  on  tto  part  of  tto 
above-mentioned  International  Unions,  makes  It  much  more  difficult  to  bring  the 
tailors  Into  the  union;  therefore,  if  a  needle  trade  department  would  to  sstshllsnsd 
not  only  would  we  have  a  100  per  cent  organization,  but  we  would  get  better  results, 
and  by  doing  so  we  would  establish  one  big  Industrial  union  in  the  garment  Industry 
•ie  United  States  and  Canada. 




The  committee  recommends  that  this  matter  to  referred  to  the  Incoming  O.  EL  & 


Delegate  RIGER:     Brother  Chairman  and  Delegates— I  believe  that  a  resolution  of 
such  great  Importance  should  to  accepted  by  the  convention   without  referring 
the  General  Executive  Board.    Even  if  this  resolution  Is  never  to  to  put  In  practice, 
let   the  outside   world   know   that   the   Amalgamated   Clothing   Workers  of    America 
believes  in  industrial  unionism,  and  Is  ready  to  practice  It 

Delegate  RABINOWITZ:     If  this  resolution  la  adopted  here,  will  that  mean   It 
Is  adopted  In  principle  and  sent  to  the  General  Executive  Board  for  action? 

President  HILLMAN:  The  resolution,  aa  it  reads,  mentions  tto  names  of  the 
organizations  which  are  connected  with  the  American  Federation  of  Labor.  The 
recommendation  Is  that  this  whole  matter  to  referred  to  the  General  Exec 
Board.  I  wish  to  say  for  the  benefit  of  Che  delegates  that  we  have  time  and 
gone  on  record  In  favor  of  a  needle  trades  organisation.  Not  only  that,  wo 
made  an  attempt  in  that  direction  which,  unfortunately,  failed. 

The  committee  recommends  that  this  matter  to  referred  to  the 
Executive  Board.    Any  further  remarks? 

Delegate   RABINOWITZ:      I   move   to   amend   that   we   adopt   tto 
principle  and  refer  It  to  the  General  Executive  Board  for  action. 

This  was  seconded. 

amendment  is  more  satisfactory  than  the  actual  recommendation  of  the  inmmlUss 

Of  course,  it  takes  more  than  one  party  to  strike  a  bargain-  Whst  I  mean  to  say  i 
that  this  convention  should  go  on  record  as  favoring  a  needle  trade  organisation.  I 
believe  that  that  In  itself  will  create  somewhat  of  a  sentiment  and  the  ••sttmsni  may 
develop  Into  something  concrete.  The  tact  la.  that  tto  only  thing  that  Interferes  with 
a  proposition  of  this  kind  is  something  that  is  entirely  artificial,  and  that  Is  the  tact 
that  those  organizations  sre  affiliated  with  the  A.  F  .of  U  But  I  believe  it  m 
advisable  for  this  convention  to  go  on  record  favoring  this  At  least  lot  me 
something.  Let  us  initiate  this.  For  this  reason  I  support  the 



go  on  record  favoring  the  idea  and  leave  it  to  the  G.  B.  B,  if  they  see  any  possible 
way  of  carrying  the  thing  through.  (Applause.) 

Delegate  GOODMAN,  of  Local  No.  2:     I  am  in  favor  of  It. 

Delegate  ARNONE:  I  want  to  inform  you  that  the  Resolutions  Committee  favors 
the  proposition  in  principle,  and  the  reason  why  we  refer  it  to  the  Gen  utive 

Board  is  that  we  believed  that  some  time  in  the  near  future  the  other  organizations 
may  also  take  up  this  matter.  This  is  the  opinion  of  the  committee.  And  I  don't 
see  the  necessity  of  the  amendment  at  all.  The  moment  you  endorse  the  resolution 
iidorse  the  principle  of  one  industrial  union  in  the  needle  industry.  That  is  the 
war  I  understand  it 

President  HILLMAN:  We  have  already  endorsed  the  needle  trades'  organization 
time  and  again.  The  resolution  itself  would  not  carry  the  meaning  that  we  reaffirm 
it  at  this  convention.  The  amendment  reaffirms  and  instructs  the  G.  E.  B.  to  act 

The  amendment  was  unanimously  carried. 


Whereas,  new  machinery  is  being  introduced  in  our  Industry  more  rapidly  now 
than  ever  before,  and 

Whereas,  the  introduction  of  this  new  machinery  id  increasing  the  unemployment 
among  our  members,  thereby  causing  severe  suffering  to  them  and  also  to  our 
organization,  therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  That  this  Third  Biennial  Convention  goes  on  record  in  favor  of  reducing 
the  hours  of  labor  in  proportion  with  the  introduction  of  such  new  machinery.  If 
the  Introduction  of  this  new  machinery  will  only  apply  to  one  particular  branch  of 
the  trade  the  hours  of  labor  for  that  particular  branch  of  the  trade  should  be  reduced 
proportionately,  thereby  safeguarding  our  members  from  lack  of  work. 

LOCAL  3,  A.  C.  W.  OF  A. 

Alex  Cohen, 
S.  Weinstein, 
M.  Goldstein, 
C.  Revayel, 
L.  Necrenburg. 

(This  was  received  with  great  applause.) 

Delegate  GOODMAN:     Brother  President,   may   I  make  a  correction.     We   have 
Introduced  a  resolution  calling  for  a  forty-four-hour  week,  which  was  brought  in  from 
Local  2,  and  the  committee  has  not  reported  on  that. 
President  HILLMAN:     You  may  get  it  later. 

Delegate  REVAYEL:     Do  I  understand  that  the  committee  recommends  that  the 
hours  should  be  reduced  to  44  hours  for  the  machinery  workers  as  well? 
Chairman  of  Committee:     Yes. 

Delegate  REVAYEL:  Brother  President  and  Delegates:  I  am  in  full  accord  that 
the  reduction  of  hours  is  a  desirable  thing,  but  the  question  of  machinery  is  a  different 
proposition  entirely.  As  you  all  know,  there  is  a  pressing  machine  by  which  one  man 
does  the  work  of  four.  There  is  a  cutting  machine  whereby1  three  or  four  cutters 
are  replaced  by  one.  There  is  also  a  basting  machine  that  takes  away  work  from  four 
Now,  if  this  would  be  a  question  of  only  the  reduction  of  four  hours  I  don't  think 
this  would  solve  the  problem.  Therefore  I  appeal  to  the  delegates  that  this 

of  machinery  be  taken  separately.    (Applause.) 
Delegate  FRIEDMAN:     I  am  asked  by  the  delegates  of  the  cutters  to  explain  to 
this  convention  why  the  cutters  did  not  put  in  resolutions  for  the  44  hour  week. 

President  HILLMAN:  That  is  not  the  subject  for  discussion  at  this  time. 
(Laughter.)  Are  you  for  or  against  this  resolution? 

Delegate  FRIEDMAN:     We  are  in  favor  of  this  resolution. 

Delegate  RABINOWITZ,  of  Local  144:  I  am  in  favor  of  the  resolution  as  read  that 
the  44  hour  week  be  accepted.  If  it  is  a  question  of  machinery,  I  fortunately  or  unfor- 
tunately happen  to  be  a  machine  presser  myself,  and  I  know  from  experience  with  the 
pressers  that  although  we  have  a  48  hour  week,  we  have  never  worked  48  hours  BO  far. 
We  always  work  less  than  that.  I  believe  that  this  organization  should  see  to  it  that 
the  people  in  the  trade  make  a  living.  I  believe  that  this  resolution  should  be  adopted 
without  making  any  distinction  whether  it  is  pressers,  cutters  or  others. 



Delegate  BBCKERMAN*  i  cannot  understand  the  logic  of  any  deieciie  who  tries 
to  separate  the  reduction  of  hoars  and  says  that  the  introduction  of  machinery  Is  a 
different  question.  iulte  agree  with  any  delegate  that  if  setae  machine  was 

introduced  that  makes  it  possible  to  do  the  work  four  limes  as  fast,  that  If  you  oouid 
possibly  do  It.  reduce  the  hour,  to  one^uarter  and  establish  the  11  hour  week  and 
keep  up  with  It  (laughter  and  applau**)  But  unfortunately  it  Is  not  quite  ss  easy  to 
Cet  It  as  It  Is  to  say  It  on  the  floor.  And  that  Is  the  only  reason  why  I  disagree 
the  delegates  who  believe  that  machinery  Is  a  different  proposition.  In  fact  we  have 
not  an  yet  Kot  cut,  44  hour  »~k  Ana  i  brllevc  it  »a»  made  very  pl»m  by  ih* 

that  before  you  can  get  the  44  hours  you  have  got  to  work  up  an  education  Cor  U.    Yo» 
have  got  to  prepare  the  minds  of  the  members  and  of  the  public  and  then  pr 

thi rmfnds1  of PthTmanufacturer».    1  believe  if  this  convention  goes  on  record  for  the 
••ek  we  are  making  aplsodid  progress.    Let  us  try  to 

there  is  a  possibility  of  putting  them  Into  affect,  and  not  merely  pass  resolutions  for 

the  pleasure  of  patting  resolution!.    1  say  that  the  44  hour  week  It  a  goal  for  which 
we  ought  to  work,  and  1  think  that  when  we  reach  the  convention  two  years  ~ 
now  we  will  have  the  44  hour  week  In  our  trade.     (Applause.) 

Delegate  NEWMAN  of  Local  No.  40:  1  would  like  to  address  the  convention  in 

President  HI  LI-MAN  1  am  sorry,  but  it  against  the  rules,  you  will  have  to 
apeak  In  English. 

'legate  Newman   expreased   himself   In   favor  of   considering   this   machinery 
proposition  separately.) 

President  mi.UMAN:  Even  if  you  have  not  convinced  me  on  that  question,  yen 
have  convinced  me  that  you  can  express  yourself  In  English. 

Delegate  IS-  We  took  into  consideration  the  fact  that  If  we  shorten  the 

hours  that  would  mean  more  employment  for  other  people.    The  less  hours  we 
the  more  work  there  will  be  for  the  people.    Our  organisation  Is  In  favor  of 
Give  us  all  the  machinery  that  Is  possible  and  we  are  going  to  shorten  our 

Delegate   WISE:      Mr.   Chairman   and   Brothers— A    brother   who   works   on   the 
ne  says  he  Is  fortunately  or  unfortunately  a  presser.  and  he  has  not  felt  that 
the  machine  has  done  us  any  harm. 

1LLMAN  Let  me  explain  to  you  what  he  said.  Us  said  that  since 
he  has  been  working  on  the  machine  he  never  worked  forty-eight  hours  In  a  weak; 
that  he  Is  working  thirty  hours,  but  the  price  is  fixed  so  that  he  makes  In  thirty 
hours  what  he  would  have  otherwise  made  In  48  hours. 

Delegate  WISE:  I  am  coming  to  that.  1  understand  that.  He  said  that  he  never 
works  48  hours  and  Is  making  a  nice  living  by  the  machine  in  30.  and  he  did  not 
feel  any  harm  from  the  machine.  But  I  say  it  Is  very  unfortunate  for  the  fioalt  who 
are  kept  out  of  a  job  by  the  machine,  even  If  he  works  only  30  hours.  You  have  three 
pressers  put  out  of  work,  as  the  machine  does  the  work  of  four  men.  We  nave  many 
people  who  are  starving  on  account  of  the  machine.  And  I  say  we  ought  to  accept 
that  resolution  separately  and  see  what  we  can  do  with  that  particular  branch  of  the 
machinery-  We  have  machines  that  are  throwing  out  of  work  three-quarters  of  the 
pressers.  For  that  reason,  i  say,  we  ought  to  accept  that  resolution  separately. 

Delegate  DE  LUC  A:     1  believe  that  the  question  of  the  machine  is  not  put  in  a 
proper  light  by  the  resolution.    Reducing  the  hours  where  machines  are 
places  of  the  men.  and  especially  on  the  pressing  machines.  I  think  should  be 
as  a  separate  question.    1  am  in  favor  of  the  resolution  as  brought  in. 

Delegate  WBIN8TB1N:    We  hare  here  two  resol 
ence  to  the  44  hour  week  and  the  other  is  the  machl 
a  separate  question.    The  44  hour  week  is  a  good  tiling 
for  the  workingmen.     In  the  uniform  shops  we  have  five  L 

a  day.  which  Is  enough  -0  pressers.    That  Is  a  separate"  ^ 

move  to  amend  that  this  question  should  be  put  separately,  the  44  hours  separate  and 
the  machinery  separate. 

President  IULLMAN:     If  there  Is  no  objection,  we  wfll   simply  take  out  that 

Particular  resolution  which  has  bean  given  la  by  the  pressers  of  Local  S.     We  wfll 

?nn      lxe  2lher  r**01111101*  ^  connection  with  the  44  hour  week.    I  will  send 

resolution  back  to  the  committee  on  resolutions   to 


Resolutions  on  the  44  Hour  Week. 

The  following  are  the  resolutions  submitted  by  the  various  delegations  on  the  44 
hour  week: 


Whereas,    this   new    machinery   and    new   speeding    up    methods    of    production 

unemployment,  be  it 

Resolved,  that  this  convention  goes  on  record  to  start  a  campaign  for  the  establish- 
of  a  forty-four  hour  working  week. 

Joe  Goodman,  Chairman, 
Harry  Schypps,  Secretary. 


Whereas,  the  44-hour  week  has  already  been  established  in  one  part  of  the  country 
by  our  organization,  and  whereas  new  development  in  machinery  and  new  system  of 
production  shorten  the  season  in  the  industry  and  speed  up  the  wage  workers  In  the 
shop;  be  it 

Resolved,  that  this  convention  goes  on  record  to  begin  a  general  agitation  and 
legislate  a  44-hour  week  for  the  clothing  workers  In  the  United  States  and  Canada. 




Whereas,  the  conditions  in  the  children's  clothing  trades  have  reached  a  point 
where,  in  order  to  safeguard  the  health  of  the  workers,  it  is  most  essential  to  shorten 
the  working  hours;  and 

Whereas,  the  system  of  the  so-called  "section-work"  has  developed  to  such  an 
extent  that  the  worker  is  compelled  to  keep  pace  with  a  breakneck  speed;  and 

Whereas,  the  worker  must  bend  all  the  energy  within  him  to  keep  up  this 
impossible  pace  thus  undermining  his  health;  and 

Whereas,  a  statistical  investigation  plainly  proves  that  a  large  number  of  our 
members  are  afflicted  with  tuberculosis,  the  dread  disease  which  is  caused  by  this 
Inhuman  overwork;  be  it,  therefore, 

Resolved,  that  a  shorter  workday  be  established  and  that  44  hours  constitute  a 
working  week. 

RESOLUTION  NO.  4,  BY  LOCALS  16,   186  AND  262,  NEW  YORK  CITY. 

Whereas,  the  introduction  of  new  machinery  in  the  clothing  industry  is  being 
made  very  rapidly,  and 

Whereas,  through  the  introduction  of  this  machinery  an  artificial  unemployment 
of  our  members  and  the  workers  in  the  industry  is  being  created,  be  it 

Resolved,  that  this  convention  goes  on  record  to  work  for  the  establishment  of  a 
44-hour  week  and  instruct  the  General  Executive  Board  to  bring  same  into  life  by 
presenting  this  demand  to  all  the  clothing  centers  in  the  Industry. 



Be  it  resolved  that  this  convention  goes  on  record  in  favor  of  establishing 
44  hours  a  week  work  in  the  clothing  industry,  and  that  a  general  agitation  be  started 
at  once  throughout  the  country. 

180  • 

reason  that  we  want  to  reduce  the  boors  to  44  a  week  in  order 
employed,  not  so  much  because  we  want  to  shorten  the  hours  of 
•  more  time  to  go  around  Idle,  but  1  claim  that  under  the  ssotloi 
he  new  machinery,  the  worker  most  speed  up  in  order  to  keep 
vorkers  alongside  of  him  working  at  a  high  speed  That  must 


In  place  of  all  resolutions  bearing  on  the 
the  following: 

"Be  it  resolved  that  this  convention 
week  and  that  the  General  Executive  Board  start  an 

Delegate  MARC<  •  1  favor  the  reoommeiulsMoa  of  the 

not  so  much  for  the  reason  that  we  want  to  reduce  the  hours  to  44  a  week  to 
to  have  more  people 
labor  in  order  to  have 
system  today,  with  the 
up  with  his  fellow  workers 

affect  the  health  of  the  workers.  At  the  convention  la  Rooaseter  we  adopted  the  48- 
hour  week.  We  were  not  convinced  then  as  we  are  today  that  we  could  put  It  Into 
effect  Today  we  are  more  oonfldent.  Every  one  of  us  la  oomfldent  that  at  the  next 
convention  we  will  be  able  to  report  that  the  44  hour  week  Is  an  establishes 
1  hope  that  the  General  Executive  Board  will  do  all  that  is  possible  to  bring  about  the 
44  hour  week  in  our  industry. 

Delegate  LEV1NE  of  Rochester:  It  seems  to  me  that  we  should  adopt  the 
recommendation  of  the  committee,  and.  as  I  understand  the  dslsgsts  from  Local  No.  8— 

President  HILLMAN:  Pardon  me,  that  resolution  has  been  withdrawn.  The 
machinery  question  will  be  handled  separately,  in  order  to  prevent  confusion.  Aa 
1  understand  it.  Local  No.  8  brought  in  a  separate  request  to  the  convention.  Now  let 
us  judge  It  on  Its  merits  and  not  connect  It  with  any  other  proportion.  We  are  only 
discussing  the  44-hour  week  question  now. 

All  resolutions  were  then  unanimously  adopted. 

Delegate  GOODMAN:  1  recommend  that  the  44-hour  week  apply  to  oar  officers 
also  (laughter  and  applause). 

President  HILLMAN:     A  day  or  a  week? 

Delegate  GOODMAN:     The  question  is  whether  they  work  by  machine. 

President  HILLMAN:  That  the  delegates  of  the  convention  will  have  aa  oppor- 
tunity to  find  out  before  they  get  through. 

1  wish  to  say  to  you  delegates  that  this  resolution  now  passed  has  m 

than  resolutions  as  we  passed  them  at  our  previous  conventions.     When  1 

the  vote  saying  that  ayes  seemed  to  have  it  and  so  ordered.  I  felt  that  this 

has  more  to  say  whether  the  44-hour  week  will  be  enforced  than  any  element 

I  want  to  bring  that  home  to  you  so  that  you  may  realise  the  great  possibility.    I 

to  bring  that  home  to  you  so  that  you  may  realise  the  great  responsibility     I 

bring  to  you  the  same  warning  that  Delegate  Beckerman  brought    We  have 

stag*  where  we  are  simply  passing  resolutions  of  what  we  would  like  to  have.    The 

resolutions  we  are  passing  at  our  conventions  today  are  what  we  must  and  can  have. 

I  would  like  the  delegates  in  their  further  deliberations  not  to  pass  resolutions  that 

will  convey  the  Impression  that  we  never  intended  to  have  them  put  into  effect.    I 

do  hope  that  when  we  convene  at  our  next  convention,  your  officer 

or  the  other  officers  elected,  will  be  in  a  position  to  report  to  you  the 

board  reported  to  you  today,  "you  have  given  us  a  command  to  bring  the 

and  it  is  now  an  accomplished  fact."    1  hope  that  we  will  be  able  to  say  likewise  two 

years  from  now.  'The  44-hour  week  as  ordered   by   the  convention   In  the  city  of 

Baltimore  has  been  enforced."     (Applause.) 


Whereas,  our  organisation  Is  composed  of  members  of 
Whereas,  delegates  attending  our  convention  are  not  always  able  to  express  their 
thoughts  otherwise  than  in  their  own  tongue,  and 

Whereas,  this  hinders  many  active  and  experienced  men  from   iisUlrjpsjttM   la 
the  deliberations  of  the  convention   and  giving   us   the   benefit  of  their 
therefore  be  It 

Resolved,  that  the  delegates  should  have  the  right  to 
their  tongue  and  same  should  be  interpreted  to  the  delegates  of  the 

LOCAL  3.  A   C    W.  OP  A- 
Alex  Cohen,  8.  Weinsteln.  M.  Goldln.  U  Revayel.  U  Neeremberg 

Is  non -concurrence, 
(After  a  few  announcements  were  made  the  meeting  was  adjourned  at  C:fcS  p   m.) 



Sixth  Session 

Thursday,   May    16,    1918. 

The  convention  waa  called  to  order  at  9:30  a.  m.     Chairman  Hillman  presiding. 
Secretary  Schlossberg  read  the  following  communications  to  the  convention. 

Boston,  Mass.,  May  16,  1918. 

Congratulations.    Tailors  strengthening  American  labor  movement  through  efforts 
of  Amalgamated.    Long  may  it  live. 


New  York,  N.  Y.,  May  16,  1918. 

the  employees  of  Plumack's  Shop,  7  Chatham  Square,  New  York  City,  greet 
you  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America, 
and  hope  for  a  unanimous  vote  in  favor  of  the  forty-four-hour  week. 

L.   OAKLANDER,   Chairman   Plumack's   Shop. 

Boston,  Mass.,  May  15,  1918. 

The  members  of  Local  25,  A.  C.  W.  of  A.,  of  Boston,  send  fraternal  greetings  and 
hope  convention  will  result  in  much  good  to  all  members. 

H.  W.  EISBERG,  Secretary. 

Worcester,  Mass.,  May  16,  1918. 

.irticst  congratulations  and  best  wishes  for  success  from  Local  174,  Worcester. 
Individual  and  collective  thanks  to  L.  Marcovitz  for  his  splendid  work  for  Worcester 
Pants  Makers. 

SAMUEL  GOULD,  Business  Agent. 


By   Delegate   Alex   Cohen 


Whereas,  the  pants  trade  at  the  present  time  is  scattered  in  various  parts  of  the 
country,  and 

Whereas,  this  branch  of  our  industry  is  in  certain  respects  different  from  other 
branches  of  the  clothing  industry,  and 

Whereas,  we  are  striving  to  maintain  the  present  standards  and  conditions  prevail- 
ing in  the  City  of  New  York,  and 

Whereas,  new  pants  factories  are  constantly  springing  up  in  various  country 
towns  where  the  working  conditions  are  most  miserable,  and 

Whereas,  the  workers  in  those  places  are  at  the  mercy  of  the  clothing  manu- 
facturers who  exploit  those  poor  slaves,  men  and  women,  be  it,  therefore, 

Resolved,  that  the  incoming  General  Executive  Board  stands  instructed  by  the 
Third  Biennial  Convention,  assembled  in  the  City  of  Baltimore,  to  appoint  not  'ess 
than  two  special  organizers  for  the  purpose  of  organizing  the  pants  industry  all  over 
the  country. 


A.  Miller,  H.  Goldoft,  D.  Nlrenberg,  D.  Weiss,  N.  Sussnick,  L.  Shapiro,  J.  Yelo- 
witz,  D.  Isaacs,  H.  Rubin,  B.  Weiss,  H.  Novodvor,  J.  Newman,  Lorenzo  De 
Maria,  Thomas  Frisa,  M.  Mascalo. 

The  committee  has  considered  the  resolution  and  we  recommend  this  favorably 
to  the  General  Executive  Board.  (Applause.) 



President  HILLMAN:     The  recommendation  of  the  committee  la  reference  to  the 
General  Executive  Board  to  put  it  into  env 


there  are   many   cutters   throughout   the 
ch  as  Chicago,  Roeheat.  rmati.  Baltimore, 

and  several  other  cities,  who  are  still  unorganised,  and  whose  wages  are  to  low  that 
there  U  danger  that  they  may  undermine  the  conditions  of  our  members,  be  It 

Reaolved.  that  the  General  Executive  Board  is  hereby  authorized  and  Instructed 
to  put  on  sufficient  cutters'  organisers  to  remedy  this  erU. 

Ileckerman.  Loca  Friedman.  Local  4;   Meyer  Senter.  Local  4 

Jacobaon.  Local  4;  Abe  Sllverman.  Local  9;  Louis  Fein  berg.  Local  t;  Jack 
Kroll.  Local  61;  8.  Geler,  Local  61;  Frank  Patrick.  Local  61;  A.  Walla.  Local 
116;  A.  Feldman.  Loca 

The  committee  recommends  reference  to  the  G.  B.  B.  with  the 
that  the  Board  should  not  confine  itself  to  cutters.    The  beat  men  available  should  be 

President  HILLMAN:  The  recommendation  of  the  committee  Is  that  this  matter 
be  referred  to  the  incoming  G.  E.  B.  for  action.  You  have  all  heard  the  motion. 
Are  you  ready  for  the  question? 

The  recommendation  of  the  committee  was  unanimously  carried. 


We,  the  Palm  Beach  Workers,  of  Local  167,  affiliated  with  the  New   York  Joint 
Board,  request  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  to  organise  the 
throughout  the  country-    Our  desire  to  be  organise) 
"Garment  Workers."     Our  dreams  were  realised  only 
born.    It  was  the  New  York  Joint  Board  who  organised  us. 
dition*.  established  an  eight  hour  day  Instead  of  ten  and  eleven  hours  a 

a  are  not  secure  if  the  rest  of  the  workers  in  our 
ised.     With  machinery  daily  Introduced  in  our  trade,  which 
skillful  and  tends  to  bring  In  those  elements  which  undermine  the  riomjllsoisi  of  the 
organised  shops  snd  threaten  our  very  existence,  be  It,  therefore, 

Reaolved.  that  we  ask  the  delegates  to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  to  give 
the  matter  of  the  Palm  Beach  Workers  earnest  and  proper  consideration. 


EMMA  SCHAPIRO,   Local   167 

The  committee  recommends  reference  to  the  G.  E.  B. 
Delegate  SHAPIRO:     I  would  like  to  speak  In  Yiddish. 
President  HILLA!  I  am  sorry  we  can  not  do  that:   It 

the  rules  of  the  organisation. 

la  there  any  objection  to  the  recommendation  of  the  committee? 
There  was  none  and  the  resolution  was  unanim 


Whereas,  a  great  number  of  Polish  workers  In  the  clothing  Industry  are  unor- 
ganized, and 

Whereas,  organised  Polish  clothing  workers  in  the  Amalgamated  wish  to  hear 
from  time  to  time  about  our  organisation,  therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  that  the  General  Executive  Board  put  In  the  field  a  Polish  General 
Organiser  with  Instructions  to  visit  every  Polish  center  In  the  clothing  tismHii  of  the 

-d  States  and  Canada. 

F.  J.  BARTOSZ.  Delegate  Local  ft. 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence. 

President  HILLMAN:    The  committee  rinomssHlml  ecsseanasui  with  the 

The  resolution  was  unanimously  carried. 




Whereas,  a  great  number  of  Bohemian  workers  are  unorganized,  and 
Whereas,  organized  Bohemian  workers  in  the  Amalgamated  wish  to  hear  from 
time,  to  time  about  our  organization,  therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  that  the  General  Executive  Board  put  in  the  field  a  Bohemian  organizer 
instructions  to  visit  every  Bohemian  center  in  the  clothing  industry  of  the  United 
States  and  Canada. 

JOHN  DRASAL,  Local  230. 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence  with  this  resolution. 
President  HILLMAN:    Delegates,  you  see  the  committee  is  very  liberal.    After  we 
get  through  I  believe  we  will  need  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  more  organizers. 
The  committee  recommends  concurrence. 
The  resolution  was  unanimously  adopted. 


Whereas,  the  Chicago  Clothing  Workers,  notwithstanding  the  memorable  strikes 
of  1916  and  1916,  are  only  partly  organized,  and 

Whereas,  the  clothing  manufacturers  of  Chicago,  the  worst  enemies  of  organized 
labor  in  our  industry,  through  their  association  are  still  able  to  retain  their  auto- 
the  lives  of  tens  of  thousands  of  our  fellow  workers,  which  consti- 
tutes a  stumbling  block  for  the  advancement  of  our  organization  not  only  In  Chicago 
but  elsewhere,  and 

Whereas,  the  Chicago  Joint  Board,  conscious  of  its  responsibility  and  duty, 
has  determined  to  put  an  end  to  such  a  state  of  affairs,  and  is  now  conducting  an 
intensive  campaign  for  organization,  and 

Whereas,  because  it  is  a  known  fact  that  the  manufacturers  of  Chicago  are  not 
going  to  yield  easily,  therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  that  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  hereby 
instructs  the  general  officers  to  do  all  in  their  power  to  assist  the  Chicago  Joint 
Board  until  the  City  of  Chicago,  the  second  largest  clothing  center  in  the  United  States 
and  Canada,  is  completely  organized. 

Hyman  Isovitz, 
Samuel  Geier. 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence. 

The  resolution  was  unanimously  carried. 


Whereas,  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  was  confronted 
with  a  serious  problem,  endangering  the  grand  achievements  which  It  has  won  for  its 
members  in  all  the  clothing  centers  of  America,  because  of  the  lack  of  organization  in 
the  great  clothing  center  of  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  and 

Whereas,  the  clothing  manufacturers  throughout  the  country  have  used  Rochester, 
while  unorganized,  as  a  means  to  force  lower  standards  of  life  on  our  brothers  else- 
where, and 

Whereas,  the  clothing  workers  of  Rochester  are  beginning  to  realize  this  fact, 
are  awakening  to  organization  activity  and  are  determined  to  build  up  a  powerful 
organization  which  will  bring  the  twelve  thousand  clothing  workers  into  the  ranks  of 
OUR  GREAT  AMALGAMATED,  be  it,  therefore, 

Resolved,  that  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing 
Workers  of  America  instructs  the  General  Executive  Board  to  give  all  possible  assist- 
ance to  the  organization  work  in  Rochester  in  order  to  freo  the  men  and  women 
employed  in  the  Rochester  clothing  industry  from  physical  and  moral  enslavement 
due  to  the  accursed  "Benevolent  System"  which  the  Rochester  clothing  manufacturers 
are  imposing  upon  their  workers. 

JACOB  J.  LEVINE,  Member  Local  14. 

The  committee  wishes  to  recommend  the  following  in  place  of  the  resolution 
just  read. 



Where*.,    the    AmalgMitad   CleXhing    Worker*    of    America    through    lu    past 
•-  baa  proven  to  the  Clothing  Workers  of  America  what  it  U  willing  to  do  la 
order  to  improve  working  condition*. 

Whereat,  lu  power*  will  be  limited  in  proportion  to  the  cities  that 

Whereas,  the  fact  that  clothing  workers  IB  the  City  of  Rochester  are 

not  onlr  suffering  for  them  but  Is  slso  a  constant  menace  to  the  (rand  achieve- 
through  hard  and  bitter  struggles  by  the  tens  of  thousands  of  ow  meabsffl 

Resolved,    that    the   Third    Biennial   Convention    of    the    Amalgamated    Clothing 
Workers  of  America  decides  to  urgently  call  upon  the  clothing  workers  of 

-pond  to  the  call  of  our  organization  with  all  the 
is  left  In  them  from  the  accursed  "Welfare  System"  that 
have  Inflicted  upon  the  twelve  thousand  men  and  women  of  that  « 

Be  It  Further  Resolved,  that  the  O.  B.  B.  stands  Instructed  to  look  after  the 
Of  the  Rochester  clothing  workers  and  Is  authorised  to  take  any  and  all  steps  that 
they  will  deem  necessary  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  the  clothing  Industry  of  the 
•  f  Rochester  under  the  banner  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America, 

Be  It  Further  Resolved,  that  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the 
ag  Workers  of  America,  assembled  on  May  IS.  1*1  s.  In  Baltimore.  Md.. 

its  full  moral  and  financial  support  to  the  men  and  women  employed  la  the 
Industry  of  Rochester.  n  the  struggle  for  a  better  and  nobler  life  that 

only  be  accomplished  through  organization. 

President  HILLMAN:     You  have  heard  the  committee's  report.     The 
reports  a  substitute  resolution. 

Delegate  LEVINE  of  Rochester:  Brother  Chairman  and  fellow  delegates  i 
have  no  objection  to  the  substitute.  What  1  would  like  to  call  the  attention  of  the 
delegates  to  is  that  the  resolution  does  not  consider  that  this  is  a  question  coaoeralag 
not  only  Rochester  clothing  workers.  If  this  resolution  Is  adopted  I  would  like  to 
call  your  attention  to  the  fact  that  It  concerns  every  organized  clothing  center  la  the 
J  States  and  Canada.  The  clothing  workers  of  Rochester  are  the  lowest  paid.  I 
believe,  although  they  are  making  the  finest  clothing,  and  the  manufacturers  are 
beginning  to  use  Rochester  to  undermine  conditions  elsewhere.  There  is  also  the 
possibility,  if  Rochester  should  remain  unorganised,  that  in  the  near  future 
will  be  affected.  To  do  justice  to  the  General  Officers.  I  wish  to  state  that  in 
past  four  years  the  general  office  has  done  everything  in  every  way 
organize  Rochester.  But  the  very  fact  that  they  did  not  succeed  In 
powerful  organization  in  Rochester  proves  that  what  has  been  done 
Perhaps  some  may  say  it  is  the  fault  of  the  Rochester  tailors.  I  am  not 
discuss  as  to  who  Is  to  be  blamed.  The  causes  should  have  been  considered 
ai  the  present  day  Rochester  clothing  workers  are  awakening  to  these  facts 
are  determined  to  build  up  an  organization.  The  propaganda  work  which  has 
going  on  in  the  last  four  years  has  not  been  wasted.  With  the  aid  of  our 
organizer  the  most  conservative  and  reactionary  people  are  awakening  today 
coming  Into  the  organization.  I  hope  and  trust  that  the  General  Executive  Board 
will  do  all  In  Its  power  to  maintain  the  tradition  of  carrying  out  this  resolution. 

The  resolution  was  carried  unanimously. 

«3,  NEW  YORK 

Resolved,  that  this  convention  instructs  the  Joint  Boards  and  District  CovacOa 
that  in  the  future,  when  settlements  are  made  with  manufacturers,  they  should  Insist 
that  tenement  house  work  should  be  completely  abolished. 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence  with  this  resolution.    (Applause ) 
Delegate  ARNONE:     I  wish  to"state  that  In  the  question  of  tenement  1 
the  Amalgamated  is  about  two  thousand   miles  behind.     I  say  that  this 
once  and  for  all  should  make  It  their  business  to  make  the 
that  tenement  bouse  work  belongs  to  the   Middle  Ages.     la  a  city  like  New 
or  a  city  like  Philadelphia,  while  many  tailors  may  be  walking  the  streets  there  Is 
plenty  of  work  for  the  tenement  houses.     Now.  I  say  if  our  organization  would  put 



a  stop  to  it  we  would  establish  a  condition  where  the  unemployed  tailors  In  the 
city  could  get  work.  I  say  that  from  now  on  when  any  settk-nu  nt  is  to  be  made  the 
manufacturers  should  be  made  to  know  that  there  Is  no  more  tenement  house  work 
to  be  done.  I  appeared  In  Albany  before  a  special  committee  of  the  legislature.  The 
politicians  there  told  me  that  "We  know  why  you  don't  want  the  tenement  house 
work,  it  is  because  you  want  the  men  to  get  all  the  work."  They  don't  realize  that 
we  are  looking  after  the  sanitary  control  of  the  garment  industry. 

The  Amalgamated  has  done  a  lot  for  the  Italian  workers.  If  the  Amalgamated 
will  put  a  stop  to  the  tenement  house  work  it  will  remove  the  worst  sort  of  exploitation. 

Delegate  EISEN:  Brother  Chairman  and  Delegates — I  am  not  against  this  reso- 
lution, but  I  would  like  the  delegates  not  to  be  under  a  wrong  impression  that  the 
Amalgamated  had  not  done  anything  to  abolish  the  tenement  house  work. 

President  HILLMAN.  Delegate,  you  are  speaking  to  representatives  of  the 
Amalgamated.  They  know  exactly  what  is  going  on. 

Delegate  EISEN:  I  feel,  though,  that  this  is  an  unjust  indictment  against  the 
Joint  Boards  and  District  Councils.  I  feel  that  in  Baltimore  the  District  Council  has 
succeeded  in  abolishing  at  least  75  percent  of  this  tenement  house  work. 

Brother  CO!  roth  or  President,  I  wish  to  say  that  the  impression  made  by 

Brother  Arnone  in  order  to  be  emphatic  and  to  impress  upon  you  the  importance  of 
this  resolution  was  not  the  right  one.  Brother  Arnone,  having  been  long  with  the 
organization,  knows  that  it  was  due  to  conditions  prevailing  in  the  City  of  New  York 
that  tenement  house  work  was  not  abolished.  It  was  not  in  any  way  due  to  the 
unwillingness  on  the  part  of  any  man  in  the  Joint  Board  or  the  Joint  Board  as  a 
whole.  If  I  remember  correctly.  Brother  Arnone  was  the  head  of  a  committee  to 
work  for  the  abolition  of  tenement  house  work  and  that  might  have  been  the  reason 
It  was  not  abolished.  (Interrupted  by  laughter  and  applause.)  But  as  far  as  the 
resolution  is  concerned,  there  is  no  doubt  that  we  want  the  resolution  adopted.  We 
all  wish  to  see  tenement  house  work  abolished. 

The  resolution  was  unanimously  carried. 


Whereas,  a  great  part  of  the  Washable   Sailor  Suit  Trade  is   unorganized,  and 
Whereas,  many  attempts  were  made  to  unionize  these  shops,  and 
Whereas,  thus  far  all  attempts  were  unsuccessful,  be  it  therefore 
Resolved,  that  this  convention  endorse  a  general  strike  in  the   Boys'  Washable 
Sailor  Suit  Trade  in  New  York  City  and  give  it  moral  and  financial  support. 

LOCAL  169,  A.  C.  W.  OF  A. 

Inasmuch  as  Local  169  is  a  part  of  the  Children's  Clothing  Joint  Board  of  New 
York,  we  recommend  that  this  resolution  be  referred  to  the  Children's  Clothing  Joint 
Board  of  New  York  to  act  in  co-operation,  with  the  general  office. 

President  HILLMAN:  You  heard  the  recommendation  of  the  committee.  The 
recommendation  is  that  it  be  referred  to  the  Children's  Clothing  Joint  Board  and  they 
should  receive  the  co-operation  of  the  incoming  G.  E.  B. 

The  recommendation  of  the  committee  was  unanimously  carried. 


Whereas,  the  overall  manufacturing  industry  in  the  United  States  and  Canada 
is  practically  unorganized,  and 

Whereas,  the  working  conditions  and  wages  in  this  large  industry  are  far  belcrw 
the  normal  standards,  and 

Whereas,  the  overall  workers  are  desirous  of  organizing  under  the  banner  of 
the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  be  it,  therefore, 

Resolved,  that  the  General  Executive  Board  be  and  is  hereby  instructed  and 
authorized  to  appoint  general  organizers  for  the  overall  workers  of  the  entire  country 
at  the  earliest  possible  opportunity. 

(Signed):  L.  Marcovitz.  S.  Zorn,  L.  Lebovitz,  J.  Blame.  F.  Lerman,  N.  Blller, 
J.  Palaimo,  J.  Penninl,  T.  Morelli,  H  E.  Sher,  D.  Oilman. 



We  have  discussed  this  resolution  la  connection  with.  Resolution  No.  19  and 
read  to  yon  now  Resolution  No.  It. 

17,  NEW  Y01 

The  blowing  resolution  waa  paaied  at  a  ipecUU  meetinf  held  on  April  t.  l»li.  at 
M  Orchard  Street.  New  York  < 

Whereas,  It  U  essential  for  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  that  every  branch  of  the  men's 
POMIM  laiMtn  itosjld  t-.-  orjajtiati,  .u,,« 

Whereas,   there   are   thousands   of   uuorgsnlied    men 
the  overall  makini  industry  In  the  United  Stales  tolling  under 

Whereas,   the   unorganised   overall   workers    being   underpaid   and 
hours  are  detrimental  to  the  Interests  of  the  overall   workers  organised 
banner  of  the  of  A ..  therefore  be  It 

Resolved,   by  the  Third   Biennial   Convention  of  the  A.   C.   W    of  A.,   com 
ilthnore,  Md  .  that  the  Incoming  General  Executive  Board  he  Instructed  to 
gnrate  an  organization  campaign  among  the  unorganised  overall  workers  of  the 
and  be  It  further 

Resolved,  that  the  New  York  schedule  of  prices  is  to  be  consulted  when  making 
price  lists  on  overalls. 


KRON.  Secretary. 

The  Committee  recommended  concurrence  to  cover  also  Resolittosj  zf. 


there  are  between  two  and  three  thousand  Russian  worker*  la  the 
ranks  of  the  Children's  Clothing  Trades,  and  many  thousands  more  throughout  the 
country  in  our  industry,  and 

Whereas,  these  members  are  greatly  handicapped  In  their  union  activities  by 
the  fact  that  even  our  constitution  in  the  membership  books  is  not  printed  In  their 
own  language,  be  it 

Resolved,  thst  the  General  Office  publish  a  weekly  journal  in  the  ItOMJiii  language 
and  also  print  due  books  in  the  Russian  language,  and  be  it  further 

Resolved,  that  in  order  to  hold  the  Interest  of  »h«  Russian  workers  la  our 
organization  a  Russian  organizer  be  appointed  for  that  purpose. 

JlUUS  POWERS.  Local  M. 

We  recommend  that  the  constitution  be  printed  in  the  Russian  language  and  that 
If  possible  a  Russian  organizer  be  appointed.  The  matter  of  publishing  a  paper  we 
recommend  to  refer  to  the  General  Executive  Board. 

President  HILLMAN  You  heard  the  committee's  recommendation  i  wish  to 
state  to  those  delegates  who  are  directly  interested  In  this  not  to  be  under  the  ftmproe- 
slon  that  these  resolutions  will  automatically  send  in  organizers.  It  is  a  very  hard 
task  to  find  proper  and  suitable  organisers. 

The  report  of  the  committee  waa  unanimously  adopted. 

LOCAL  168. 

Whereas,  the  members  of  the  Wholesale  Clothing  Clerks*  Union  know  what 
of  organization  meant  for  them  in  the  past,  and 

Whereas,  the  members  of  our  Union  are  now  ready  and  willing  to  revolt 
conditions  that  are  Intolerable  for  ealighfoaed  human  beings. 

We  now   call  upon  this  convention  to  assist  us  in   building  up  a 
to  combat  the  evils  of  our  trade,  so  that  in  the  future  we  will  be  in  a  podttom  to 

help  ourselves,  but  also  help  any  part  of  our  organization  that  may  ask  for  omr 
support  In  the  struggle  against  their  exploiters. 

(Signed)      HARRY  W.  GREBNBBsU 

The  committee  recommend  this  to  the  General  Executive  Board  for 



President  HILLMAN:  The  recommendation  is  that  this  matter  be  referred  to 
the  General  Executive  Board. 

Delegate  GREENBERG:  Brother  Chairman  and  delegates:  This  question  has 
arisen  several  times  before  the  General  Executive  Board.  The  resolution  brought 
before  the  delegates  at  this  session  was  that  we  have  no  paid  official  or  organizer  to 
conduct  a  campaign  in  the  clothing  industry,  which  involves  from  two  to  three  thou- 
sand clerks.  Out  of  those  two  or  three  thousand  clerks  we  have  about  three  hundred 
and  fifty  members  in  our  organization.  There  are  no  paid  officials  to  go  out  agitating 
in  the  various  clothing  houses  to  induce  the  men  to  join  our  organization.  We,  there- 
sent  in  this  resolution  so  that  the  General  Executive  Board  shall  be  able 
to  put  in  an  organiser,  one  of  the  members  or  a  delegate  from  our  organization,  to 
organise  the  entire  industry  of  the  wholesale  clothing  clerks  in  New  York.  There 
is  no  other  city  that  has  clothing  clerks  organized  as  the  New  York  clerks  have 
attempted.  About  ten  years  ago  we  attempted  the  same  thing,  but  met  with  a 
failure.  Today  we  are  proud  to  say  that  we  have  been  successfully  conducting  a  very 
wonderful  campaign  in  the  trade.  Only  last  week,  according  to  yesterday's  issue 
of  the  "Call,"  I  have  noticed  a  strike  has  been  called  in  New  York  for  an  increase  In 
wages  and  a  forty-eight  hour  week,  which  strike  was  won  within  forty-eight  hours' 
time  It  is  important  that  the  Wholesale  Clothing  Clerks'  Union  keep  up  their  good 
work  and  that  the  officials  of  the  organization  see  to  it  that  a  delegate  be  elected  and 
paid  by  the  general  office,  if  not  fully,  partly. 

The  recommendation  of  the  committee  was  unanimously  carried. 


Whereas,  we  must  admit  that  industrial  organization  only  is  effective  in  our 
shops,  also  that  we  are  teaching  for  many  years  that  the  Amalgamated  is  organized 
industrially,  but  in  Baltimore  alone  we  have  sixteen  locals,  and  each  local  confines 
itself  to  its  own  trade  and  often  blocks  the  way  of  the  others;  also  every  local  has 
its  own  autonomy  to  decide  or  reject  anything  proposed  by  the  central  organization, 
therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  that  the  General  Executive  Board  be  instructed  to  start  an  agitation 
for  one  industrial  local  in  every  city,  but  members  may  be  allowed  to  form  nationality 
branches  to  hold  meetings  in  their  own  language. 

F.  J.  BARTOSZ,  Delegate  69. 

The  committee  recommends  non-concurrence. 

President  HILLMAN:  You  have  heard  the  report  of  the  committee.  The  com- 
mittee reports  non-concurrnce. 

The  report  was  unanimously  carried. 

Delegate  ARNONE:     I  ask  for  the  privilege  of  introducing  a  new  resolution. 

Delegate  ISOWITZ:     I  object  in  view  of  the  fact  that  we  passed  a  rule — 

President  HILLMAN:  Please,  I  will  explain  the  rule.  The  rule  is  that  a  delegate 
may  introduce  a  resolution  if  he  secures  the  unanimous  consent  of  the  convention. 

Delegate  ISOWITZ:     Well,  I  object. 

President  HILLMAN:     The  resolution  cannot  be  introduced. 

Delegate  SENTER:  I  think  that  the  resolution  should  be  heard  first  and  then 
objected  to. 

President  HILLMAN:  Well,  the  delegate  objects  before  hearing  what  the  reso- 
lution is.  (Laughter.) 

Delegate  BECKERMAN:  I  would  like  information.  I  would  like  to  know  the 
reasons  of  the  delegate,  why  he  objects  to  the  resolution  before  hearing  it. 

President  HILLMAN:  The  delegate  has  a  right  to  object  without  any  reason 
He  has  that  privilege.  (Laugter.) 

At  this  point  Delegate  Isowitz  withdrew  his  objection. 

President  HILLMAN:  The  objection  has  been  withdrawn.  Is  there  any  other 
delegate  in  the  house  who  wishes  to  object? 

President  HILLMAN:  Permission  has  been  granted  for  the  introduction  of  the 
resolution.  You  will  please  give  it  to  the  assistant  secretary. 

Delegate  COIIKN:     I  want  to  explain  to  the  delegates  that  I  have  a  similar  case. 

President  HILLMAN:     Ask  permission. 

Delegate  COHEN:     This  morning  a  delegate  from  New  York  arrived 

President  HILLMAN:  Delegate  Cohen,  you  are  now  reporting  as  chairman  of  the 
Organization  Committee,  and  this  should  not  be  brought  up  now. 

Delegate  COHEN:  I  ask  the  unanimous  consent  of  the  house  for  the  introduction 
of  a  new  resolution. 

(There  was  no  objection.) 


Assistant  Secretary  Potofaky  hereopon  road  the  following  two  aew 




Committee  on  Organisation. 

Resolution  No.  107.  by  delegates  from  Locals  4.  8  and  tt.  oa  charter  for 
Drivers'  Union.     Referred  to  same  committee. 

•i.i.-ni   i ill. I.MAN       Delegate  Bison,  on  behalf  of  the  **-— •**t-  oa 
moats,  wishes  to  make  an  announcement,  which  may  be  in 
ponement  of  our  trip  to  Washington. 

Delegate  B18BN:     Brother  President  and  delegates:     I   wish  to 
at  11  o'clock  machines  will  be  here  ready  to  take  all  delegates  to 
will  start  out  from  this  hall  at  11:30  and  go  to  the 
picture  will  be  taken  of  all  delegates.    Than  the 
and  proceed  to  tour  Washington.    They  will  stop  at  a 
in  a  few  different  important  places  in  Washington  and  them  make  a 
the  city  and  parks  of  Washington  and  proceed  back  to  Baltimore  to  the 
where  an  entertainment  has  been  arranged  for  the  delegates      (Applause.) 

President    HILLMAN:     We  have  very  little  time  left  for  this   mills      I  am 
asked  to  introduce  a  few  representatives  who  were  delegated  to  tato 
various  purposes.     I  shall  ask  the  speakers  not  to 
each,  as  I  have  to  present  three  or  four  speakers  before  we  adjourn  tato 

The  Jewish  People's  Relief  Committee  has  delegated  Mr.  B.  Zuckeri 
this  convention  on  Its  behalf     I  shall  now  introduce  to  you  Mr.  B.  Zuckormaa  of  the 
Jewish  People's  Relief  Committee.     (Applause.) 

Address  by  Mr.  B.  Zuckermsn. 
(Translated  from  Yiddish.) 

In  the  five  minutes'  time  allotted  me  I  shall  bo  unable  to  tell  you  all  1  have  to 
tell  you  on  behalf  of  the  Jewish  People's  Relief  Committee. 

In  our  last  campaign  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 
with  the  Jewish  People's  Relief  Committee.  Twenty-five  choose 
by  the  Amalgamated  in  New  York  for  the  War  Relief  Sufferers.  It  to  troo  that 
large  part  of  the  individual  unions  throughout  the  country  participated  la  the 
enterprises  for  the  Jewish  Relief  in  the  various  towns.  It  Is  also  true  that  the 
Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  officially  made  all  efforts  last  year  to 
raise  all  the  money  they  could  for  the  war  sufferers. 

I  don't  want  to  dwell  too  long  on  the  conditions  of  the  Jows  In  the 
I  am  sure  that  most  of  you  know  it  well,  but  1  want  you  to 
the  work  for  the  war  sufferers  Is  not  only   work  that 
the  war.    I  want  you  to  know  that  one  of  our  greatest 
war  is  ended.    No  one  of  us  knows  when  the  war  will 
will  end  a  problem  will  arise  for  the  Jews  in  all  countries  to 
homes.     There  are  various  views  as  to  how  the  community  shall  be 
In  this  respect  the  workers  occupy  a  special  position.    The  workers  mm 
and  must  be  organised  and.  therefore.  It  is  n 

organized  Jewish  workers— shall  give  more  attention  to  the  question  of  relief.    I 
you  have  very  much  to  do.     You  are  occupied  with  many 
own  trade.     But  I  want  to  call  your  attention,  my  friends. 
Jewish  population  of   Poland,  of  Lithuania,  of  Oallcia,  of 
death,  so  that  after  the  war  not  a  single  Jewish  soul  may  remain  alive— 4f  that 
happen  it  may  be  that  much  will  bo  missing  from  the  spirit  of  the 

rkem  of  America.    What  other  organisation  can  hotter  take  It 
than  you  to  see  that  after  the  war  everything  should  be  done  that  the  J< 
countries  may  work  out  their  own  salvation  and  free  theiasossvos  from  charity.    I 
you.  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  who  have  shown  sud 
revolutionary  courage,  to  take  a  more  active  part  hi  aotprag  the  war 
can  not  submit  a  resolution,  but  It  will  be  a  vary  food  thing  If  you 



that  the  relief  fund  must  be  made  a  permanent  income.  You  can  not  content  yourself 
with  occasional  contributions.  You  must  not.  If  you  should,  the  work  will  be 
occasional.  Occasional  work  brings  nothing.  The  Amalgamated  must  take  upon  itself 
systematic  work  that  each  member  should  in  one  way  or  another  make  his  contribution 
to  the  war  sufferers.  Maybe  the  plan  of  one  day's  wages  may  be  proper.  In  other 
organizations  It  worked  well,  and  I  think  that  you  will  have  to  find  a  way  as  to  how 
to  handle  this  problem  and  give  your  General  Executive  Board  instructions  how  to 
handle  it.  I  hope  that  in  the  coming  year  the  Amalgamated  will  show  its  spirit  in  all 
parts  of  the  work,  and  will  show  its  great  soul  in  the  work  of  the  relief  of  i 
war  sufferers  and  contribute  its  share  to  the  fund  of  the  People's  Relief  Conni 

President  HILLMAN:  We  were  supposed  to  have  with  us  a  few  days  ago 
Professor  Ripley.  of  the  Board  of  Labor  Standards.  He  did  not  come  here  and  Un- 
reason for  his  not  coming  here  was  our  uniform  department.  When  I  say  our  uniform 
department  I  take  in  the  organization  of  the  cloakmakers  as  well  as  our  own.  Our 
organization  had  a  strike  in  the  City  of  Philadelphia  and  one  of  the  largest  employers 
of  labor.  Wanamaker  &  Brown,  locked  out  several  hundred  of  our  members.  I  shall 
therefore  give  the  five  minutes  that  I  would  have  given  to  Professor  Ripley  to  Brother 
Hollander  and  Brother  Carp,  of  the  uniform  department  of  the  City  of  Philadelphia. 

Address  of  Louis  Hollander. 

Brother  President  and  Delegates:  I  shall  try  to  make  it  in  a  minute  and  a  qua 
That  will  be  sufficient.  The  President  called  upon  me  to  make  a  report  or  say  a  few 
words  about  the  uniform  situation  in  Philadelphia.  I  have  been  there  now  for  only  a 
few  months.  The  Cloakmakers'  Union  in  Philadelphia  works  in  conjunction 
Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers.  There  is  no  difference  between  the  Cloakmakers' 
Union  and  "the  Amalgamated  in  Philadelphia.  We  knew  that  the  employers  were 
preparing  themselves  to  give  us  trouble.  We  came  down  here  last  Wednesday  to  see 
President  Hillman  and  Secretary  Schlossberg  to  talk  over  the  situation.  After  we 
received  the  advice  of  Brothers  Hillman  and  Schlossberg  we  went  back  to  Philadelphia. 
Then  the  Wanamaker  and  Brown  lockout  came.  Through  the  influence  of  Brother 
Hillman  we  had  in  Philadelphia  immediately,  on  the  next  day,  Dr.  Stone  of  Washington. 
We  also  recei  ">m  Professor  Rtplpy.  tho  r>n>f  administrator,  to  be 

in  New  York.  We  were  yesterday  in  New  York  to  settle  the  Wanamaker  &  Brown 
lockout.  Professor  Rlploy.  by  the  way,  explained  that  he  would  like  to  be  at  this 
convention  but  be  had  to  go  to  Boston.  I  am  glad  to  say  that  the  Wanamaker  &  Brown 
lockout  was  settled  by  Professor  Ripley. 

We  came  back  from  New  York  yesterday  and  met  with  the  strikers.  They  accepted 
the  report  and  went  back  to  work  this  morning. 

Factories  are  being  opened  every  day,  and  we  will  be  in  a  position  to  control 
the  uniform  situation  in  Philadelphia  I  believe  as  well  as  in  New  York.  I  have  been 
in  Philadelphia  only  a  few  months,  but  my  colleague,  Brother  Carp,  of  the  Cloak- 
makers,  has  more  to  say,  because  he  is  a  Philadelphia  man.  (Applause.) 

President  HILLMAN:  Brother  Carp  will  use  up  whatever  there  is  left  of  the  five 
minutes.  (Applause.) 

Address  of  Brother  Carp. 

Brother  Chairman,  Sisters  and  Brother  Delegates:  If  I  bad  known  that  I  would  be 
here  at  this  convention  and  had  had  time  to  prepare  a  report  for  the  last  six  months'  work 
of  the  uniform  department  in  Philadelphia,  I  assure  you  you  would  be  greatly  interested. 
As  you  know  the  city  of  Philadelphia  is  the  city  of  Brotherly  Love,  the  cradle  of  liberty. 
But  besides  that  Philadelphia  also  has  some  manufacturers  who  are  making  uniforms, 
and  they  know  more  about  the  jungle  than  about  a  union.  We  are  now  tryinp  to 
unionize  their  factories.  There  are  now  quite  a  few  manufacturers  in  Philadelphia 
who  will  tell  you  how  it  feels  to  force  a  fight  on  us.  One  manufacturer  told  us  the 
other  day:  "If  any  manufacturer  wants  to  have  a  fight  with  you,  send  his  m 
me  and  I  will  give  him  a/  good  piece  of  advice."  (Laughter  and  applause.) 

President  HILLMAN:  We  have  yet  a  f*w  minutes  until  the  cars  arrive  and  I 
shall  call  upon  Comrade  Trachtenberg  from  the  Rand  School.  (Applause.) 

Address  of  Alexander  Trachtenberg. 

Comrades  and  friends:    I  come  here  in  behalf  of  the  Rand  School  of  Social  Science, 



aa  you  know.  a  Socialist  and  working  claae  educational  tastitutloa.  devoted  entirely  to 
the  education  of  the  ma ita«  of  the  workers  In  order  to  prepare  for  more  advance* 
and  more  cultured  leaders  and  worker*  In  the  labor  and  flofttallot  movement  Two 
years  ago  I  was  In  thl.  vary  aame  hall  •ittiui  for  two  weekj  and  attending  the  Amort 

can  Federation  of  l^bor  Convention.    1  waa  here  but  aa  hour  yesterday  when  1  eaw 

mated  presenting  an  entirely  different 
had  within  that  hour  adopted  resolutions  endorsing  the  Socialist 

this  convention  of  the  Amalgamated  presenting  an  entirely  different  tasntaeia.    Tom 

hope  that  the  time  to  not  far  distant  when  we  shall  secure  the  endonomont  of  suom 
a  resolution  by  the  American  Federation  of  Labor.     (Applause.)     We  nope  hsneuei 

there  are  such  organizations  aa  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 
are  the  outstanding  post  in  the  social  and  revolutionary  movement  in 
We.  in  the  Rand  School,  look  forward  to  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Worker*  of 
America  and  similar  organisation,  who  are  interested  in  the  educational  work,  to 
further  that  revolutionary  •  he  old  Marxians  used  to  say  that  we  must  have 

millions  In  order  to  have  revolution.  In  Russia  it  was  not  a  question  of  numbers, 
It  waa  a  question  of  the  degree  of  the  revolutionary  ciaaa  onurtoueiies  that  made 
the  revolution  possible.  And  it  Is  the  class  consciousness  of  the 
this  country  that  will  help  make  a  revolution  in 

Workers  of  America  are  on  the  road.  They  are  the  ones  that  are  going  to  teach  a 
lesson  to  the  workers  In  the  other  industries,  to  inspire  them  with  revolutionary  spirit 
for  revolutionising  Industry.  And  so,  although  you  are  just  one  particle  of  the  groat 
labor  movement  In  this  country,  because  you  are  revolutionary,  because  you  are  claae 
conscious,  you  represent  everything  there  to  In  the  labor  movement  as  far  as  having 
a  mission  to  perform  In  this  world  is  concerned.  Therefore,  comrades.  I  wtoh  in  the 
name  of  the  Rand  School,  a  Socialist  and  revolutionary  institution,  to  greet  you 
and  hope  you  will  offer  your  co-operation,  aa  you  are  already  doing,  because  hundreds 
of  your  members  are  going  to  the  school  In  New  York,  attending  the  rlsesse.  and  I 
hope  your  organisation  aa  a  whole  will  co-operate  with  the  Rand  School 
whatever  assistance  you  can.  more  or  less  financially,  to  promote  the 
work  among  the  labor  and  the  Socialist  movements  of  this  country.  1 

Presides    HiLLMAN:     We  have  called  upon  the  uniform  department  from  the 
•«f  Philadelphia.     I  understand   we  have  here  also  the  manager  of  the  City  of 
Philadelphia,  Brother  Aldo  Cursl. 

Address  of   Aldo  Cursl. 

Mr.  President  and  Delegates:  Three  or  four  fellows  came  around  to  me  and 
suggested  that  I  speak.  I  think  that  we  could  save  the  time.  You  have  had  spMBhse 
from  Monday  up  to  now.  and  It  Is  a  little  bit  too  much.  I  will  be  very  brief  anyhow. 
Brothers  Carp  and  Hollander  have  told  you  already  of  the  good  work  that  has 
done  in  Philadelphia  in  the  uniform  department  I  will  tell  you  of  the  good 
that  you  have  done  yesterday  and  today.  When  I  go  back  to  Philadelphia  tonight  I 
tell  the  District  Council  of  two  good  resolutions  that  you  have 
44-hour  week  and  another  one  about  raising  the  percentage  equally 
I  did  not  like  yesterday  to  speak  on  that  question  because  I  am  not  a 
I  surely  waa  proud  of  that  decision,  because,  unfortunately.  1  have  seen  at 
times  settlements  made  by  which  the  better  paid  worker  to  t» 
poorly  paid  worker,  although  the  latter  Is  the  man  that  should  be  mostly 
I  am  proud  of  that  decision  and  we  shall  see  to  it  that  whenever  any 
made  we  begin  to  build  from  the  bottom  up.  The  man  who  makes  IIS.  118  and  ftt 
a  week  must  get  $K  quicker  than  the  man  who  gets  $30  or  $3S  per 

Another  question  that  gave  us 
at  this  meeting  today.    Because  be  represents  the 

these  two  organizations  can  do  wonderful  work,  and  because  they  will  have  a 
In  a  few  days  in  the  city  of  Boston.  1  think  the  resolution,  that  was  brought  on  the 
floor  that  we  must  have  only  one  union  in  the  garment  industry,  will  be  carried  in 
the  city  of  Boston  and  before  the  neit  convention  takes  place  we  will  nave  one  con- 
tention of  all  the  unions  In  the  needle  trades  (Applause.) 

President  HILLMAN:  The  Committee  on  Resolutions  will  meet  tomorrow  mom- 
ing  at  3  o'clock  sharp  at  Room  1*10.  Southern  Hotel.  1  will  ask  the  committees  to  be 
on  time  so  that  they  do  not  Interfere  with  our  work. 

Delegate  POWERS  of  New  York:     1  have  received  a  resolution  from  my  local 
union  this  morning  and  I  ask  for  unanimous  consent  of  the  convention  for  Its  ' 
>  object i< 




Referred  to  Committee  on  Resolutions. 

President  HI u. MAN:  I  see  in  the  hall  one  of  our  old  former  members,  one  who 
was  elected  on  the  Board  by  the  convention  in  Nashville,  Tennessee,  Brother  Jacob 
Elstein  from  Syracuse.  I  will  ask  him  to  speak  to  the  convention  for  a  few  minutes. 

Address  of  Jacob  Elstein. 

Mr.  President  and  Delegates:  I  am  here  this  morning  in  behalf  of  a  city  which 
was  one  of  the  first  to  join  you  in  the  rebellion  against  the  autocratic  United  Garment 
Workers  of  America,  but  it  has  been  very  much  neglected  by  this  organization.  Up  to 
the  present  time  the  organization  has  done  very  little  to  get  that  city  into  the  ranks 
of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America.  I  am  here  to  say  a  few  words  to  you 
on  behalf  of  the  city  Syracuse.  Syracuse,  as  some  of  you  know,  was  at  one  time  one 
of  the  strongholds  of  this  United  Garment  Workers.  We  were  100  per  cent,  organized 
under  the  United  Garment  Workers  at  that  time.  Not  because  the  workers  loved 
the  Garment  Workers,  but  simply  because  the  manufacturers  were  using  the  label, 
and  so  the  workers  were  compelled  to  belong  to  the  U.  G.  W.  in  order  to  keep  th«-ir 
jobs.  But  the  workers  of  Syracuse  have  done  their  utmost  to  do  away  with  the  label, 
because  they  knew  that  the  label  was  detrimental  to  their  interests  and  they  wanted 
to  get  away  from  the  United  Garment  Workers  for  the  same  reason.  Now  we  have 
only  about  10  per  cent,  of  the  union  labels  instead  of  100  per  cent,  and  we  have  the 
best  opportunity  to  organize  the  city  of  Syracuse  if  we  should  try  to.  I  can  assure 
yon  that  if  this  organization  sent  a  man  there  for,  at  the  most,  two  months,  we  could 
hare  100  per  cent,  in  the  trade  of  Syracuse  organized  under  the  banner  of  the  Amalga- 
mated Clothing  Workers  of  America.  What  we  need  there  is  an  organizer.  The  trade 
now  is  mostly  in  the  hands  of  the  Italian  people,  and  they  are  all  willing  to  become 
members  of  the  Amalgamated,  if  we  should  try  to  bring  them  into  the  ranks. 

I  have  been  asked  to  come  down  here  today  and  ask  that  you  try  and  do  what- 
ever you  possibly  can  in  order  to  bring  the  city  of  Syracuse  into  the  ranks  of  the 

It  is  true,  there  are  only  between  1,000  and  1,200  people  employed  in  the  trade,  but 
nevertheless  we  want  to  see  every  city  in  the  United  States  in  the  Amalgamated. 

In  conclusion,  I  want  to  thank  you  one  and  all  for  the  privilege  you  have  given 
me,  and  I  hope  you  will  do  your  best  for  Syracuse.  Let  us  organize  them  in  the 
Amalgamated.  I  thank  you.  (Applause.) 

(The  session  adjourned  at  11:20  a.m.) 


Seventh  Session 

...y    Morning,   May    17,   1918 

The  Convention  was  called  to  order  at  9:4t  a  in .  President  Hillman  prsslrtllf 
Secretary  Schloesberg  read  the  following  communications  to  the  convention: 
Presiu-ni  H1ULMAN:  Are  any  of  the  comlttees  ready  to  report? 

By  Harry  Cohen,  Chairman 


173,   BOSTON. 

Resolution  adopted  at  a  special  meeting  of  the  Pants  Makers'  Union  of 
Local  173.  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  on  Wednesday.  March  ».  191*. 

Whereas,  the  Jewish  people,  the  most  oppressed  and  persecuted  of  pssplss,  nave 
suffered  the  brunt  of  the  world  war  more  intensely  than  sny  other  people,  and 

lereas.  the  object  of  this  war.  as  proclaimed  by  the  democratic  countries,  is 

t.erate  the  small  and  oppressed  peoples  and  to  restore  to 
be  it 

Resolved,  that  we  welcome  with  gratitude  the  declaration  of 
ment  and  Interallied  Socialist  Conference  of  their  readiness  to  help  la  the 
of  a  Jewish  homeland  in  Palestine.    Be  it  further 

Resolved,  that  we  co-operate  in  every  way  possible  to  tne  end  that  the 
homeland    be    established    in    accordance    with    the    principles      '    the 

Wherefore,  we  feel  confident  that  the  workers  of  the  w»  .-  .  u  i  *4m* 

no  less  than  the  Interallied  Socialists  and  we  hope  that  the  Socialist  Internationale 
will  defend  the  right  of  the  Jews  to  their  home  in  Palestine. 

Our  delegates  to  the  National  Convention  of  the  amalgamated  Clothing  Workers 
of  America  are  Instructed  to  present  this  Resolution  and  to  spare  no  efforts  to  see  it 
adopted  by  the  convention. 

,LER.  Pr salient: 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence  *Uh  this  resolution  to  the  extent  that 
it  Is  comprised  within  the  program  of  the  British  Labor  and  the  Inter  Allied  Labor 
Conference,  as  submitted  to  us  in  the  report  of  the  General  Executive  Board  of  tne) 
Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers,  and  which  reads  as  follows: 

The  Jews  snd   Palestine. 

The  Conference  demands  for  the  Jews  In  all  countries  the  same  elementary  rights 
of  freedom  of  religion,  education,  residence  and  trade  and  equal  cltlxenshlp  that  ought 
to  be  extended  to  all  the  inhabitants  of  every  nation.  It  further  siprnm  the  opinion 
that  Palestine  should  be  set  free  from  the  hard  and  oppressive  guisrimsni  of  the 
Turk,  in  order  that  this  country  may  form  a  Free  State,  under  International  guarantee, 
to  which  such  of  the  Jewish  people  as  desire  to  do  so  may  return  and  may  work  oat 
their  own  salvation  free  from  Interference  by  those  of  alien  race  or  religion. 

M    i        ilLLMAN:     You  have  heard  the  committee  report  on  Resolution  No. 
39.  recommending  to  concur  with  it  to  the  extent  that   It  is 

r  Allied  labor  program  and  embodied  In  the  report  of  the  General 
of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers.    Are  yon  ready  for  the  question? 

(The  recommendation  of  tne  committee  was  unanimously  carried  ) 



Be  It  Resolved,  that  this  convention  orders  the  General  Secretary,  that  within 
90  days  of  the  convention  the  constitution  with  its  amendments  be  printed  in  the 
regular  due  books  in  all  languages,  and  same  be  sold  to  the  members  at  cost  price. 


(The  committee  recommends  concurrence.) 

President  HILLMAN:  You  heard  the  report  of  the  committee  and  the  motion  for 
the  adoption  of  the  report.  Are  you  ready  for  the  question? 

Delegate  ZUBOW1TZ:  I  believe  that  the  constitution  should  be  distributed 
without  cost.  If  we  cannot  afford  to  print  it  for  free  distribution,  to  the  members, 
we  should  not  print  it  at  all. 

Delegate  ZORN:  I  think  that  the  constltuion  should  be  printed  in  booklet  form 
and  if  any  member  wishes  the  constitution,  I  think  the  few  pennies  that  he  would 
have  to  pay  will  be  an  easy  matter. 

Delegate  ALEXANDER:  Move  to  amend  that  the  constitution  be  printed  in 
separate  books. 

President  HILLMAN:  The  resolution  as  it  now  reads  is  that  the  constitution 
be  made  part  of  the  due  book.  That  is  the  resolution.  The  amendment  is  that  it  shall 
be  in  a  separate  book.  Has  the  amendment  been  seconded? 

(The  amendment  was  seconded.) 

Delegate  HELLER:  I  move  that  the  constitution  be  put  in  a  separate  book  form 
because  otherwise  the  book  will  be  too  big. 

Delegate  ARNONE:  Brother  President  and  Fellow  Delegate.:  When  I  drew  up 
that  resolution  1  made  it  in  such  a  way  that  the  General  Office  should  print  the 
constitution  in  a  separate  book  form,  and  I  don't  see  why  so  many  people  offer  objec- 
tions. The  reason  why  the  constitution  should  be  in  a  separate  book  form  is  that 
those  people  who  are  interested  in  it  should  pay  for  it,  and  I  don't  believe  we  should 
always  have  that  continuous  bother  of  changing  books  because  a  new  constitution 
is  going  to  be  issued. 

Delegate  ISOW1TZ:  I  am  in  favor  of  the  motion  that  the  constitution  be  published 
in  the  due  books.  If  the  constitution  is  placed  in  the  due  book  the  members  will  read 
it.  If  the  constitution  is  printed  separately  the  members  will  not  read  it. 

Delegate  LEV  INK:  Does  the  amendment  state  that  the  duebook  be  printed  in 
the  same  book  with  the  Constitution? 

President  HILLMAN       No,  a  separate  book. 

Delegate  LEVINE:  The  motion  is  that  the  report  of  the  committee  be  adopted, 
namely,  that  the  constitution  should  be  incorporated  in  the  due  book.  The  amendment 
is  for  a  separate  book  to  be  printed.  It  seems  to  me  that  both  the  motion  and  the 
amendment  are  unwise.  If  you  should  print  the  constitution  at  present  in  a  separate 
form  you  will  deprive  many  members  of  it,  who  will  not  buy  the  constitution,  and  if  the 
constitution,  as  the  motion  states,  should  be  inserted  in  the  due  book,  then  those 
who  have  already  the  book  will  have  to  wait  three  or  four  years  before  they  exchange 
it  Therefore  I  move  a  substitute  motion  that  the  constitution  be  printed  in  a  separate 
form  and  also  that  in  the  future  it  be  Inserted  in  the  due  book. 

President  HILLMAN:  I  can't  understand  your  motion  at  all.  Do  you  want  the 
constitution  to  be  printed  twice? 

Delegate  LEVINE:     In  the  future  it  should  be  inserted  in  the  due  book. 

President  HILLMAN:  This  substitute  is  meaningless  and  cannot  be  entertained 
on  that  account.  I  think  we  have  had  ample  discussion.  A  vote  has  been  called  for. 

Delegate  ZORN:  A  point  of  information.  If  the  motion  is  carried  that  the 
constitution  be  inserted  in  the  due  books,  will  the  due  books  that  are  out  at  present 
have  to  be  recalled? 

President  HILLMAN:  It  will  be  up  to  the  office  to  make  the  arrangements.  The 
convention  is  legislating  for  the  organization.  The  office  will  have  to  adjust  itself 



according  to  your  rulings     The  motion  is  that  the  constitution  be  printed  la  the  du« 
books.    The  s  men  dm  eat  U  that  It  be  printed  In  a  separate  booklet. 

(The  ameadmoat  was  defeated.  The  not  loo  waa  carried  that  the  constitution  be 
Incorporated  In  the  doe  bo*' 

By    Delegate   Blugerman. 

l  juat  want  to  report  that  there  have  been  no  appeals  and  no  irieranoea  to  rijirt 
OB  so  far 

President  HILLACAN:  We  have  agreed  that  no  further  reaolutlons  win  be  taken 
-tbors  are  at  end.  I  am  afraid. 

We  have  with  us  one  who  la  well  known  to  the  New  York  delegates,  the  cosmael 
to  our  New  York  Joint  Board.  1  now  take  treat  pleasure  la  introducing  to  you  oar 
food  friend.  Morris  Rotbeaberg. 

Address  of  Morris  Rothenberg. 

Mr.  Chairman  and  Delegates:     It  Is  very  kind  of  your  chairman  to  Interrupt 
deliberations  and  accord   me  the  privilege  of  addreeaiag   this  convention 
now  when  the  time  for  greetings  and  felicitations  baa  paaaed  and  700  are  la  the 
of  the  serious  builnsea  of  the  organization. 

I  am  very  glad  of  this  opportunity  to  greet  you  aa  one  who  through 
with  my  former  partner.  Judge  Panken.  stood  very  cloae  to  the  cradle  of  the 
ga mated  when  It  waa  born  and  has  since  been  In  touch  with  Its  activities). 

In  thoee  anxious  days,  preceding  and  following  the  Nashville  Convention.  I 

fascination  the  efforts  of  a  great  body  of  working 
they  considered  a  denial  of  their  elementary  rights  and 

K!S.    It  was  a  mighty  battle  that  they  undertook,  a  battle  waged  against  great 

•irhed  power.  I  sm  sure  that  thoae  who  led  the  fight  and  launched  the  BOW 
uadertsklnjc  little  dreamt  that  In  the  short  space  of  three  years  moat  of  the  dlsBcattiea 
which  then  confronted  them  In  the  structure  of  the  new  organs-Moo  W--M  be  over- 
come and  that  It  would  grow  to  the  effectiveness  and  the  sir 

Much    undoubtedly    has    been    said   of    the   strength    an 

the  organization  baa  reached,  of  the  Improvements  that  It  baa  accomplished  Cor  its 
members  In  the  conditions  of  their  labor,  of  Increased  wages,  of  reduced  hours  of  toll. 

what  impresses  me  still  more  Is  the  fact  that  the  Amalgamated  Clothing 
of  America  baa  made  of  Itself  a  atroog  moral  force. 

The  position  of  the  Amalgamated  Is  unique.    Although  outside  of  the  groat 
organisation  of  America,  although  surrounded  by  opposition  It  is  yet  able  to 
every  attack  that  Is  made  upon  Its  existence  and  has  compelled  many  who 
111   wishes  aamlnst  It  to  come  to   Its  support   at   the  moment   when  the  teat 
Mere  size   In   numbers  or    funds   cannot   account    for    this      Such 
obtained  by  moral  forces  back  of  them. 

Where  does  this  moral  force  come  from?     How   is  It  that  other 
which  have  lived  much  longer  and  pose  is  •  greater  numbers  and  larger 
surpass  it  In  this  regard  ?     It  comet  from  a  healthy. 
It  comes  from  the  fact  that  the  beginnings  were  laid  oa 
from  the  fact  that  the  leadership  «>'  miration  is 

In  turn,  reflects  the  clean  and  healthy  and  honest  character  of  the 
of  Its  membership. 

I  am  sure  that  the  Amnlgamated  will  not  be  content  with  merely  improving  the 
material  condition  of  Its  members,  but   thst   It  will   continue  to 
efforts  In  extending  the  moral  and  spiritual  InDnence  of  the 
particular  moment  and  In  the  days  that  are  to  coma  there  will  be 
for  doing  this. 

The  paat  three  and  a  half  years  have  boon  the  most  tragic  In  the  history  of  the 
world     There  have  beea  more  llvea  exterminated, 
has  been  more  suffering  and  sorrow  during  this  short  period  than  in 
ceding  it.     It  cannot  be.  It  must  not  be  that  all  of  this 
be  In  vain      It  cannot  be  otherwise  than  that  the  world  It 
agonies  of  the  birth  of  a  new  freedom.     But  that   freedom  will  oaly  come  with  the 



defeat  of  that  hideous  monster  which  is  attempting  to  spread  its  tentacles  over  ih«> 
entire  world;  that  freedom  will  only  come  when,  after  the  destruction  of  that  monster, 
the  new  order  of  things  in  i  shall  be  shaped— not  by  individuals  holding  the 

destiny  of  peoples  in  their  hands — by  the  peoples  themselves. 

Organized  labor,  representing  the  toilers  and  the  producers  of  the  world,  must 
make  sure  that  on  the  day  of  readjustment  its  Influence  shall  be  felt,  its  voice  shall 
be  heard.  That  will  only  be  possible  provided  the  working  people  of  the  allied  coun- 
tries that  now  fighting  the  ugly  form  of  militarism  and  autocracy  will  do  their 
full  share  in  the  successful  carrying  on  of  the  mighty  struggle.  By  giving  th«>ir  full 
hearted  support  to  the  efforts  to  defeat  the  aims  of  this  common  enemy  of  civilization 
that  is  attempting  to  dominate  the  world,  labor  will  make  certain  that  its  voice  shall 
be  heard  in  the  making  of  the  new  peace  of  the  world.  If  organized  labor  be 
Indifferent  or  half-hearted  in  its  support,  it  may  by  that  lose  the  greatest 
opportunity  that  will  come  to  it  to  make  itself  a  mlghtly  factor,  a  compelling  force 
in  shaping  th  reedom. 

Organized  labor  will  only  have  accomplished  its  high  mission  when,  acting  for 
the  common  people,  the  real  builders  of  the  world,  it  will  use  its  great  influence  to 
order  a  new  life  in  which  those  who  toil  shall  get  the  fruit  of  their  labor,  in  which 
militarism  shall  become  a  thing  of  the  dead  and  buried  past,  in  which  every  individual 
shall  have  an  equal  right  to  life  and  to  the  pursuit  of  happiness,  in  which  every 
nation,  large  or  small,  shall  have  the  full  right  of  self  expression,  the  right  to  lead 
its  life  in  its  own  way,  unhampered  and  untrarameled  by  the  dictates  of  other  nations 
and  to  contribute  what  they  are  capable  of  to  the  sum  of  human  happiness.  Then, 
indeed,  we  shall  have  a  world  in  which  there  will  be  industrial,  political  and  up; 

By  Abraham  Miller. 


BY  LOCAL  63. 

Be  It  Resolved,  that  this  convention  amend  the  constitution  of  our  organization  as 

No  amendment  or  resolution  parsed  by  the  convention  shall  become  a  part  of 
the  by-laws  of  our  organization  unless  adopted  by  a  two-thirds  majority  of  the  votes 
cast  by  the  members  taking  part  in  said  referendum. 

The  committee  recommended  non-roncurrence. 

President  HILL  You  heard  the  resolution  and  the  committee's  report. 

The  resolution  advocates  that  nothing  should  become  the  law  of  our  organization 
unless  It  is  carried  by  two-thirds  majority  referendum  vote.  The  committee  reports 
non-concurrence  and  moves  the  adoption  of  the  report. 

Delegate  CO":'  I  think  this  resolution  should  be  adopted.  I  think  it  is  very 
advisable  that  important  questions  of  our  organization  should  have  a  two-thirds 
majority  before  it  becomes  a  law. 

Delegate  Si:  Mr.  Chairman  and  Delegates — I  do  not  understand  why  the 

chairman  of  the  committee  does  not  explain  the  recommendation.  I  believe  that  the 
two-thirds  majority  does  not  conflict  with  democracy,  and  this  is  one  of  the  reasons 
that  the  committee  has  not  concurred  with  this  particular  resolution.  I  might  explain 
for  the  benefit  of  Brother  Cohen  and  those  who  are  inclined  to  feel  that  it  is  necessary 
to  have  a  two-thirds  majority  for  any  action  to  become  law  in  the  Amalgamated 
Clothing  Workers  of  America,  that  this  would  hinder  the  work  of  the  organization. 
I  think  a!so  that  in  all  democratic  institutions  it  is  accepted  that  a  majority  is  sufficient 
for  anything  to  become  a  law.  It  holds  good  in  the  election  of  officers  in  our  organiz- 
zation.  It  holds  good  in  every  instance. 

Delegate  MILLER:  I  have  nothing  further  to  add  to  what  Brother  Senter  has 
said.  The  constitution  provides  for  a  majority  vote.  The  committee  has  discussed 
this  resolution  that  a  two-thirds  majority  is  less  democratic  than  a  simple  majority,  and 
looking  at  it  from  that  standpoint  the  committee  stands  by  the  present  constitution 
which  provides  for  a  majority  and  not  for  two-thirds. 

The  report  of  the  committee  recommending  non-concurrence  was  carried. 


Li  ION 


Be  It  Resolved,  that  the  Inoomlag  O.  B.  B  take  op  the  question  of 
ft  minimum   wage  on  piece  and  week  work  in 

every  department  of 

and  be  it  also 

Resolv.  ha  general  organisation  adopt  the  week  work  system  as  a  standard 

in  our   in.i  ;...ry  and   that   the  local   unions   start   educational  campaigns  along  that 
line  In  order  to  further  destroy  the  exploitation  in  the  industries. 

The  committee  has  considered  this  resolution  very  carefully.    This  ™^»"rtfffB  con- 
tain* two  different  propositions.   It  contains  the  creation  of  a  minimum  scale  of  wages. 
.t  also  wants  this  convention  to  go  on  record  In  favor  of  one  system  of  work  all 
over  the  country.     In  vUw  of  the  fact  that  we  decided  at  the  Rochester  convention 
that  it  would  be  premature  to  r  organizations  all  over  the  country  on  that 

ti.  and  gave  each  local  market  full  right  to  decide  what  system  to  chooae. 
we  wtsh  to  continue  that  policy      \v»r.v  :•.  .-..-•... m  system  may  be  very  good  for 
York.  It  might  work  a  hardship  elsewhere.    We.  therefore,  reoommead  that  we  stand 
:i  of  the  Rochester  convention,  namely,  to  allow  the  respective  markets 
rk  out  their  own  system.     (Applause.) 

.  ..-»it  Hiu.MAN:     The  committee  recommends  the  noo -concurrence  with  the 

!  ave  all  heard  the  motion.    Are  you  ready  for  the  question? 
:.«  Z(>  >w  about  the  minimum  wage? 

•  •idcnt  U  U  was  my  Intention  to  state  that  we  will  vote  separately 

on  the  two  propositions 

Delegate  GOLD:      Mr.   Chairman   and    Delegates— Locals   2   and   3  and    ISC  also 

brought  in  a  resolution  to  that  effect.     I  disagree  with  the  committee  when  U  says 

»•  should  leave  it  to  each  market  for  its  own  decision.    We  have  a  lystem  of 

week  work  In  New  York.     When  we  come  to  the  manufacturer  be  tells  us  that  in 

•  •«  the  people  are  working  piece  work.    The  delegates  of  New  York  all  know 
that  the  week  work  system  U  the  best  system  to  control  the  conditions  and  the  hours 
of  work.     We  know  full  w.  U  that  It  will  be  a  hardship  to  bring  It  in  the  next  weak. 

>  weeka  from  now.    Hut  we  want  the  convention  to  go  on  record  that  the  O.  E.  B. 
should  carry  on  an  agitation  throughout  the  country  in  that  direction. 
Delegate   GOODMAN:      Mr.    President    and    Delegates— I    don't 
different  towns  have  had  experience  with  piece  work,  but  we  have  had 
the  »  •*   York.     We  know  that  under  the  piece-work  system,  the 

ing  tholr  utmost  down  the  prices.     Piece-work  is  a  very  bad 

The  work  in  our  Industry  is  divided  into  operations,  so  that  it  is 

•  for  the  organisation  to  take  care  of  every  operation.     . 

the  organisation  to  see  to  it  that  every  operator  should  be  satisfied  with  the 

If  we  have  a  week  work  price  it  is  kept  up  by  the  men.    We  don't  have  to 

new  prices  for  every  new  style. 

Preside:  I  win  have  to  remind  the  delegates  of  our  five 

other  President  and  Delegates— I  favor  the 

••  committee  for  this  reason.  I  believe  that  piece-work  and  week  work  are 
than  week  work  only.  Week  work  may  tc  good  In  Now  York.  I  knotr  that  we  have 
week  work  in  Boston.  1  know  that  week  work  cannot  pay.  Where  we  had  piece 
and  week  work,  the  men  In  the  shop  on  piece-work  made  more  wages,  and  they 
had  more  freedom  than  they  had  on  week  work.  Now.  under  week  work,  we  are 
being  watched  by  the  boss.  Piece  work  brought  us  up  to  a  higher  level,  a  higher 
wage,  because  seeing  that  the  piece  worker  la  making  more  wages,  the  week  worker 
naturally  asked  for  more.  We  have  seen  that  the  week  work  system  in  Boston  was 
not  a  success.  As  it  Is  at  the  present  time,  every  city  has  Its  way.  the  way  they 
see  better,  and  therefore  I  favor  the  recommendation  of  the  committee. 

Delegate  BECKERMAN       If   the   resolution   introduced   had   insisted   that 
work  be  immediately  abolished,  and  week  work  Introduced  throughout  the 
elligent  delegate  could  support  It.  because  It  could  not  be  worked  out  in 

he  resolution  does  not  call  for  this  at  all     The  resolution  calls  for  an  e 

e  week  work  system  In  preference  to  the  piece  work  system,  and  for  an 
campaign  along  those  lines.    A  resolution  of  this  kind.  In  my  opinion,  sho 
ported  by  those  who  are  working  weak  work,  and  also  by  those  who  are 
piece  work.     I   know   that  In  Chicago  It    Is   very   hard  at   this   time  to  4 

hing.  especially  to  change  the  system  of  work.    But  that  doea  not 
should  not  accept  a  certain  principle  aa  being  beneficial  to  the 
organisation.    Piece  work.  In  my  opinion,  creates  Intense 



creates  jealousy,  and  cannot  possibly  create  cohesion  and  solidarity  among  them. 
Week  work  does  create  solidarity.  (Great  applause.)  I  don't  believe  that  because 
we  happened  to  decide  one  way  in  Rochester  two  years  ago,  that  we  must  decide  the 
same  way  now,  and  must  decide  the  same  two  years  later.  1  think  what  we  out; in 
to  do  Is  to  reject  the  recommendation  of  the  committee.  We  should  appro 
the  principle  of  week  work  and  we  should  instruct  the  G.  E.  B.  to  start  an  educational 
campaign  along  these  lines.  (Great  applause.) 

Delegate  ZORN:  Mr.  President  and  Delegates— Delegate  Beckerman  expressed  my 
views.  I  was  a  member  of  Local  10,  New  York.  About  twenty-six  years  ago  th;,: 
Local  Union  established  a  week  work  system  of  three  months'  trial,  and  ever  since 
that  time  I  know  that  they  have  been  working  week  work.  I  challenge  any  organization 
to  prove  It  is  more  efficient  than  the  Children's  Clothing  Trades  of  New  York,  because 
of  the  fact  that  they  have  been  working  so  long  at  week  work.  I  say  th; 
accomplish  much  more  with  the  week  work  system  than  with  the  piece  system.  There 
could  not  be  anything  worse  in  the  trade  than  to  put  men  and  women  at  piece  work. 
As  soon  as  the  boss  or  the  foreman  sees  a  dollar  more  in  their  payroll  he  says, 
"You  are  making  too  much  money."  I  hope  all  delegates  will  go  on  the  record  for 
week  work. 

Delegate  FISHER  of  Local  39:  Brother  Chairman  and  Delegates — I  don't  be! 
that  the  piece  work  system  is  such  a  curse  as  1  heard  here  on  the  floor  of  the 
convention  from  some  of  the  delegates.  We  have  a  piece  work  system  in  Chicago.  It 
is  not  such  a  terrible  curse.  We  have  a  Price  Committee  that  decides  the  price  for 
piece  work,  and  there  is  no  limit  how  much  money  we  should  make.  The  piece  work 
system,  so  far  as  we  are  concerned  in  Chicago,  works  out  very  satisfactorily  I- 
us  more  freedom  of  action.  Even  the  week  workers  are  striving  to  work  piece  work. 
because  no  sooner  do  they  leave  their  places  for  a  few  minutes  than  the  foreman  is 
after  them.  He  is  paying  them  for  every  minute  they  are  on  the  Job.  He  is  paying  th.- 
piece  worker  for  every  minute  he  is  working.  You  cannot  deny  that  the  piece  worker 
has  more  freedom  of  action  than  the  week  worker. 

Delegate  ALEXANDER:  I  believe  that  the  piece  work  system  creates  jealousy 
and  destroys  solidarity.  If  one  worker  sees  another  making  $20.00  a  day,  and  he 
makes  only  $12.00,  he  would  not  eat  any  dinner  and  any  breakfast  and  any  supper, 
unless  he  makes  $20.000  too.  One  gentleman  told  me,  "I  know  that  when  I  go  into 
the  shop,  I  have  to  work  ten  hours  a  day,  and  afterwards,  I  am  free,  but  when  I  work 
piece  work,  when  I  get  home,  I  am  so  tired  I  have  to  lay  in  bed  and  send  for  a 
doctor."  I  am  opposed  to  this  recommendation  of  this  committee. 

Delegate  VASTANO  of  Local  63:  I  am  really  surprised  to  hear  from  a  committee 
of  such  a  democratic  organization  as  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America, 
such  an  undemocratic  recommendation.  I  am  sure  that  the  delegates  here  present 
are  striving  for  the  betterment  of  conditions.  I  cannot  understand  how  in  the  world 
we  should  be  able  to  better  conditions  by  allowing  the  piece  work  evil  to  exist  in  our 
industry.  I  know  that  whenever  there  is  any  grievance  in  a  shop,  it  is  usually  due  to 
that  driving  system.  And  let  me  tell  you  that  the  driving  system  has  not  been  an 
established  fact,  or  an  established  factor  of  the  piece  work  system.  We  find  many  of 
our  shops,  where  people  are  actually  driving  one  another,  working  piece  work.  As 
well  as  we  have  been  able  to  reduce  the  hours,  in  order  to  curtail  unemployment. 
we  must  also  reduce  the  piece  work  system  to  week  system,  in  order  to  curtail  com- 
petition in  our  industry.  (Great  applause.) 

Delegate  ALEX  COHEN:  Brother  Chairman  and  Delegates — I  think  this  organ- 
ization cannot  afford  to  say  that  we  are  going  to  permit  every  center  to  work  just 
as  they  please,  or  just  as  It  suits  them  best.  I  do  not  mean  to  say  by  that  that  if  we 
are  going  to  decide  at  this  convention  in  favor  of  week  work,  that  we  are  going  to 
carry  it  out  immediately.  I  don't  consider  any  piece  work  shop  a  pormanent  union 
shop.  The  man  working  under  the  piece  work  system  has  the  psychology  of  a  little 
merchant  that  is  selling  something.  For  week  workers  the  hours  are  definite.  For 
piece  workers  they  are  not.  I  don't  know  about  Chicago.  I  know  that  in  New  York 
any  shop  that  is  working  week  work  is  a  union  shop.  In  shops  where  they  are 
working  piece  work,  they  are  perfectly  sure  that  it  is  a  non-union  shop  at  best,  even 
if  the  people  pay  their  dues  to  the  organization.  And,  therefore,  I  say  that  the 
resolution  as  recommended  by  the  committee  should  be  rejected.  We  should  word 
it  so  that  the  General  Executive  Board  stand  instructed  for  the  week  work  system 
wherever  it  is  possible.  Wherever  it  is  not  possible,  naturally,  we  cannot  do  any- 
thing. I  say  that  all  the  delegates  should  vote  in  favor  of  rejecting  the  recommenda- 
tion of  the  committee,  and  they  should  word  the  resolution  so  that  our  organization  goes 
on  record  that  the  week  work  system  should  prevail  wherever  possible.  (Applause.) 



Delegate  OOLDBEJU2  of  Local  S»:  Mr.  Chairman  and  Delegates— I  believe 
of  us  here  agree  with  the  principle  of  week  work.  But.  aa  the  chairman  of 
raitiee  stated  here,  it  is  impossible  at  this  time  It  U  claimed  that  all  the 
agents'  time  Is  taken  up  with  making  prices  for  piece  work,  and  that  he  has  no 
for  other  work.  Another  question  was  that  people  are  ao  selfish,  and  they  try  to  beat 
one  another,  and  they  kill  themselves  working.  1  wish  to  state  that  in  Chicago  we 
had  the  same  system  In  the  beginning,  but  we  brought  our  members  to  each  a 
level,  that  we  are  working  under  piece  work  system,  but  at  the  same  time,  our 
are  working  under  week  work.  I  mean  to  say  that  the  greatest  part  of  our 
In  the  shops  are  dividing  the  work.  If  there  are  ten  people  In  a  section.  w< 
the  work  among  ourselves.  We  don't  try  to  beat  the  other  fellows  by  $3040 

•  00.     1  wish  to  say  that  our  Chicago  delegates  are  perfectly  satisfied  with  the 
piece  work  system. 

Delegate  WOLF:     Mr.  Chairman  and  Delegates    The  recommendation  of  the 

being  discussed  here  In  the  light  that   the  committee  made  It 
s  did  not  say  that  we  disapprove  of  the  system  of  week  work     The 
mltte«  states  that  because  there  are  different  markets,  and  dlffi 

in  those  markets,  we  are  not  yet  ready  to  accept  and  paaa  a  resolution  for  a 
system.    80  fsr  as  I  know,  and  so  tar  as  all  the  delegates  know,  there  are  still 
in  thin  country  that  are  not  yet  organised  to  the  extent  that  Baltimore  or  New  York 
or  any  other  city  is  organised.    We  have  to  get  busy  on  the  other  mark  els 

Delegate  ALEX  COHEN:    May  1  ask  the  brother  If  he  will  permit  me  a  queetlon? 
sidrnt  HI  1.1  MAN      i  should  rather  ask  Delegate  Cohen  to  ask  his  question  after 
we  get  through  with  the  discussion. 

Delegate  COHJ  .\       i  want  to  ask  a  question  If  I  am  permitted. 

President  HILLMAN:     Do  you  yield  the  floor? 

Delegate  WOLF:     Not  on  my  time.     (Laughter.) 

Delegate  WOLF  continued:      If  you  pass  a  resolution   by  which   we  will  go  on 
record  for  a  system  of  week  work,  it  means  that  you  will 

organisation  from  taking  up  work  In  other  cities.    That  will  surely  be  contrary  to 

land.     They 

ral  purpose  of  this  convention.     If  you  take  Rochester  or 

•  .y  piece  work  markets.    If  you  take  Chicago.  It  Is  an  exclusively 
market      In   principle,  some  of  the  commltteemen.  and   most  of  us.  agree  that 
week  work  system  Is  a  good  system,  but  we  are  not  ready  to  commit  our 
by  a  resolution  to  one  system  of  work.    For  that  reason  we  don't  want  this 
to  pass  resolutions  that  are  not  practical  at  this  time.    I  am  nob  opposing  the 
of  the  propo  am  simply  saying  that  this  convention  a 

neuter  and  the  convention  in  Webster  Hall  never  passed  a 
General  Executive  Board  did  something  to  promote  the  idea  expressed  In  that 
tlon.  Printing  resolution  means  nothing.  I  disagree  with  putting  on 
resolution  that  It  will  be  Impossible  to  carry  out  As  far  as  week  work  is 
I  understand  that  it  is  much  better  to  work  week  work  than  piece  work.  I  am 
weak  work,  and  have  agitated  In  City  of  New  York  for  week  work,  but  I  don't 
to  have  this  convention  go  on  record  with  a  resolution  that  will  not  be  carried  OSJL 
I  want  every  resolution.  1  want  everything  that  this  convention  adopts  to  be  carried  o«i 
in  life.  (Applause.) 

Delegate  (ON       A   point  of  Information      Do   1   understaa 

that  this  resolution  calls  for  a  simple  educational  campaign  to  the  end  of 
Ing  week  work? 

-i.l.-ii:  im.LMAN  reads  from  the  resolution  as  follows:  -And  also  be  U 
resolved  that  the  general  organisation  adopt  the  week  work  system  as  a  standard  In 
our  industry,  and  that  the  local  unions  start  educational  campaigns  alone  that  line. 
In  order  to  furth.  the  exploitation  In  the  Indu* 

Delegate  MARIMPIETRI  Mr.  President  and  Delegates— To  begin  with.  I  must 
say  that  In  principle  I  am  for  week  work  as  much  as  anyone  In  this  convention.  80 
many  things  have  been  said  that  I  came  to  the  conclusion  that  those  brothers  who 
spoke  are  not  handling  the  piece  work  system  in  the  right  way.  In  Chicago  we  have 
one  man  to  handle  the  piece  work  price  for  all  sections.  There  are  as  many  as  171 
sections.  Nearly  all  these  sections  are  handled  entirely  by  one  man.  with 
now  and  then.  Somebody  spoke  about  education  for  the  members,  If  our 
could  be  educated  to  the  week  work  system,  there  Is  no  bettor  edwoattoa  that 
ho  given  to  the  membership.  In  Chicago  this  has  boom  iccosmnhehed  by 
among  them  the  number  of  garmenu  to  be  made,  and  It 
speed  with  which  they  used  to  work  In  previous  times.  1  have  bad  week 



come  to  me.  and  say  they  want  piece  work.  And  there  Is  a  reason  for  it.  In  Chicago 
the  piece  workers  are  making  more  than  the  week  workers.  The  week  workers  only 
received  a  33  per  cent,  increase  in  the  last  three  years,  and  yet,  among  the  piece 
workers,  they  have  had  a  much  greater  increase  under  the  piece  work  system.  Now, 
I  Bay  it  we  educate  our  people  that  In  the  speed  they  don't  gain  anything,  we  will 
be  accomplishing  much.  It  is  only  under  the  piece  work  system  that  the  workers 
are  making  $40.00  and  $45.00  a  week,  and  you  can  never  accomplish  that  und. 
week  work  system. 

Previous  question  was  called  for. 

This  was  carried. 

President  111  LILIAN:  The  question  of  week  work  and  piece  work  has  been 
discussed  at  our  Rochester  convention.  The  resolution  is  re  introduced,  probably  by 
the  same  organisations,  at  this  convention,  and  I  am  sure  it  will  be  re-introduced  again 
at  other  conventions,  until  a  proper  settlement  of  the  question  will  be  found.  At  our 
Rochester  convention,  after  a  thorough  discussion,  we  agreed  that  the  decision  for 
systems  and  methods  of  work  should  be  left  not  to  the  national  office,  not  to  the 
officers  of  the  organization,  but  to  the  local  organization,  to  the  local  body  responsible 
for  conditions  in  the  local  market.  There  is  always  the  tendency  of  one  locality  to 
force  Its  views  upon  the  others.  As  long  as  that  concerns  only  matters  of  opinion 
there  is  no  actual  danger.  But  when  this  is  attempted  In  order  to  commit  the  organi- 
zation to  a  policy,  then  this  becomes  not  only  a  danger  but  may  actually  lead  to  a 
catastrophe.  The  Boston  market  had  its  experience.  The  Boston  market  introduced, 
by  arbitrary  power,  the  week  work  system  on  a  piece  work  market,  and  our  whole 
organization  went  to  smash.  The  national  office  paid  the  rent  of  the  office  for  over  a 
year.  We  had  no  more  than  seven  or  eight  dues-paying  members  in  the  city  of 
Boston  for  a  year.  Now,  1  am  asking  the  delegates,  would  it  be  worth  while,  if  only 
one  small  market  would  be  effected  that  way?  I  know  Delegate  Beckerman  says  we 
don't  want  to  enforce  week  work;  we  only  recognize  the  principle.  The  strength  of 
our  organization  has  consisted  in  the  past  because  we  came  with  no  policies  to  our 
members  that  we  did  not  intend  to  enforce.  If  we  will  face  the  issue  of  an  educ. 
campaign  in  the  city  of  Rochester  for  a  week  work  system,  and  the  people  will  go 
out  on  strike,  then  it  is  too  late  to  go  to  those  members  and  say,  "Well,  we  did  not 
mean  it.  It  was  merely  an  educational  campaign."  Our  strength  comes  from  the 
fact  that  the  clothing  workers  know  that  when  we  come  to  them  with  something,  we 
come  with  something  that  we  really  mean  to  stand  by,  not  simply  to  raise  false 

I  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  here  that  outside  of  the  cutting  branch  there  is 
no  week  work  system  in  our  industry.  If  you  call  it  week  work  in  small  contracting 
shops,  where  I  have  seen  men  receiving  $51.00  a  week  for  sewing  in  sleeves,  and 
making  work  for  $110.00— if  that  is  your  work  system,  I  don't  want  it.  (Applause.) 
We  have  the  worst  kind  of  a  speed-up  system.  Until  our  organization  will  introduce 
a  standard  wage  system,  until  our  organization  will  introduce  a  standard  output 
system,  we  are  not  ready  to  lay  down  our  policies  for  week  Ve  are  r 

an  attempt  in  a  place  to  introduce  a  week  work  system  that  will  put  in  standards, 
that  will  put  in  maximum  outputs,  that  will  put  in  a  minimum  standard  of  wages. 
We  are  always  facing  actual  situations.  Supposing  we  are  called  in  in  the  city  of 
Rochester,  and  we  demand  the  week  work  system,  and  you  must  fight  for  it.  I 
don't  want  to  be  a  prophet,  but  I  am  afraid  that  you  will  make  very  little  progress 
anywhere,  if  you  will  make  this  the  cornerstone  of  your  organization  today.  There 
can  be  no  standard  at  all  under  the  week  work  arrangement.  It  is  a  proposition  where 
the  contractor  gets  the  best  of  it.  He  enriches  himself  on  the  week  work  system. 
I  know  in  New  York,  in  the  uniform  situation,  the  contractors  always  asked  for  week 
work,  and  not  for  piece  work.  Why?  Because  they  could  get  a  greater  output  for 
less  money.  I  am  not  opposed  to  either  week  work  or  piece  work,  but  I  say  that 
the  organization  is  not  ready — we  have  not  worked  out  the  system  yet.  The  tasks 
before  us  are  still  great,  and  instead  of  permitting  our  organization  to  work  it  out, 
and  sometime  in  the  future  we  may  find  a  solution,  you  will  simply  make  a  resolution 
that  will  make  it  impossible.  It  is  because  of  that  that  I  hope  that  the  delegates 
will  vote  for  the  recommendation  of  the  committee,  which  means  that  as  far  as  the 
system  of  work  is  concerned,  we  permit  the  local  organization  to  dictate  the  policy. 
As  for  the  national  organization,  we  are  still  trying  to  find  out  methods  how  to  bring 
order  of  the  chaos  that  exists  in  the  industry.  I  think  that  we  ought  to  let  the 
convention  appoint  a  committeee  to  investigate,  not  simply  to  pass  a  resolution. 
Let  there  be  five  or  ten  men  who  will  come  to  us  at  the  next  convention,  and  say, 
"We  have  investigated.  We  know  it  is  possible."  Not  to  simply  have  a  delegate 


come  from  Brooklyn  or  from  Boston,  not  knowing  what  ia  going  on  in  the  ladaatff 

"T.  and  say  by  bis  vote  what  the  future  of  the  organisation  shall  be  on  a  policy 

that  demands,  first  of  all.  the  tacts— the  cold  facts,  and  nothing  but  the  facts.     1  do 

hope  that  the  delegate  will  not  bind  us  to  an  impossible  situation.    (Great  Applause.) 

The  vote  is  on  the  motion.    You  all  heard  the  motion.   The  motion  ia 
with  the  report  of  the  committee,  which  leaves  the  situation,  a*  far  as  the 
and  week  work  are  concerned,  aa  It  la  today.   All  in  favor  of  the  motion  win 
by  saving  "Aye." 

There  waa  a  divlaion  called  for. 

n  a  recount,  the  motion  waa  carried  by  19  for  the  motion  aad  if 
Delegate  BECKERMAN:     I  move  to  have  it  put  to  roll  call. 
The  motion  to  i>  >ll  call  was  carried. 

The  final  roll  call  was  S3  for.  73  against  and  11  absent 
The  rm-ommend*  10  committee  to  leave  the  coi 

work  and  week  work  ns  they  have  been  in  the  past,  was  therefore  carried  by  a  vote 
of  83  for  and  73  agai 

KCKERMAN:     I  ark  the  unanlznoua  consent  of  the  convention  for  a 
special  privilege  to  be  granted  to  Brother  Senter.  aa  he  has  to  leave  the  convention. 
i  is  waa  granted. 
«'gate  Senter  waa  enthusiastically  received. 

Farewell  Address  of  Meyer  Senter. 

Mr.  Chairman  and  Delegates:     Thla  event  in   my  life,  under  the  circumataacea 

y  are  today,  ia  such  a*  I  never  thought  possible.    I  never  thought  that,  while  being 

in  the  naval  service.  I  abould  also  be  able  to  be  present  at  the  convention  of  oar 

organisation,  which  I  have.  In  my  own  humble  way.  helped  to  make  what  It  la  today. 

1  want  to  thank  you  fo.  :esy  that  you  have  extended  me.  and  the  pleasure  that 

tone  day  I  might  be  able  to  be  back  with  you  and  again  participate  in  the  work  for 

>b!e  cauae  of  the  oppressed  people  of  the  world. 

-e  1913  I  have  participated  in  every  struggle  of  our  organisation.    1  have 
all  of  It*  joys.  I  know  that  through  the  itruffsjlet  of  the  past  five  years  we  have 
pllshed  much  more  than  did  other  organizations  in  twenty  or  twenty-five  years. 
I  also  know  that  there  are  still  greater  struggles  ahead  of  us.     Aad  it  Is  up  to 
fellow  delegates,  to  atand  by  the  ahlp.  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 

the  most  careful  way.    You  are  the  captain  of  the  ahip 
he  ones  whom  100.000  aoula  look  to.  to  lead  them,  to  bring  them  into  a  world 
brighter  and  happier  than  what  It  la  today. 

The  enemlea  of  the  organization  are  many  within  the  labor  movement  and  without. 
Tbe  -  «•*  of  the  organization  we  know  aa  well  aa  the  external.    We  know 

that  we  have  to  contend  with  employer*.  We  have  to  contend  with  profiteers  But 
there  are  enemlea  also  who  are  within  labor's  own  rank*.  There  are  men  wfeo  aaaitr 
for  the  labor  movement.  In  the  name  of  the  labor  movement,  who  would  like  to  eead 
a  dagger  into  the  heart  of  our  organization.  And  of  these  enemies  beware.  Be  aa 

ne.    Stay  on  the  deck  of  thla  ship  and  protect  her. 
birth  of  the  Amalgamated  there  waa  a  new  thought  born  In  my 
the  thought  that  some  day  tbe  working  class  will  have  a  real  and  sound 
to  look  forward  to.    When  that  time  will  come  I  know  that  the  Amalgamated  will  take 

I  believe  that  this  Is  all  I  can  aay  at  the  present  time.  I  wiah  to  extend  my 
thanks  to  the  Third  Naval  District  of  the  United  States  for  giving  me  aermtailna  te 
come  here.  I  wish  to  extend  my  thanka  also  to  Brother  Friedman  and  Brother 
berg,  who  worked  hard  to  afford  me  the  pleasure  of  being  present  at  this 

those  wort*,  brothers:     I  hope  snd   trust   that   In  all  your 
deliberations  you  will  have  in  mind  those  who  look  up  to  you  aad  that  you  will 
have  in  mind  the  thought  that  baa  been  In  my  mind  that  the 
become  the  spokesman  of  the  American  labor  movement 
The  conclusl"  addreas  waa  followed  by  long  and 

Preside,  railed  on  Secretary  Schtoeaberg  to  make  a  few 

Address  of  Secretary  Schloeseero. 

Mr.  Chairman.  Delegatee.  Brother  Senter:     Brother  Beater  ia  here  today  with  aa 



as  a  symbol  of  the  world  situation.  He  is,  in  addition  to  that,  in  a  very  intimate 
sense,  a  representative  of  some  of  our  dearest  ones,  who  now  occupy  the  Very  position 
that  he  does.  I  feel  that  each  one  of  us  present  here  sees  in  Brother  Senter  a  sort 
Af  connecting  link  between  our  organization,  collectively,  the  delegates  individually, 
and  those  who  are  dear  to  us.  whether  they  are  members  or  our  personal  friends  or 
relatives,  who  are  now  over  there.  If  Brother  Senter  has  the  opportunity  to  take 
our  message  of  love  and  greetings  to  our  members  and  dear  ones,  it  will  be  a  source 
nsolation  to  us,  as  well  as  to  them,  when  that  message  Is  delivered  to  them. 

Brother  Senter  has  been  one  of  our  most  active  members.  When  he  said  that  he 
shared  our  joys,  it  was  not  a  mere  phrase — a  mere  form  of  speech.  He  was  one  of 
those,  fortunately  not  small  In  number,  who  have  carried  the  brunt  of  the  burden  of  all 
the  struggles  of  our  organization.  He  takes  with  him  the  blessings,  the  most  heartfelt 
blessings  and  thanks  of  all  the  officers  and  active  members  of  this  organization. 

Brother  Senter  may  have  to  face  some  critical  moments.  I  hope  that  whenever  any 
such  moments  come  that  Brother  Senter  will  find  new  strength,  new  courage,  in  the 
thought  that  there  are  one  hundred  thousand  people  in  whose  hearts  he  occupies  a 
hie  place.  Brother  9enter  may  always  fall  back  upon  this  fact  that  his  place  in  the 
organization  remains  open  for  him.  There  may  be  many  thousands  coining  into  our 
ranks  to  increase  them,  strengthen  them  and  enlarge  them.  Brother  Senter's  place  will 
remain  open  to  be  filled  by  him  the  moment  he  comes  back.  The  work  that  he  has 
done  has  been  a  definite  contribution  to  the  spirit  of  our  organization. 

I  have  been  very  deeply  stirred  by  Brother  Senter's  remarks.  They  have  come 
from  the  depths  of  his  heart.  I  assure  Brother  Senter,  and  I  think  I  can  speak  in 
the  name  of  each  and  everyone  of  you,  that  they  have  found  a  response  just  so  deep 
in  the  hearts  of  all  present  here. 

Brother  Senter,  we  have  been  fortunate  enough  to  have  you  here  with  us.  You 
are  leaving  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  in  a  very  happy  state. 
You  see  that  the  harmony  established  in  our  ranks  was  not  a  temporary  affair. 
This  convention— <while  we  call  it  the  third  it  is  really  the  fourth  In  our  history*— 
has  found  us  stronger,  greater,  with  more  problems,  with  a  greater  diversity  of  friendly 
opinions.  This  convention  is  Just  as  harmonious  as  were  all  the  previous  conventions. 
You  see  that  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  has  been  organized  along 
lines  that  make  room  for  all  honest  differences  of  opinion  within  our  own  ranks,  and 
has  no  room  for  any  dishonest  opinions,  or  maneuvers,  or  schemes,  which  led  the 
previous  organization  to  ruin.  The  fact  that  this  fourth  convention  is  held  in  that  very 
spirit  in  which  the  organization  was  originally  formed;  this  fact  speaks  more  than 
anything  else  for  the  security  and  happy  future  of  this  organization. 

May  this  message  that  the  harmony  of  this  convention  gives  to  you  always  be 
with  you  and  give  you  strength  and  power  to  go  through  all  the  ordeals  that  you 
may  be  called  upon  to  go  through,  and  come  back  to  us,  back  into  our  ranks — you  along 
with  all  those  of  whose  presence  and  co-operation  we  are  now  deprived,  and  those 
of  whose  co-operation  we  may  in  the  future  be  deprived. 

I  say,  may  you  all  come  back  to  us  and  return  to  your  old  posts.  And  then,  when 
the  terrible  nightmare  that  is  now  resting  upon  the  human  race  will  be  lifted,  and 
mankind  will  again  be  able  to  breathe  free  and  the  peoples  of  the  world  will  take 
up  the  fight  for  industrial  democracy,  for  social  democracy,  for  full  freedom,  for  real 
brotherhood  of  all  the  peoples  of  the  world— may  we  meet  in  another  convention 
and  have  the  help  of  all  of  you  in  taking  up  the  greater  problems  that  will  then  confront 

The  fight  will  be  bigger,  more  intense.  But  we  hope  that  it  will  not  be  in  the 
least  bloody,  that  it  will  be  a  powerful  fight  of  the  enlightened  nations  of  the  world, 
of  the  enlightened  working  classes  of  the  world,  to  bring  the  opportunity  for  the 
people  everywhere  to  live  their  lives  in  their  own  way,  and  remove  from  their  backs 
the  parasites  of  all  descriptions. 

We  shall  then  steer  this  great  ship  of  which  you  have  spoken;  not  only  the  ship  of 
the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  but  the  great  fleet  of  an  emancipated 
and  enlightened  labor  movement,  into  the  beautiful  harbor  of  the  Co-operative  Common- 
wealth, where  all  will  be  happy,  where  there  will  be  no  occasion  for  such  valedictory 
as  we  heard  here  today. 

Secretary  Schlossberg's  address  was  greeted  with  deafening  applause.  President 
Hillman  then  bade  farewell  to  Delegate  Senter  as  follows: 

Address  of  President  Hillman. 

I  am  sure,  delegates,  that  Brother  Schlossberg  has  expressed  the  feelings  of  every 



man  and  woman  In  this  hall,  and  1  may  aay.  the  feelings  of  every  one 
opportunity  to  come  in  contact  with  Brother  Beater.    All  1  wish  to  say  on  this 
it  that  I  have  considered  It  a  personal  privilege  to  have  worked  aad  straggled  with 
Hrother  Beater  and  a  number  of  others  like  him. 

The  great  aad  wonderful  success  that  our  organisation  haa  achieved  is  due  to  the 
Beaters  In  our  organization,  the  men  aad  womea  who  always  stood  by  the  nusilisiiea 
in  time  of  stress,  who  have  given  all  there  waa  la  them  to  oar  laovemeat  to  bring 
it  where  it  is  today.  1  assure  Brother  Beater,  sad  through  him  all  thoae  who  are 
leaving  us  In  response  to  the  call,  that  we  here,  those  who  will  remain  here,  will 
consider  it  our  duty  to  double  oar  energy,  to  increase  oar  effort,  so  that  when  Brother 
Beater  and  the  others  return  they  will  find  our  organization  evea  stronger  than  it  is 

Delegates,  I  aay  that  we  must  realise  the  greater  reepeasiblllty  that  BOW  rest  apea 
thoae  of  aa  who  remain  here.  1  want  to  greet  Brother  Beater  Before  he-  leaves,  and 
sead  through  him  a  measage  of  hope  and  cheer  to  all  thoae  who  are  away  from  us. 
and  1  hope  that  In  the  near  future  we  shall  meet  again,  a  tree  people  la  a  tree 
world.  (Tumultous  applause.) 

In  the  hall  arose  to  their  feet  and  wildly  cheer  Beater.     Puslllaal 
halted  the  work  of  the  convention  to  permit  Beater  to  shake  hands  with  the 
before  leaving.     Benter  departed  amidst   the  cheers  and   plaudits  of   the 
everybody  rising  In  his  honor 

President  H1LLMAN:     Brother  Miller  has  the  floor  for  a  person 

.•gate  MILLER:  Through  an  unhappy  oversight  on  the  pert  of  the 
not  have  a  chance  to  express  my  opinion  on  the  question  that  was  just 
that  la.  the  question  of  the  week  work.  Now.  I  just  want  to  say  a  few  words  by  the 
way  of  assuring  the  delegates,  particularly  the  New  York  delegates,  who 
position  1  have  taken  for  the  last  three  years  on  the  qnestloa  of  week 
when  I  voted  for  the  recommendation  la  the  ooBtmlttee.  It  waa  with  the 
•landing  that  I  was  not  voting  against  that  which  I  have  beea  fighting  for  the  peat 
three  years,  against  the  big  majority  of  the  members  of  the  Pants  Makers'  Union  I 
have  carried  on  a  fight  for  week  work  when  in  our  organization  there  were  oaly  a  few 
that  were  with  me.  I  don't  want  the  delegates  to  be  uader  the  impression  that  I 
changed  my  opinion  on  that  proposition.  1  only  voted  for  It  because  I  felt  that  It 
would  be  a  calamity  to  the  organization  if  this  convention  would  bind  Itself  to  a 
proposition  which  Is  at  the  present  moment  impossible  to  force  oa  the  other  markets. 
I  thank  you  for  the  chance  you  have  given  me  to  explain.  (Applause) 

The  Law  Committee  then  continued  Its  report. 


the  convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  maieaes  for  the 
purpose  of  hearing  the  reports  from  General  Officers  of  their  work  for  the  last  two 
yar*.  b.«  It 

Resolved,  that  the  said  General  Officers  shall  not  be  entitled  to  act  as 
to  the  convention  of  our  organization  with  the  exception  of  General 
General   Secretary 


HOOD  OF  TAILORS.  LOCAL  NO.  2.  A.  C    W.  OF  A. 

Joe  Goodman. 

Brother  Rappaport  of  Local  t  whose  loom!  Introduced  thla 
oae  who  voted  for  it 

Brother  Roeenblum  at  this  point  took  the  chair. 

Chairman  RO8ENBLUM:     You  have  heard  the  resolution  and  the 
of  the  committee.    What  is  yeour  pleasure? 

Delegate  MILLER:  This  resolution  practically  deprives  a  member  of 
tunity  to  be  a  delegate  to  thla  convention,  tor  the  oaly  reason  that  he  may  he  a  paid 
official  This  conmltutloB  provide*  that  aay  member  of  aay  Local  Ualea  has  at  all 
times  the  right  to  be  a  dejegateto  thla  convention,  and  oa  this  ground  the 

Delegate  GOODMAN  of  Loom!  I:     Mr.  Chairman  and  Delegates       I 
thst  a  coaventlon  la  gathered  for  the  purpose  of  smeatlag  usaelUalluai    If 


has    been    introduced    that    committee    has    no    right    to    come    back    and,    because 
this  is  against  the  constitution,  recommend  non-concurrence.      I  think  that  if  this  is  the 
only  ground  we  should  refer  it  back  to  the  committee.     We  know  that  in  the  past 
conventions  under  the  old  administration   members  paid   by   the   General 
Board  were  controlling  the  convention,  and  they  drove  us  out  from  the  convention, 
know  the  convention  we  had  in  Nashville.    I  happened  to  be  a  delegate.     Every 
man  who  was  paid  by  the  General  Executive  Board  had  a  certain  number  of  people 
around  him,  and  he  was  controlling  them.    They  did  not  permit  the  ladies  and  the 
overall  makers  to  go  by  themselves,  and  they  had  a  man  who  was  control  li  in 
in  order  that  the  other  delegates  should  not  be  able  to  speak  to  them  and  tell  the 
truth  about  the  organization.    At  the  present  time  we  know  that  everything  is  in  order. 
But  we  must  prepare;  we  must  build  up  a  constitution  that  will  provide  for  the  future. 
Why  are  we  afraid  to  accept  a  radical  constitution?     I  think  this  has  to  be 
constitution  in  order  that  the  future  should  not  be  the  same  as  we  had  in  the  past 
Delegates,  I  beg  you  all  to  support  the  resolution,  because  this  is  a  proper  reso 
I    thank    you.      (Applause.) 

Delegate  BECKERMAN:  I  would  like  to  have  the  original  resolution  read  again, 
because  I  did  not  hear  certain  parts  of  it. 

Delegate  MILLER,  the  chairman  of  the  committee,  thereupon  read  the  resolution 
once  more. 

At  this  point.  President  Hlllman  resumed  the  chair. 

President  HILLMAN:  That  would  then  become  part  of  our  constitution,  if  adopted 
and  approved  by  a  referendum  vole.  The  only  thing  I  would  like  to  get  from  the 
makers  of  the  resolution  is,  do  they  mean  paid  by  the  international  office  or  paid  by 
any  office? 

Delegate  GOODMAN:     Paid  by  the  national  office  only. 

Delegate  ALEX  COHEN:  Delegate  Goodman  has  begged  us  to  vote  for  the 
resolution.  If  he  begged  the  delegates  to  do  him  a  favor  that  is  one  thing,  but  I 
think  when  it  comes  to  a  question  of  logic  I  don't  see  why  any  man,  a  member  of 
this  organization,  should  not  have  the  right  to  come  among  300  men,  even  if  all  the 
General  Executive  Board  are  members  of  this  convention.  Among  250  men  they  surely 
have  a  right  to  express  their  opinions  about  matters  concerning  the  welfare  of  the 
organization.  New,  you  have  seen  just  this  afternoon,  I  am  fortunately,  or  unfortunately, 
a  paid  officer,  paid  by  the  General  Executive  Board  at  this  time. 

Delegate  GOODMAN:     For  how  many  weeks? 

Delegate  COHEN:  It  is  just  three  weeks,  but  I  hope  it  will  be  more.  (Laughter.) 
But  that  did  not  make  me  stand  behind  the  President.  I  was  rather  in  opposition  to 
the  President,  and  I  feel  that  if  a  member  is  honest  and  sincere  concerning  the  work 
of  his  organization  he  will  at  any  time  and  all  times  preserve  the  right  for  himself, 
not  for  the  sake  of  local  this  or  local  that,  but  for  the  sake  of  his  own  conscience, 
he  will  always  preserve  the  right  to  express  his  opinion.  I  feel  that  it  would  some- 
times even  become  not  only  an  inconvenience,  but  it  would  become  a  menace  to  this 
organization  if  you  exclude  all  men  or  women  that  are  participating  daily  in  the  work 
of  this  organization,  who  have  the  opportunity  to  see  things  at  first  sight,  who  have 
the  facts  before  them,  who  know  the  organization  from  all  sides.  If  you  would  exclude 
these  men  and  women  from  participating  in  the  deliberations  of  this  organization,  I 
think  you  would  commit  the  greatest  fol'y.  I  hope  that  we  are  going  to  vote  down  this 
resolution  and  concur  with  the  report  of  the  committee  as  it  is  reported  by  the  chair- 
man. (Applause.) 

Delegate  BECKERMAN:  Brother  Chairman  and  Brothers:  I  think  that  this 
resolution  is  not  entirely  a  resolution  separate  by  itself  to  be  discussed  on  its  particular 
merits,  but  is  more  or  less  a  part  of  a  state  of  feeling  that  exists  among  certain 
delegates,  and  amongst  a  good  many  of  the  rank  and  file,  towards  a  paid  official  in 
general — not  necessarily  a  general  paid  official,  but  a  paid  official  in  general.  7  want 
to  say  that  for  the  life  of  me,  and  I  think  I  am  quite  as  democratic  as  anybody  here, 
and  believe  in  the  principle  of  democracy,  I  cannot  see  any  reason  for  any  motion  of 
this  kind  at  this  particular  time.  I  can  quite  agree  with  you  that  if  the  men  who 
are  in  the  pay  of  the  general  office  are  going  to  have  the  entire  say  as  to  their  own 
conduct,  I  quite  agree  that  it  is  absolutely  undesirable.  But  I  cannot  see  where  we 
would  benefit  by  forbidding  three  or  four  or  five  or  six  or  ten  delegates  to  have  their 
say  or  their  vote  on  this  floor  if  the  members  of  their  locals  think  that  they  are 
fit  to  represent  them.  I  don't  see  where  it  is  aiding  democracy  by  preventing  people 
from  sending  as  delegates  the  men  who  they  think  are  most  desireable  to  represent  them 
at  this  convention.  I  can  assure  you  that  if  locals  decided  that  certain  men  are  not 



represent  them,  the  locals  will  not  elect  them,  and  if  the  locals  think  they  are 
represent  them  they  will  elect  them.     And  the  locals  should  not  be  prevented 
from  electing  them.    This  is  not  democratic.    This  to  not  a  motion  tor  more  demo 

a  motion  to  eliminate  some  democracy  that  we  have  at  the  pramt  ttasa. 
(Applaus.  one  do  not  belong  to  any  croup  of  people  who  will  try  to  pick  on 

a  paid  official  because  ha  happens  to  be  a  paid  official.  1  rather  belonc  to  thai  group 
that  should  seek  to  encourac*  anyone  who  will  put  in  his  full  lime  of  service  for  the 
orcanisation  rather  than  one  who  >e  at  his  disposal  tor  the 

orcanisation  We  should  not  try  to  Interfere  with,  but  rather  aid  that  particular 
kind  of  member  la  our  organisation  We  should  not  seek  to  decrease  democracy,  but 
:  on  to  all  the  democracy  that  we  have,  and  try  to  attain  more.  This 
to  not  a  good  move.  This  is  not  a  practical  move  it  it  not  a  beneficial  move,  and  it 
surely  is  not  a  democratic  move.  (Applause.) 

Delecate  GOLD:  We  have  been  told  that  the  organization  can  be  controlled  by  a 
croup  of  men.  Then  I  say  It  Is  a  shame  if  any  local  should  send  men  of  that  kind 

thai  run   b,-  ...Mtroll,-,!   |,v   ;.'„•  iM.l!M«l<Kil       I  fta!  thai    "       '•     -•  ••       ',     •  -  '  ,    /  .:.:ru 

lion  are  too  intelligent  to  be  controlled  by  an  Individual      1  say  It  to  silly.     We  are 
going  to  extremes.     1  think  it  would  be  a  shame  for  the  convention  to  adopt  a  reeo- 
hat  kind 

Delecate  BLUGBRMAN:  Mr.  Chairman.  It  has  been  m+ntiooad  here  before  by 
the  N  •  gate  that  if  a  local  elects  a  man  to  the  convention. 

would  represent  the  Interests  of  the  members  of  that  particular  local. 

hat  in  some  cases  the  locals  are  led  by  economic  reasons  to 
organisers  to  conventions.  Organizers—  it  is  said  if  they  are  good  to  be  organisers,  they 
are  good  to  be  representatives  to  conventions.  That  may  be  richt  to 
Hut  in  some  instances  one  may  be  a  good  orcanlser  but  not  a 
rank  and  file  of  a  certain  orcanisatlon.  Let  me  tell  you. 
that  I  would  rather  permit  an  injustice  against  a  few  Individuals  who  may  not  be  In 
a  position  to  be  delecates  to  a  convention  than  commit  an  injustice  to  thousands 
of  members  of  this  organization  who  may  be  deprived  of  real  democratic  riprusitstloa 
if  this  resolution  is  not  carried.  I  will  tell  you  why.  You  say  there  are  five,  ten  or 
fifteen  delecates.  maybe,  who  will  be  in  the  employ  of  the  general  office  who  may  have 
a  voice  or  vote  in  this  convention.  Now.  let  me  tell  you  a  secret.  I  am  only  the  first 
time  at  th  'ion.  and  I  have  not  been  to  many  conventions,  but  I  know  that  there 

are  always  s  few  who  control  the  convention.  It  may  not  be  the  case  here  at  this 
convention  of  the  Amalgamated  after  a  few  years  of  Its  existence.  But  where  to  the 
guarantee  that  It  will  be  so  In  the  future?  I  •-  ill  not  take  chances  with  all  the 
democratic  sentiments,  and  with  all  the  democracy  we  are  fond  of  hearinc  so 
unless  you  create  a  constitution  which  will  provide  us  with  a  real 

President  HILLMAN:     Previous  question  was  called  for.    The 
that  the  resolution  be  non •concurred  in. 

The  recommendation  of  the  committee  was  adopted. 

Delecate  GREENBERG  of  New  York:     Brother  Chairman  and 
succest  that  the  Chair  should  Instruct  every  delegate  who 
questions  to  let  him  know  a  minute  before  his  time  is  up.  so  that  ha  can 
statement  in  full. 

President  HILLMAN:  The  Chair  shall  be  guided  by  that  question  It  is  a  very 
good  suggestion.  At  four  minutes  I  shall  rap  and  the  delegate  will  know  that  hto  time 
to  coming  to  an  end.  (Laughter  and  applause.) 

By  Delegate  Crystal. 

I  wish  to  nk  the  delegates  not  to  leave  the  city  with  a  bad  impression  that  the 
Baltimore  orcanisation  did  not  do  their  bit  tor  the  delecates.  At  the  opening  of  the 
convention  I  heard  several  remarks,  and  right  alone  every  day  we  beard  remarks  that 
the  organisation  In  Baltimore  did  not  make  proper  arrange  men  i»  I  want  to  say  that 
the  Baltimore  orcanisation  did  all  It  possibly  could  to  have  the  delecates  of 
various  citlo*  live  here  la  comfort  for  the  week,  but 
could  not  do  any  better  than  we  did.  The  Baltimore 
nor  money  to  make  this  week  of  the 
delecates.  I  have  here  a  book  which  the 
District  Council—published.  T>e  book  contains  the  history  of  the  Amalgamated 


Workers  in  this  city.  We  have  the  portraits  of  our  international  officers  in  here,  also 
of  some  local  officers  and  of  members  of  the  two  largest  shops  in  the  city  of  Baltimore, 
that  is  Strouse  Bros.,  and  Sonneborn  ft  Co.  We  have  here  articles  by  Brothers  Schloss- 
berg  and  Panken.  and  we  have  lota  of  other  Interesting  things  in  this  souvenir  which 
the  delegate*  will  enjoy.  If  you  don't  enjoy  anything  else,  I  am  sure  you  will  enjoy 
this  book  when  you  read  it.  Bach  delegate  will  get  a  copy. 

Tonight,  at  8  o'clock.  Cutters  Local  15  will  have  a  smoker  in  honor  of  the  delegates 
at  1012  East  Baltimore  Street 

I  was  asked  by  Delegate  Miss  Jacobs  to  announce  that  the  girl  delegates  who 
do  not  desire  to  go  to  the  smoker  will  be  taken  by  her  to  the  theatre  tonight.  The 
lady  delegates  are  asked  to  gather  in  the  Emerson  Hotel  at  a  quarter  of  eight,  in  tin- 
ladles'  waiting  room.  (Applause.)  I  also  want  to  announce  to  the  delegates  that  the 
Arrangements  Committee  has  arranged  to  have  photographs  taken.  The  photographer 
is  coming  up  here  this  afternoon.  I  believe  he  will  be  here  about  half-past  four  or  five 
o  clock. 

Secretary  SCHLOSSBERG:  I  want  to  make  an  additional  announcement  for  the 
Arrangements  Committee.  When  you  get  these  books,  and  if  any  one  of  you  should 
make  up  his  mind,  or  her  mind,  to  read  it.  I  want  you  to  remember  this:  there  is  one 
article  that  has  been  attributed  to  me,  for  which  I  am  not  entitled  to  any  credit.  I 
don't  know  why  the  compositor  was  so  liberal  about  it.  There  is  an  article  entitled 
"Am  I  My  Brother's  Keeper?"  That  article  I  did  not  write.  I  inserted  a  few  lines, 
but  the1  article  was  taken  from  somebody  else.  My  name  is  there  by  mistake.  I  want 
you  to  know  that  whatever  credit  the  author  is  entitled  to.  the  article  does  not  belong 
to  me. 

Session  adjourned  at  12:35  p.  m. 



Eighth  Session 

Friday    Afternoon.    May    17.    1918. 
Chairman  called  the  convention  to  order  at  2  o'clock 

By    Delegate   Arnone. 

ION  NO.  70.  A8  TO  THE  BUTTONHOUB  MAarff»f  OF  NsTW   YORK.  BY 


At  a  joint  meeting  of  the  Executive  Boards  of  Locals  244  and  24f.  of  New  York  and 
Brooklyn,  held  on  April  the  27th.  1918.  the  delegate  of  the  above  locals  to  the  Third 
Pltlilil  Convent  ion  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 
to  submit  the  following  resolutions  to  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A,  la 

Whereas,   the    buttonhole   makers   have   been 
remedied   in   other   branches   of    the   tailoring   Industry, 
system,  a  system  which  makes  it  difficult  and  well  nigh 
makers  to  reap  even  a  fair  portion  of  the  fruits  of  their 

Whereas,  the  buttonhole  makers'  unions  of  New   York  and 
by  every  means  possible  to  abolish  this  evil,  which  retards  their  progress,  itiisrs  their 
well  being  and  prevents  their  members  from  earning  a  decent  livelihood,  and 

Whereas,  the  above  unions  have  repeatedly  appealed  for  asefstinoe  to  the 

Mng  Joint   Board  and   to   the   New   York   Joint   Board 
morally  bound  to  exercise  their  good  offices  to  give  aid  and  comfort  to  their 
unions,  but  the  above  Joint  Boards  have  always  turned  a  deaf  ear  to  the 
cry  for  help  from  the  locals,  and 

Whereas,  during  the  current  year  numerous  el 

all  of  them  working  harmoniously  with  the  various  unions,  submitting  to  a 
and  negotiating  directly  with  them,  except  In  the  case  of  the  buttonhole 
who  are  compelled  to  accept  the  miserable  pittance  allowed  them  by  the 
and  sub-contractors,  so  that  numerous  eases  can  be  cited  where  the  week! 

onhole  makers  are  as  low  as  $12  a  week,  therefore  be  It 

Resolved,  that  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America.  In  Third 
Convention  assembled.  Instruct  all  assembled  delegates  to  submit  to  their 
locals  the  decisions  of  the  convention,  as  follows: 

l      TV.          ..nhole  Makers'  Locals  244  and  245  must  be  accorded  the 
nltlon  as  that  given  to  all  other  locals  affiliated  with  the 
of  America  In  their  shops  and  factories  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.: 
those  shone  must  employ  as  buttonhole  operators  only  good  standing  members  of 
144  and  24S. 

2.    Wherever  a  contractor  or  manufacturer  has 
buttonhole  operator  this  work  must  be  done  on  the  premlm  of  said 
contractor,  and  should  under  no  circumstances  he  allowed  to  he 

S.    In  order  to  set  the   buttonhole   makers  on   the 
workers  In  the  clothing  Industry,  which  Is  manifestly  their  doe  right,  the 
or  contractor  must  furnish  said  buttonhole  makers  with  the 
and  other  equipment,  and 

4     It  should  be  reonsjnrsert  as  the  solemn  duty  of  all  unions  affiliated  with  the 
Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  to  aid  and  support  Locals  244 
their  just  and  reasonable  endeavors  to  obtain  recognition  as  ulnne  to 
tmrs  and  contractors  conduct  negotlatlona  directly  with  them,  and.  Anally,  to 
the  wasteful  and  pernicious  sub-contracting  systesm. 

a  OOUMHOOU  Local  244 


The  resolution  was  read  seriatim  to  the  convention. 

President  HILLMAN:  The  committee  recommends  concurrence  and  moves  the 
adoption  of  the  report  as  read. 

The  entire  report  was  unanimously  carried. 


Whereas,  there  are  hundreds  of  men  and  women  sentenced  to  terms  in  prison 
because  of  their  having  exercised  their  constitutional  right  of  free  speech  and  free 
assemblage,  and 

Whereas,  the  prejudices  aroused  against  them  by  a  hostile  press  has  made  their 
defense  more  difficult,  and 

Whereas,  the  Liberty  Defense  Union  has  taken  upon  itself  the  protection  of  the 
constitutional  rights  of  the  men  and  women  who  are  in  need  of  such  assistance,  be  it 

Resolvejl.  that  this  Third  Biennial  Convention  goes  on  record  as  endorsing  and 
approving  the  work  of  the  Liberty  Defense  Union,  and  pledges  its  help,  morally  and 

Alex  Cohen,  Local  3;  Frank  Cancellleri,  Local  176;  Abraham  Beckerman,  Local  40. 


Whereas,  during  the  struggle  that  took  place  in  the  city  of  Baltimore  in  the 
summer  of  1916  our  comrade,  Mrs.  Blumberg,  has  rendered  most  valuable  services  and 
exhibited  great  devotion  to  our  organization,  be  it 

Resolved,  that  this  convention  does  hereby  express  its  highest  appreciation  of  the 
splendid  exhibition  of  self-sacrifice  shown  by  our  esteemed  comrade. 

Meyer  Senter.  Local  4;  Harry  Jacobson,  Local  4;  J.  P.  Friedman,  Local  4;  L. 
Feinberg,  Local  9;  Abe  Silverman,  Local  9. 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence  and  moves  its  adoption. 

President  HILLMAN:     You  have  heard  the  motion.    Are  you  ready  for  the  question? 

The  motion  was  unanimously  carried. 


Whereas,  this  Republic  was  founded  upon  the  principles  of  liberty  and  indepen- 
dence as  a  result  of  a  victorious  revolution  against  despotism,  and 

Whereas,  it  has  been  declared  by  the  government  of  the  United  States  that  the 
present  var  is  being  waged  in  the  defense  of  the  same  sacred  principles,  which  include 
the  right  to  propagate  ideas  and  theories  with  regard  to  prevailing  social  and  economic 
conditions,  and 

Whereas,  the  propagation  of  such  ideas  must  inevitably  produce  antagonism 
between  the  advocates  of  the  old  and  those  of  the  new: 

Whereas,  as  a  result  of  such  antagonism  clashes  occur,  and  advocates  of  the 
new  order  are  sent  to  jail,  be  it 

Resolved,  that  all  such  persons  of  the  labor  movement  who  are  being  sentenced 
to  jail  terms  for  such  activity  be  considered  political  prisoners,  and  we  ask  that  full 
amnesty  be  granted  to  them  at  the  close  of  the  war. 

The   committee   reccommends    concurrence. 

Unanimously  carried. 

RESOLUTION    NO.     92.     FOR    SOCIALIST    PARTY,    BY    DELEGATE     S.    LIPZIN, 
LOCAL     156,     NEW     YORK     CITY. 

Whereas,  the  Socialist  Party  works  hand  in  hand  with  our  organization,  therefore 
be  It 

Resolved,  that  we  endorse  officially  the  Socialist  Party. 

The  committee  recommends  its  acceptance. 

Delegate  GOLD:  Mr.  Chairman  and  Delegates:  I  think  this  resolution  would 
be  an  injustice  to  those  who  are  not  in  the  Socialist  Party.  I  don't  see  why  you  should 



force  upon  us  the  endofiemtnf  of  a  party  that  we  are  not  affiliated     with,    I  don't 
think  you  should  do  it 

Delegate  COHEN:     I  rise  to  do  justice  to  Brother  Gold  and  help  him  as 
1  can.    It  is  true  that  the  Socialist  Party  helped  us  in  every  way 

of  the  A"!tlg*«*eJ«4  Clothing  Workers  of  America.    I  dont  know  of  any 
as  good  as  the  Social!*  jrk  and  elsewhere.     I  know  the  party's  . 

and  the  party's  speakers  have  always  been  on  the  job  All  that  is  true.  But  1  feel 
that  a»  a  labor  organisation  we  must  make  room  for  all  elements  that  are  In  our 
Industry.  1  feel  that  our  organisation  is  as  it  la  because  of  the  fact  that  there  Is 
opportunity  for  each  and  every  one  to  give  eipreatlon  to  his  ideas  and  oj 

ing  Workers  of  America  should  gt>  on 

ing  offln.  ny   and   arouse   many  difficulties,  and   many 

obstacles,  ami  agreements  among  the  member*.     I  don't  think  this  is  a  very 

helpful  and  healthy  condition  In  an  organisation.     And   while  I  feel  that  our  loyal 

,  at  all  times  have  been  willing  to  stand  by  the  Socialist  Party  and  have  helped 

the  Socialist   r  would  not  like  to  see  the  resolution  paased  that  we  endorse 

officially  tho  Socialist  Party. 

Delegate  ZOKN      While  a  member  of  the  party  personally.  I  would  not  like  to  see 
this  tnposed  upon  an  organisation.    I  therefore  hope  that  the 

te  committee  will  not  prevail. 

The  Chair  will   recognise  two  more   for  and   two 
sgalntt.  If  iM.-re  Is  no  objection  from  the  house.    Otherwise  I  can  see  that  we  will  have 
a  whole  afternoon  discussion  on  this. 

Delegate  BLUGBRMAN:  Mr.  Chairman.  I  believe  that,  as  It  has  been  said  net* 
on  the  floor  by  various  speakers,  that  this  union  Is  different  from  other  unions  to  this 
country.  We  must  not  do  as  other  unions  do.  by  saying  we  cannot 
ourselves  in  favor  of  a  certain  political  party.  We  are  an  economic 
at  the  same  time  most  of  us  believe  in  the  political  struggle  of  the 
I  therefore  feel  that  this  convention  »hou!d  go  on  record  In  declaring  Itself  In  sympathy 
;md  In  support  of  the  Socialist  Party  of  this  country.  (Great  applause.)  We 
say  •;  nrrantentlon  is  Ror'r .!l«ticn'ly  Inclined.  Now.  where  do  we  say  it.  nnd 

how  do  we  say  It?    Why  should  not  we.  by  passing  this  resolution  frankly  and  dearly 
state  to  the  American  labor  movement  that  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  is  cJsas-conscious  eooexn 

to  go  on  record  and  declare  Itself  In  favor  of  the  Socialist  Party?     1  trust  thai  ito 
delegates  here  will  realise  the  spirit  and  sentiment  throughout  the  membership  of 
realisation  and  will  vote  for  this  resolution  one  and  all.    (Applause.) 

Delegate  WOLF:     Mr.  Chairman   and   Delegates:      i  don't  think   that  w«  ought 
to  take  up  too  much  time  on  the  question  of  this  resolution.    While  It  may  be  all 
for  a  delegate  to  bring  up  a  revolution  of  this  kind,  I  feel.  Mr.  Chairman  i 
that  we  have  been  doing  everything  that  any  local  union  anywhere  in  the  country 
do  when  the  campaign  was  on.    It  Is  not  at  all  necessary  to  pass  a  resolution  at  this 
..  to  say  that  we  endorse  the  Socialist  Party.     We  consider  ourselves  all 
me  a  radical  organisation,  and  our  local  unions  have  done  everything  they  could 
in  times  of  campaign.    At  this  time  especially  It  is  not  at  all  necessary  aad  It  is  not 
wise.    1  don't  want  to  discuss  it.    While  I  am  a  member  of  the  party,  ye:  1  don't  believe 
that  we  ought  it  a  Jabcr  organization  at  this  time,  an  organization 

If  a  resolution  of  &'.«  kind  U  introduced,  it  means  that  we  doubi  that  our 
are  supporting  the  party.  I  don't  doubt  at  all  that  our  members  are 
the  party  and  I  believe  that  It  is  not  necessary  to  bring  up  a  resolution  of 
Our  membership  on  the  East  Side  of  New  York  has  practically  elected  the 
of  the  Socialist  Party,  and  it  is  not  necessary  for  us  at  this  time  to  go  on 
endorsing  the  Socialist  Parly.  It  is  not  wise  at  this  time,  not  because  Brother  Gold 
believes  that  he  is  not  In  accord  with  the  party.  1  would  agree  with  him  if  he  had 
another  party,  but  has  not  got  It 

Delegate  GOLD:     I  beg  your  pardon:     (Laugh* 

Delegate  WOLF:     I  beg  to  be  excused.    I  would  ask  Delegate  Upsln  to  withdraw 
that  resolution.    We  are  working  for  the  party  anyway,  and  it  Is  not  necessary  to  lose 
m«-      l  wish  that  Delegate  Upsln  would  withdraw  that  resolution  aad  let  m 
work  for  the  party  as  we  did  without  the  resolution.     (Applause,) 

.KVINE:      A   point   of  Information.     Is   not   that   Iccorporated   la  the 
preamble  of  our  organisation? 

President  HIM. MAN:  That  Is  just  what  Brother  Wolf  has  mentioned  That  it 
Is  superfluous,  because  we  have  practically  accepted  the  philosophy  of  Socialism  In  the 
preamble  of  our  organisation  The  motion  to:  -Whereas,  the  Socalist  party 


in  hand  with  our  organization,  therefore  be  it  Resolved,  that  we  endorse,  officially, 
the  Socialist  I 

Delegate  RABKIN  of  Montreal:  I  move  to  amend  that  this  resolution  be  referred 
to  the  committee  for  further  consideration. 

This  was  seconded. 

President  HILLMAN:  I  wish  to  say  to  the  delegates  that  this  resolution  is  placing 
the  organization  in  a  position  of  embarassment.  It  has  been  explained  that  the  orga- 
nization has  in  each  case  supported  and  worked  hard  for  the  Socialist  Party,  even 
those  who  are  not  members  have  cooperated  in  all  the  campaigns.  I  am  now  asking 
the  delegates,  is  It  fair  to  force  everyone,  however  few  the  opposing  members  may  be, 
to  an  absolutely  official  endorsement  on  behalf  of  the  national  organization?  Why  force 
your  views  on  them?  What  i  the  motive  behind  it?  Still,  we  could  not  possible  afford 
to  vote  down  this  resolution  because  that  might  be  interpreted  by  some  people — the 
opponents  of  Socialism — that  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  is  in  opposition  to  the  Socialist  Party. 
This  is  why  I  feel  that  the  amendment  to  refer  it  back  to  the  committee  to  bring 
in  a  report  that  will  express  the  views  of  the  convention  as  a  whole  should  be  supported 
by  the  delegates.  The  vote  lb  on  the  amendment 

Delegate  WOLF:  May  T  ask  the  privilege  for  the  delegate  who  drew  up  the 
resolution  to  take  the  resolution  back,  so  that  he  can  modify  it? 

President  HILLMAN:  When  a  resolution  has  been  already  up  for  discussion  on 
the  floor  it  is  the  property  of  the  convention.  (Applause.) 

Delegate  WOLF:  Mr.  Chairman,  if  the  maker  of  the  resolution  desires  to  modify 
It  with  the  consent  of  the  convention  I  don't  see  why  you  should  object. 

President  HILLMAN:  The  delegate  has  a  right  to  have  this  re-worked  when  it  is 
handed  in  for  reconsideration,  if  the  convention  decides  to  have  this  referred  back  to 
the  committee. 

The  amendment  to  refer  It  back  to  the  committee  was  unanimously  carried. 

By   Delegate   Alex.  Cohen,  Chairman. 


Whereas,  the  city  of  Louisville,  Ky.f  has  about  five  hundred  people  employed  in 
the  clothing  industry,  and 

Whereas,  as  a  result  of  the  last  strike  the  organization  has  succeeded  in  organizing 
about  50  per  cent,  of  the  workers  in  the  industry,  and 

Whereas,  more  than  60  per  cent  of  the  workers  of  the  industry  are  women, 
therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  that  a  woman  organizer  be  placed  by  the  General  Office  in  the  city  of 
Louisville,  Ky.,  to  assist  Local  120  in  organizing  100  per  cent  in  that  city. 

I.  J.  STRIZOVER,  Local  120. 

The  committee  has  decided  to  refer  it  to  the  General  Executive  Board  for  imme- 
diate action. 

President  HILLMAN:  You  have  heard  the  report  of  the  committee  and  the 
recommendation  to  refer  it  to  the  General  Executive  Board.  Are  you  ready  for  the 

The  recommendation  of  the  committee  was  unanimously  carried. 


Whereas,  In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  New  England  States  have  large  factories 
making  all  kinds  of  clothing  and  ignoring  union  conditions  of  cities  where  unions  are 
strong,  be  it 

Resolved,  that  an  organizer  be  placed  in  the  New  England  States  immediately 
by  incoming  General  Executive  Board. 


Samuel  Zorn. 
The  committee  concurs  in  that  resolution. 



President   HILLMA.N       The  commstee   reports   coocrrence      You   all   beard   the 
roport  of  the  committee;  are  700  ready  for  the 
The  report  of  the  committee 

RESOLUTION     NO.     94.     ON     ORGANIZATION     OF     CUSTOM      TAILORS.      BY 
LOCALS     SO    AND     112.     NEW     YORK     CITY. 

Whereat,  the  mail  order  and  custom  trade  to  not  completely  nrjlilni  fea  New 
York  and  Chicago,  and 

Whereas,  the  cutters  ft  mi  custom  ffantff  TTiiken 
coat  makers  are  Dot  organized  In  the  mail  order  houses  In 

Resolved,  that  this  contention  go  OB  record  In  favor  of 
coat  makers  In  all  mall  houses  In  New  York  aad  Chicago;  be  It  further 

Resolved,  that  organisers  be  put  on  Immediately  to  start  an 
palgn  In  New  York  and  Chicago  In  order  to  organise  the  mail  order  trade  and 


Morris  Rosenblatt.  Secretary.  Local  Itl. 
Wm.  Cohen.  Secretary.  Local  MX 

The  committee  recommends  that  this  be  referred  to  the  General  EiecitlM  Board. 
The  recommendation  of  the  committee  was  unanimously  carried. 


148    AND    153.     NEW     YORK  i'HILADKU' 

Whereas,  there  are  scattered  throughout  the  United  States  and  'Ytttft  some 
€0,000  unorganized  shin  and  boys'  waist  workers,  and 

Whereas,  the  two  organised  Shirt  and  Boys'  Waist  Local  Unions  of  New  York 
and  Philadelphia  are  strongly  affected  by  this  unorganised  labor,  and 

Whereas,  the  present  time  is  the  most  favorable  for  the  organization  off  the 
unorganised  shirt  and  boys'  waist  workers,  be  it 

Resolved,  that  a  general  organization  campaign  be  started  among  the  shirt  and 
boys'  waist  workers  in  the  United  States  and  Canada;  be  It  also 

Resolved,  that  each  local  union  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 
represented   at    the    convention,   start   activities   among   the   shin   and    boys' 
workers  In  its  city;  be  It  further 

Resolved,  that  the   members  of   the  General    Sxecutlve   Board   and    tl 
Officers   be   Instructed   to  do  their   utmost   towards  organizing   the   shirt   and 
waist    workers. 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence  in  this  resolution. 

The  recommendation  of  the  committee  was  unanimously  carried. 

LOCAL  15. 

Whereas,  the  cutters  of  Baltimore  City,  affiliated  with  the  Amalgamated  OoUIng 
Workers  of  America,  are  having  trying  times  in  their  efforts  to  bring  the  balance  of  the 
cutters  and  trimmers  into  our  organization,  and 

Whereas,  the  manager  of  the  Baltimore  City  District  Council  having  the  boat  part 

of  his  time  taken  up  with  the  task  of  securing  better  conditions  and  klgasf  wagea 

••  members  In  order  to  meet  the  high  cost  of  living  for  the  workers,  therefore  be  k 

Revolved,  that  this  convention  go  on  record  as  Instructing  the  Prsslimn  to  place 
as  many  organisers  as  may  be  necessary  in  the  city  of  Baltimore  to  have  a  104  per 
cent  Amalgamated  organisation  in  that  • 


The  committee  recommends  that  this  be  referred  to  the  General  Eaooettto  Board 

Unanimously  carried. 

BY  LOCAL  61 

Whereas,  the  City  of  Chicago  la  a  rscogiised  clothing  center  of  the  United 



Whereas,  a  great  many  of  the  clothing  workers  of  Chicago  are  still  unorganized 
to  the  detriment  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  and 

Whereas,  the  Chicago  organization  has  made  several  heroic  efforts  to  bring  all 
the  clothing  workers  under  the  banner  of  the  Amalgamated,  and 

Whereas,  the  members  of  the  Chicago  organization  were  at  all  times  ready, 
anxious  and  willing  to  dedicate  their  time,  money  and  energy  to  organization  purposes, 

Whereas,  the  Chicago  organisation  has  conducted  and,  to  a  great  extent,  financed 
two  great  strikes,  the  money  coming  out  of  the  pockets  of  the  Chicago  members 
gave  willingly  and  unselfishly,  and 

Whereas.  Chicago  has  a  v.ays  responded  to  the  call  of  other  cities  in  time  with 
financial  support,  and  not  in'requently  with  moral  aid,  and 

Whereas,  Chicago  feels  that  the  psychological  moment  has  arrived  to  make  another 
supreme  effort  to  organize  tno  workers,  and 

Whereas.  It  is  absolutely  essential  to  organize  the  city  as  a  matter  of  self-preserva- 
tion for  the  Chicago  organization,  and 

Whereas,  Chicago  has  to  reckon  with  a  clothing  manufacturers'  association  which 
controls  the  destinies  of  the  <mmense  army  of  unorganized  workers,  be  it  therefore 

Resolved,  that  we,  the  members  of  Local  61,  A.  C.  W.  of  A.,  assembled  at  a 
regular  and  special  meeting  at  409  South  Halstead  Street,  Chicago,  recommend  to  the 
Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  that  every  effort  should  be  made 
to  lend  moral  and  financial  aid  to  the  Chicago  organization  to  assist  it  in  organizing 
the  city. 

F.   Petrick, 
S.   Geier, 
J.  Kroll. 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence  in  this  resolution. 
Unanimously  adopted. 


Be  It  Resolved,  that  this  convention  orders  the  incoming  General  Executive 
Board  to  establish  a  district  form  organization  for  the  cities  and  towns  where  the 
organization  has  not  full  control,  and  that  a  responsible  man  from  the  General  Office 
should  be  in  charge  of  all  the  work  pertaining  to  organizing  said  districts.  District 
organization  should  be  mapped  out  as  follows: 

Western  New  York  District  should  include:    Utica,  Syracuse,  Buffalo,  Rochester. 

Middle  Western  District:  Cleveland,  Cincinnati,  Pittsburgh,  Salem,  Akron,  Colum- 
bus, Youngstown. 

Northwestern  District:   St.  Louis,  St.  Paul,  Milwaukee. 
Canadian  District,  No.  1:   Montreal,  Winnipeg. 
Canadian  District  No.  2:  Hamilton  and  Toronto. 

The  committee  recommends  that  this  be  referred  to  the  General  Executive  Board 
for  consideration. 

President   HILLMAN:      The    motion    is    that   the    resolution    be    referred    to    the 
Incoming  General  Executive  Board. 
There  was  no  objection. 
Unanimously  carried. 


Whereas,  an  organization  campaign  has  been  started  in  Cleveland  two  years  ago 
to  build  up  a  strong  union  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  in  that  city,  and 

Whereas,  to  accomplish  this  difficult  task  in  Cleveland,  where  we  have  to  contend 
with  powerful  manufacturers,  who  have  bitterly  and  steadily  fought  and  opposed 
every  move  of  the  workers  to  organize,  and 

Whereas,  some  of  these  manufacturers  have  so-called  union  shops  controlled  by 
the  United  Garment  Workers  of  America,  whose  members  are  forced  to  work  for 



low  wages  and  under  miserable  conditions  so  that  they  can  sell  the  label  and  claim 
that  they  have  organised  shops,  and 

Whereas,  in  order  to  change  this  state  of  affairs  and  to  bring  about  an 
tion   which  would   strive  to  Increase  the   wages  of  the 
working  hours  and  generally  Improve  working  condition*  it  is  at 
begin  a  general  organising  campaign  among  the  workers  of  this  city  which.  If 
In  proper  spirit  and  with  proper  assistance  from  the  General  Office, 
be  successful  In  establishing  a  strong  union  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  in 
the  (  ieveland. 

Whereas,  about  76  per  cent  of  the  workers  In  our  industry  are  Bohemians,  who 
can  beat  be  reached  by  men  of  their  own  nationality,  therefore  be  ii 

Resolved,  that  we.  the  members  of  the  United  Tailors  of  Cleveland.  Ohio.  Local 
111.  request  that  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers 
Union  of  America  grant  their  request  and  send  to  Cleveland  one  Bohemian  and  one 
Italian  organiser  and  give  us  such  other  sssistsnce  aa  would  be  necessary  to  effectively 
condu  sanitation  work  in  Cleveland. 

Abraham  Victor. 
Harry    Vldre. 
Louis    PUch. 

We  recommend  reference  to  the  General  Executive  Board  for 
e  ration 

There  was  no  objection. 
Unanimously  carried. 

UsVOLUTION  NO  6»;.  ON  OKI; AN;/.IN<;  THK  OLOTHOfQ  \NUKKKH~  IN       .    •.    .:• 

Whereas,  it  has  been  the  tendency  of  some  clothing  manufacturers  of  this  city 
and  other  cities  to  establish  tailoring  shops  in  country  towns  In  their  effort  to  as  cap  • 
the  Influence  of  the  Amalgamated,  therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  that  this  convention  Instruct  the  Incoming  General  Executive  Board 
and  its  officers  to  exert  all  efforts  to  organize  the  workers  In 

II.  Elsen.  Local  114 

yftal.  Local  3« 
Bartos,  Local  ft. 
A.  Feldman.  Local  IS 
Sam  Baasin.  Local  241. 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence  In  this  resolution. 
Unanimously  adopted. 


Whereas,  the  canvas  and  padmakers  In  the  City  of  New  York  are  organised  1043 
per  cent  and  enjoy  union  conditions,  and 

Whereas,  in  the  cities  throughout  the  United  States  the  canvas  and  padatakers 
are  not  organised,  and 

Whereas,  they  are  an  Important  factor  in  the  trade,  therefore  be  It 

Resolved,  that  we  start  a  campaign  to  organise  the  canvas  and  padmakers  all 
over  the  United  States  and  Canada. 

PHIL.  BRAND.  Loci  1M. 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence. 

Unanimously  adopted. 


Resolutions  accepted  by  the  Joint  Board  and  endorsed  by  the  locale  of 
Taking  Into  consideration  the  conditions  of  the  tailoring  trade  of  Montreal,  also  the 



abnormal  condition  of  the  tailoring  industry  in  the  Dominion  of  Canada  at  large,  and 
the  urgency  to  have  the  entire  trade  organized  by  efficient  leaders,  the  General  Office 
should  always  be  in  touch  and,  in  close  relation  with  all  the  Canadian  locals,  therefore 
be  it 

Resolved.  1.  That  two  general  organizers  be  assigned  for  a  three-month  organiza- 
tion campaign  to  organize  all  the  tailors  in  the  trade,  and  one  of  the  two  should  be 
Brother  Madanick. 

That  Brother  Madanick  should  also  be  appointed  as  general  organizer  of  the 
Dominion  of  Canada  and  should  concentrate  his  activities  in  the  Dominion  of  Canada. 

S.  That  the  entire  Dominion  should  be  represented  in  the  General  Executive  Board 
by  a  member  nominated  by  the  representatives  of  the  Canadian  locals  of  the  con- 

4  And  we  also  express  our  desire  that  the  convention  should  instruct  the  incoming 
General  executive  Board  that  the  latter  should  have  the  first  sitting  in  Montreal. 


Frank    White,    Local    209. 

Albert  Wells,   Local   116. 

E.  Rabkin,  Local   L'77 

We  recommend  reference  to  the  General  Executive  Board. 
Unanimously  carried. 


In  view  of  the  fact  that  in  the  last  convention  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.,  held  in  the 
city  of  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  a  resolution  was  passed  by  the  convention  to  establish  a 
department  with  power  to  do  organization  work  among  the  women  wage  workers  in 
our  industry; 

In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  women  have  been  politically  emancipated  in  many 
states  of  the  Union,  yet  we  find  that  there  is  a  feeling  among  the  members  of  our 
organization  not  to  give  necessary  importance  to  bringing  women  workers  into  our 
organization,  be  it  .therefore, 

Resolved,  that  we,  delegates  of  Local  63,  hereby  declare  that  such  a  position 
held  by  our  members  is  reactionary  and  not  progressive 

This  convention  orders  to  establish:  first:  a  women's  department  in  charge  of 
a  competent  woman  organizer  with  full  power  and  the  co-operation  of  the  General 
Office;  Second:  said  department  shall  use  every  educational  means  pertaining  to 
organization  work  among  women;  Third:  that  permanent  women  organizers  be  placed 
on  the  organization  staff  throughout  the  country. 

We  recommend  that  this  be  referred  to  the  G.  E.  B.  for  immediate  consideration. 

President   HILLMAN:      You   have   heard   the  recommendation   of   the   committee. 

Unanimously  adopted. 

President  HILLMAN:     Does  that  complete  the  report? 

Delegate  COHEN:  Brother  Chairman,  this  completes  the  report  of  the  Organiza- 
tion Committee. 

President  HILLMAN:     Then  they  stand  honorably  discharged. 

By  Harry  Cohen,  Chairman. 


Whereas,  the  Clothing  Drivers'  Union  is  an  essential  factor  in  the  tailoring 
industry,  and 

Whereas,  they  give  more  strength  to  the  Union  by  their  being  united  with  the 
New  York  Joint  Board,  and 

Whereas,  the  New  York  Joint  Board  has  officially  recognized  the  Clothing  Drivers' 
Union  and  permitted  its  delegate  to  represent  that  organization  in  the  Joint  Board, 
thcreiore  be  it 



Reaoived.  that  this  convention  goes)  on  record  to  five  them  foil 
grant  them  a  charter  that  will  entitle  them  to  all  privileges  of  a  local  of  the  A 
of    A 

Paul  Arnone,  T/^sjt  (3. 
Harry  Oman.  Children's 

Trade  Joint   Bo* 
Meyer  Senter.  Local  4 

The  comittee  i  inommisjii  omicirrofjoe  with  the  reeoluUon. 
Preeident  HILLMAN:     Yon  have  heard  the  recommendation  of  the 
The  committee  rinnmaenrts  that   the  Clothing  Drivers'   Union  should   be  granted  a 
charter  from  this  organisation.     I   beliere,   though,   that    It    would   have 
proper,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  this  Is  an  entirely  new  part  of  the  industry,  to 

the  O.  B.  B.     1  personally  would  like  to  have  more  information. 
Delegate  BBCKBRMAN:     I  move  to  amend  that  this  be  referred  to  the  G    B    R 
for  action. 

The  amendment  was  carried. 

By  Delegate  Abraham  Miller.  Chairman. 

Delegate  MILLER:  I  want  to  announce  that  Resolution  No.  St.  which  I  ehali  now 
road,  was  withdrawn  by  the  delegation  of  Local  2. 

Whereas,  an  official  of  our  organisation  employes  the  name  of  the  nuiilsnflen 
in  conducting  the  business  of  same. 

Be  It  Resolved,  that  no  official  shall  have  the  right  to  oee  the  title  of  the 
organisation  In  conectlon  with  any  personal  or  private  interest. 

TAILORS.  LOCAL  2.  A.  C.  W  OF  A. 


We  have   three  different   resolutions.   Introduced   by  different   local 
they   are   the   tame. 


Whereas,  the  General  Executive  Board  of  our  International  la  the  high  eat  autho- 
rity In  transacting  the  business  of  our  organisation,  and 

hereae.  the  General  Executive  Board  has  the  right  to  appoint  orgaateers  aad 
pass  judgment  upon  their  work,  be  it 

Resolved,  that  we  recommend  to  the  convention  that  the 
w which  consists  of  eleven  members  shall  have  no  more  than  two  paid 
Is.  the  General  President  and  the  General 

TAILORS.  LOCAL  S.  A,  C.  W.  OF  A. 


The  committee  recommends   n on -concurrence  with  this   resolution,  with 
Rappaport  in  the  mlnlority.  who  Is  for  the  resolution 

The  other  two  resolutions,  before  mentioned,  are  aa  follows: 


the  Baltimore  Local  Unions  feel  that  the  General 
white  the  convention  is  not  In  seesion.  for  the  rvaaiag  of  the 
be  It 

Reaolved.  that  the  Incoming  General  Executive  Board  shoald 
of  this  organisation  not  paid  by  the  General  Office 





Whereas,  it  was  the  practice  of  this  organization  to  have  general  organizers 
serve  on  the  executive  board,  and 

Whereas,  some  general  organizers  as  members  of  the  General  Executive  Board 
had  to  hear  reports  and  pass  judgement  on  their  own  activities,  and 

Whereas,  we  feel  that  this  is  not  a  democratic  and  healthy  state  of  affairs  in 
an  organization,  therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  that  the  General  Executive  Board  should  consist  of  members  not  serving 
as  General  Organizers  for  our  organization.    In  case  of  any  of  the  General  Executive 
Board  members  joining  the  staff  of  organizers  of  our  General  Organization  a  subs 
should  be  provided  at  the  convention  to  take  his  place. 

LOCAL  3,  A.  C.  W.  OF  A. 
Alex  Cohen, 
S.    Weinstein, 
M.  Golilin, 
L.  Revayel, 
L.  Nerenberg. 

President  HILLMAN:  This  and  the  other  two  resolutions  propose  a  change  in 
the  constitution  which  will  prohibit  our  organization  from  nominating,  voting  for,  or 
electing  to  the  G.  E.  B.  brothers  who  are  general  organizers  for  the  National  Office. 

The  committee  recommends  non-concurrence.    That  is  the  report  of  the  majo 
The  minority  dissents.     The   minority   recommends   the   concurrence.   What   is   your 
pleasure?    The  vote  will  take  place  on  the  minority  report.    Are  you  ready  for  the 

Delegate     RIGER:     Mr.    Chairman    and    Delegates:     Similar     resolutions 
introduced  at  the  Rochester  convention,  and  defeated.     I  believe  that  the   run 
report  should  be  defeated  at  this  convention,  too,  for  the  simple  reason  that  it  will 
bar  active  men  in  the  movement,   who  are  best   fitted   for   the   Organization,   from 
being  a  member  of  the  Board.     I  believe  that  the  delegates  will   vote   against  the 
minority  report,  and  for  the  majority  report. 

Delegate  RABINOWITZ:  I  am  heartily  in  favor  of  the  minority  report — that  no 
paid  official  should  be  in  the  G.  E.  B.,  not  only  from  the  democratic  standpoh. 
from  the  business  standpoint.  I  am  in  favor  of  that  for  the  simple  reason  that  if  the 
B.  will  not  be  of  paid  officials,  and  if  the  organizers  are  going  to  be  responsible 
to  the  G.  E.  B.  they  will  have  much  more  efficiency,  they  will  have  much  more 
responsibility.  I  don't  doubt  the  honesty  of  the  G.  E.  B.,  but  they  are  in  a  very 
peculiar  position.  When  organizers  come  together,  both  the  G.  E.  B.  and  organizers 
give  a  report  of  what  they  have  done.  They  are  in  a  position  where  their  work  is 
.ed.  They  cannot  criticize  an  organizer  if  he  is  a  G.  E.  B.  member.  Let  us 
take,  for  instance,  the  stenographer.  If  the  stenographer  is  going  to  be  a  G.  E.  B. 
member,  he  will  not  have  so  much  responsibility  as  if  he  would  not  be  a  G. 
member.  It  is  the  same  with  everyone,  and  I  appeal  to  all  delegates  to  vote  for  it. 

Delegate  BECK  I :  I   want  to  say  that  naturally  I  have  great  sympathy, 

great  feeling  in  this  case,  with  the  minority  report,  for  the  reason  there  is  no  question 
about  it,  but  it  seems  more  democratic,  it  seems  more  just,  and  it  seems  more 
logical  that  a  body  of  men,  organizers,  should  be  responsible  to  those  not  only  who 
are  not  paid  officials,  but  particularly  to  those  who  are  absolutely  uninfluenced. 
From  a  democratic  viewpoint,  that  is  perfectly  proper  and  perfectly  right.  But  the 
unfortunate  thing  in  this  case  is  that  as  a  practical  measure  it  is  an  absolute  blunder, 
this  report  of  the  minority.  After  all,  in  what  position  are  our  people  who  are  not 
paid  officials,  and  are  confined  to  the  workshops,  to  judge  of  what  work  is  required  in 
Montreal,  or  for  Toronto,  of  what  work  is  being  done  here,  and  being  done  there? 
I  am  not  one  of  those  who  want  to  put  a  premium  on  brains.  I  am  not  one  of  those  who 
want  to  confine  a  man's  activities  to  one  particular  thing,  and  prevent  him  from 
using  his  brains  wherever  they  can  be  used.  I  am  very  sorry  to  say  that,  as  fine 
an  organization  as  we  are.  we  are  not  yet  overburdened  with  a  very  extraordinary 
number  of  very  intelligent  people.  We  have  our  proportion.  We  have  a  larger  propor- 
tion in  comparison  to  other  organizations.  But  we  have  not  yet  developed  sufficient  talent 
to  meet  the  needs  of  a  revolutionary  class  conscious  labor  organization.  If  happens  that  a 
good  many  men  who  are  suitable  for  organization  work  are  also  suitable  for  executive 
-k  !t  happens  that  a  man  who  puts  in  all  his  time  in  the  organization,  is  in  a 
position  to  know  more  about  the  organization,  and  is  therefore  more  competent  to  be 



an  eiecutive.    That  is  a  fact.    As  far  as  being  responsible  to  coacera+d.  if  I  were  aa 

organizer,  and  1  wanted  to  get  away  with  it.  1  would  not  want  to  be  responsible  to 

the  o.l  i  would  want  to  be  responsible  to  a  Dumber  of  mea 

coming  from  tbe  workshops  wbo  would  know  nothing  at  an  about  my  work.     You 

and  less  safeguards  when  you  have  men.  however  eiaecre. 

who  know  little  about  the  situation,  little  about  the  general  activity  of  the  organisation, 
to  paas  upon  the  work  of  men  who  are  doing  the  work  of  the  organisation.  I  have 
the  greatest  sympathy  with  tbe  minority  report,  but  I  realise  that,  la  the  eealk* 
between  theory  and  practice,  we  have  got  to  drop  this  particular  theory  for  the 
general  welfare  of  the  organization.  (Applause.) 

Delegate  GOODMAN:      If  I  am  not   mistaken.  Brother 
before  that  the  men  wbo  are  working  In  tbe  shops,  tbeee  men  not  only 
but  tht-y   feel  thHr  oppression,  and  therefore  they  alone  can  be  the 
of  themselves.     I  want  to  ask  Brother  Beckerman  where  do  we  get  our 

;.ot  from  tbe  shops?    Do  you  mean  to  say  that  If  a  man  la 
shop  today,  and  Is  getting  paid  aa  an  operator,  or  preaaer.  or  tailor,  be  knows  leaa  than 
tbe  general  organ  i  •  here  do  you  get  tbe  general  organiser  from.  If  not  from 

among  men  who  are  developed  In  the  shop?  1  say  that  we  always  must  have  control 
over  men  who  are  working  for  the  organization,  wbo  are  working  for  tbe  welfare  of 
tbe  working  class.  Even  some  of  our  prevent  organisers.  If  they  would  be  b 

would  still  remain  general  organisers.  In  order  that  tbe  people  should  nave 
faith  In  our  organisation,  that  we  »hou!d  not  develop  tbe  same  thing  as  we  bad  before. 
we  must  protect  ourselves.  We  cannot  afford  to  rebuild  our  organisation  again  and 
again.  We  have  built  up  an  organisation  with  the  spirit  that  everybody  is  sattttodL 
We  must  keep  up  with  the  spirit,  and  protect  our  organization. 

Delegate  FRIEDMAN:  A  remark  was  made  here  a  little  wblle  ago  TO  tbe  effect 
that  we  want  the  organizers  on  tbe  same  level  as  tbe  stenographer*.  Well,  you  mlgbl 
aa  well  include  janitors  and  everything  else.  Tbe  organisers  come  from  tbe  abopa. 
says  Goodman.  Certainly,  they  don't  come  from  anywhere  esta,  Bat. 

according  to  his  viewpoint,  and  the  resolution  of  tbe  minority,  ss  soon  as  a  BMW  lea  vat 
the  shop,  and  becomes  a  general  organlr*r.  bis  loyalty,  his  spirit,  and  all  that  was 
was  good  In  him  while  he  was  In  the  shop,  immediately  flies  ou:  I  think  .  would 
be  a  pretty  poor  organization  if  this  mere  true.  This  resolution  waa  bromgbt  la 
because  <•'  disagreeable  things  we  bad  in  the  former  organisation.  I  say  this 

is  no  good  reason.    The  Chinese  5.000  years  ago  tried  electricity,  and  made  a 
of  it.    It  does  not  say  that  we  nave  got  to  adandon  it    Because  It  was  not 
somewhere  else,  there  is  no  reason  why  we  should  put  handicap*  on  this 

•  nnore.  so  long  as  you  have  the  irembershlp  vote  upon  everybody,  so 
there  la  a  referendum  vote  taken,  you  havo  absolute  democracy.    If 
be  elected  at  this  convention,  you  would  say  It  is  not  democratic.    But  the 

.  and  every  official,  is  elected  by  referendum.     I   say  yon 
punish  a  man  because  he  Is  willing  to  be  a  general  organiser.    Not  everybody  la  oar 
or**  ni  ration— and   I  know  the  national  organ!  tat  ion  baa  tried  to  got 
willing  to  be  an  organiser.     Because  a  man  Is  willing  to  accept  an 
you  immediately  put  him  in  the  criminal  class.    Don't  put  a  migma  on  him.    I 
that  if  tbe  minority  report  Is  adopted  it  will  dampen  the  spirit  of  our 
and  win  positively  put  a  handicap  on  a  man  or  a  woman  when  accepting  the 
position  of  organiser. 

Delegate  ALEX  COHEN-  I  feel  that  in  this  case  we  may  easily  run  to  tbe 
me  of  the  ridiculous.  I  want  first  to  overcome  a  few  difficult  I**  broagbt  oat 
by  my  good  friend.  Delegate  Beckerman.  Delegate  Beckerman  is 
to  know,  when  the  O.  E.  B.  convene*  and  there  la  a  group  not  acquainted 
has  been  done  here  and  there,  bow  they  will  act?  First  of  all. 
the  President  of  tbe  organization,  la  supposed  to  know  what  is 
there  and  everywhere,  and  I  hope  he  does  know,  and  we  know  that  bo 
that.  Brother  Scbloasberg  la  quite  acquainted  with  tbe  work  of 
If  there  is  something  of  much  Importance,  a  telegram  for  2Sc  will  inform  s  certala 
organizer  to  appear  and  report  on  tbe  situation  ta  Canada,  or  Montreal,  or  in  New 
(Applause)  It  is  true  that  we  need  good  men.  But  I  said  two  yean  ago.  and 
I  do  repeat  it  here,  that  we  don't  deprive  tbe  organisation  of  the  eerrtcos  of  good  saoa  by 
the  fact  that  we  don't  want  them  to  be  G.  E.  B.  members  I  think  that  all  organism  try 
to  serve  us  in  the  capacity  of  organlsera.  In  tbe  beat  capacity  that  they  are  nepabls  of. 
but.  when  it  comes  to  the  administrative  part  of  th*  organisation.  It  to  not  more  than 
fair  and  just  that  men  of  the  various  parts  of  tbe  country  should  come  there  and 



listen.  Just  as  you.  delegates,  are  listening  today  to  what  has  been  done  for  two  years. 
The  delegates  come  here  and  discuss  vital  problems  of  the  organization.  We  discuss 
them  because  we  are  sensible  men.  We  listen  to  questions,  to  reason,  and  then  w« 
give  our  opinions.  I  think  it  should  be  done  the  same  way  at  the  G.  E.  B.  meeting. 
You  know  what  respect  the  G.  E.  B.  enjoys,  together  with  the  President  and  the 
Secretary.  Discussing  the  resolution  we  have  not  in  mind  any  one  of  the  personnel 
that  constitutes  the  G.  E.  B.  today.  But  I  think  it  is  a  more  democratic  form,  a 
as  a  more  practical  form,  of  organization  to  have  men  to  come  there  to  listen  to  reports. 
Why,  the  Board  of  Directors,  which  is  the  administrative  body  in  th.  <  ity  of  New 
York,  consists  of  7  or  8  or  11  men.  who  do  not  know  exactly  what  Is  being  done  in 
every  shop,  but  they  have  men  who  are  informing  them,  and  they  pass  Judgement 
accordingly.  So  I  feel,  even  if  I  have  to  put  myself  out  of  a  Job,  that  the  minority 
report,  as  it  has  been  reported  to  you,  should  be  accepted  by  this  convention. 

Delegate  GEIER:  It  is  true  that  people  who  are  doing  important  work  for  the 
Amalgamated  should  have  some  overseers — somebody  who  should  pass  Judgement  as 
to  whether  their  work  is  right  or  wrong,  as  to  whether  they  are  fit  for  the  Job.  But 
it  happens  that  these  organizers— and  I  speak  from  years  of  experience — are  men  and 
women  who  have  been  raised  in  the  workshop,  who  have  had  their  experience,  either 
from  the  board  or  from  the  machine,  and  have  made  good  in  their  field.  These 
people  are  appointed  as  organizers  for  the  only  reason  that  they  have  the  ability, 
the  experience,  to  deal  with  a  situation  that  may  arise  anywhere.  The  fact  that  the 
members  have  a  right  to  vote  for  or  against  these  men  is  sufficient  democratic  safe- 
guard. I  am  satisfied  that  there  is  no  member  of  the  G.  E.  B.  who  is  not  able,  and 
who  has  not  in  the  past  shown  that  he  knew  his  duties.  Therefore,  I  think  that 
the  general  organizer  Is,  if  anything,  more  preferable  for  a  general  executive  board 
member,  for  no  other  reason  than  he  is  experienced.  The  men  and  women  who  have 
been  in  the  shops  for  years,  who  have  been  very  active  locally,  no  doubt,  still  have 
not  the  same  knowledge  of  the  country  as  the  people  who  travel  from  city  to  city,  and 
see  the  conditions,  and  understand  the  differences  between  one  city  and  another. 
What  is  going  on  in  the  City  of  New  York  is  not  going  on  in  the  City  of  Chicago,  and 
the  same  with  Baltimore.  So  I  say  that  the  minority  report  should  be  voted  down, 
to  preserve  the  efficiency  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  (Applause.) 

Delegate  ARNONE:  I  wish  to  state  the  other  side  of  the  case.  They  are  telling 
us  how  they  are  going  to  run  the  organization  if  this  motion  is  adopted.  I  am  really 
surprised  that  my  good  Comrade  Goodman  has  forgotten  the  elementary  teaching  of 
a  radical  union,  and  the  Amalgamated  is  supposed  to  be  a  radical  organization.  I 
know  this  much,  anything  that  is  done  by  the  convention  has  to  be  passed  upon  by 
a  referendum.  Experience  has  shown  us  for  the  last  four  years  that  everything  that 
has  been  done  by  the  convention  baa  been  O.K'd  by  the  members,  and  no  local  union 
has  as  yet  recommended  a  referendum  to  recall  any  man  who  has  been  put  on  the 
General  Executive  Board.  I  say  if  you  have  anything  to  say,  here  is  the  place,  today. 
Don't  beat  around  the  bush.  I  want  to  be  shown.  And  if  you  think  anyone  of  the 
Board  members  is  trying  to  put  something  over  on  the  membership,  I  want  to  know 
IT  I  don't  understand  what  is  the  matter  with  some  of  our  radical  comrades  and 
members  of  the  organization.  You  know  full  well  that  this  is  1918.  and  the  members 
are  running  the  organization  today.  The  people  at  the  head  of  the  organization,  who 
bear  the  responsibility,  are  not  the  kind  of  men  that  you  have  had  in  the  Bible  House. 
I,  for  one,  defy  everybody  to  show  that  any  officer  does  not  deliver  the  goods.  I 
wish  that  our  members,  when  they  go  back  to  their  locals,  especially  the  Jewish 
members,  should  take  this  notion  out  of  their  heads,  that  if  a  man  leaves  the  shop 
and  becomes  a  paid  officer  of  the  organization,  they  must  Jump  on  him.  Therefore, 
this  resolution  should  be  voted  down.  I  hope  and  trust  that  two  years  later,  when 
we  meet  again,  the  same  G.  E.  B.  will  be  here,  and  will  continue  delivering  the  goods 
the  way  they  have  in  the  past.  Applause.) 

VOICE:     Previous  question. 

President  HILLMAN:  The  Chair  win  not  entertain  a  motion  for  previous  question 
until  the  question  is  thoroughly  discusse  !  This  question  is  of  great  importance,  and 
should  be  discussed  fully. 

Delegate  HARRY  COHEN:  I  am  v  ry  much  surprised  to  see  a  resolution  that 
organizers  should  not  be  on  the  G.  E.  B.  If  a  resolution  calls  for  a  change  in  the 
constitution  I  think  it  is  not  more  than  right  to  show  that  what  we  have  now  is  a 
failure.  What  do  we  see?  We  see  that  our  organization  as  it  has  been  organized  for 



the  last  four  years  has  been  a  wondsrfil  MBBMS.    We  CUM  here  wtu  a 

we  are  not  ashamed  of.  The  prate  la  talking  obooi  na.  Everybody  to  envying  as. 
and  the  only  thanks  you  are  going  to  five  to  the  people  who  are  on  the  G.  E.  B 

>u  performed  your  duty,  and  now.  when  you  have  done  yoar   beet   to 
make  this  organisation  a  success,  yon  will  please  stay   home;    wa  don't   «aat   you 

k   that  a  reaolutlon  of  that   kind  wonld  «lli  •!••«!• 

against  active  members  of  this  organisation.  1  wiU  cite  to  you  an  tM*— rt  M> 
friend.  Brother  Alex  Cohan,  spoke  in  favor  of  the  resolution  1.  for  one.  think  tnat 
it  would  be  a  crime  to  enforce  such  a  resolution  so  that  my  friend.  Brother  Alex 
Cohen,  should  not  be  on  the  O.  E.  B.  (Laughter  and  ippliam)  Casjsldir  It.  and 
you  will  see  that  there  is  no  reason  for  it  Hut  It  Is  the  old.  old  bobby  of  picking 
and  picking  and  picking  on  paid  officials,  where  there  la  no  reason.  With  all  dae 
reaper*  -  President  and  Secretary.  1  think  it  is  no  more  than  ngnt  tb. 

give  them  a  O.  E.  B..  who  should  know  what  la  going  on  in  the  Industry      We  want 
ibers  of  the  O.  E.  B.  to  deliver  the  goods,  and  do  the  work.     (Applause.) 

EI8EN:   Governments  where  the  cabinets  are  not 

government,  are  called  autocratic,  and  we  are  ready  to  shed  our  blood  to 
a  democratic  government  out  of  an  autocratic  government.  Tat  In  oar 
organization,  we  are  ready  to  have  the  executive  officers,  or.  rather. 
cabinet  members,  also  the  legislators.  In  other  words,  they  are  u 
responsible  to  themselves.  Are  we  going  to  do  it?  I  think  not.  Brother  Harry 
said  that  the  past  experience  has  shown  us  that  our  general 
done  splendid  work.  It  is  true.  1  adult  It.  1  admit  that  the  G.  E.  B  of  the 
mated  has  done  splendid  work.  Yet.  I  don't  forget  that,  four  years  ago. 
organization  campaign  was  carried  on  by  the  very  same  G.  E.  B  against  oar 
the  United  Garment  Workers,  the  issue  of  the  day  was  that  the  organisers 
responsible  to  anybody  but  themselves,  (Applause.)  I  think  that  If  we  wait  until 
the  G.  E.  B.  will  be  of  such  a  nature  that  will  ruin  the  organisation.  It  will  then  be 
too  late  to  make  amendments  to  the  constitution.  It  will  then  be  neceasary  to  form  a 
new  Amalgamated,  if  we  wait  too  long.  Now.  while  we  are  young,  now.  while  we  nave 
a  very  good  hand  to  make  laws,  to  suit  our  own  selves,  to  make  lawe  to  soft  the 
general  membership,  now  U  the  time  to  frame  a  constitution  so  tnat  the  nijsilsaliaa 
may  remain  as  democratic  and  ss  successful  as  It  has  been  In  Use  past.  Applause  > 

Delegate  REVAYLE:  For  the  second  time  I  have  the  opportunity  to 
behalf  of  the  G.  E.  B.  I  have  all  respect  for  every  one  of  yea.  officers  Tbere  Is 
not  the  slightest  thing  to  be  said  against  you.  You  have  performed  your  duty.  You 
did  all  you  posslblby  could  for  the  Amalgamated.  But.  when  you  spaa 
racy.  I  want  to  understand  what  democracy  means?  It  is  that  each  and 
judges.  We  have  no  objection  against  all  those  organisers,  bat  I  claim 
should  be  governed  by  the  Executive  Board,  as  well  as  the  local  officer*  by  Use 
Board  or  the  District  <  It  Is  true  that  at  this  time  our  officers  are  of  the 

Hut.  looking  at  the  past  and  we  ought   to  look  at  the  past,  or  we  wUl 
ahead,  we  must  profit  by  the  mistakes  made  than.    For  tnat  very  reason. 
to  provide  laws   to  protect   ourselves  that,  not   this   executive   board,   but 
boards  of  the  future,  may  not  do  the  same  thing  that  was  done  four  years  age     We 
cannot  afford   to  rebuild   our  organisation   every   few   years.     It   took   us 
years,  more  than  25  years,  to  build  up  an  organisation.     For  this  vary 
brought  in  the  resolution.     It  U  democratic.     And  I  therefore  ask  you,  delegates,  to 
vote  for  the  minority  report.     (Applause.) 

Secretary  Schlossberg  here  took  the  chair. 

DELEGATE  KROLL:   I  have  listened  very  attentively  to  what  baa  beam 
there  is  only  one  thing  that  I  found,  and  that  is  the  fact  that  they  don't 
izers   to  report   to  themselves.    If  we  look   the   situation   straight   la   the 
question  arises,  "Do  the  organisers  report  to  themselves?**    As  the  minority 
it.  it  wants  none  but  unpaid  officers  to  be  on  the  executive  board,  bat  your 
Secretary  and  your  President.     If  you  have  no  paid  officers  on  the  Board 
two  highest  officers.  I  say  that  you  are  doing  nothing  bat  placing  In  the 
your  two  highest  officers  absolute  control.    There  la  no  aquation  about  It.    A 
working  In  the  shop,  where  he  must  work  If  he  to  not  a  paid  officer,  does  net 
and   cannot   know    th.-   conditions   throughout   the   country     Instead   of   sprsndt 
over  eleven  members,  you  are  simply  placing  the  responsibility  to  tne  hands  of 
I  would  say  that  your  organisers,  who  are  O.  E.  B.  msmbsrs.  nave  I 
first  and  they  have  been  elected  by  your  general  membership  to  tne  O.  E.  B. 



wards.  Take  the  thing  In  that  light,  and  it  is  simply  a  natural  development.  There 
is  one  feature  in  this  we  don't  want  to  overlook,  and  that  is  the  lack  of  material  in 
your  organization.  If  you  pass  this  minority  report,  you  are  simply  going  to  lose 
what  capable  brains  we  have. 

Delegate  WOLF:  I  am  sorry  that  I  will  not  be  able  to  say  all  in  five  minutes, 
and  I  know  that  the  Chairman  is  very  democratic — that  when  the  four  Mnmr.fs 
will  be  up,  he  will  rap.  You  have  heard  Delegate  Revayle,  who  is  the  Chairman 
of  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Joint  Board  of  New  York,  speak  here  in  such  an 
enthusiastic  way.  and  speak  only  in  the  name  of  democracy.  I  would  like  to  know 
whether  there  is  a  way  to  explain  that  word  democracy.  I  am  puzzled  all  the  timr 

we  speak  of  democracy.  We  have  actual  democracy,  he  says,  Alex  Cohen  says, 
in  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  New  York  Joint  Board.  I  would  like  to  know 
how  many  decisions  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  New  York  Joint  Board  made 
contrary  to  the  report  of  its  officers,  who  are  paid  officers.  Not  one,  ;•>  my  ; 
edge.  They  always  discuss  and  agree.  You  speak  of  taking  the  organizer  and  dis- 
criminating against  hi:.  had  th  <>i>p<»rt unity  to  speak  about  organizers.  At 

General  Executive  Board  meeting  we  have  been  searching  for  them  throughout 
the  country.  Money  was  no  object.  Get  them!  We  need  them,  but  we  cannot 
find  them!  Wl  o  is  the  organizer?  The  best  man  that  we  possibly  can  get  in  the 
organization.  If  he  is  the  best  man  in  the  organization  that  is  willing  to  go  out 
and  organize  the  clothing  workers,  why  is  he  not  fit  to  be  a  G.  E.  B.  member? 
:*e  you  happen  to  pay  him  a  salary?  If  a  man  is  not  lit  to  an  office,  he  is  not 
fit.  whether  paid  or  not  paid.  That  is  my  understanding  of  an  officer.  If  Delegate 
Eisen  thinks  that  the  G.  E.  B.  members  who  are  paid  by  General  Office  are  not 
democratic,  but  are  autocratic,  he  thinks  so  because  he  may  dislike  some  individual 
on  the  Board,  or  someone  else  may  dislike  that  individual.  I  say  that  there  are 
many  who  don'i  agree  with  the  doings  of  an  o:  ,:  that  does  not  mean  any 

more  than  this — that  the  man  who  disagrees  has  a  right  to  disagree,  but  that  does 
not  mean  that  he  is  at  all  right  and  correct.  This  proposition  was  not  originated 
for  the  purpose  of  saving  the  life  of  the  organization.  It  originated  out  of  personal 
feelings  and  interpretations  of  work  being  done  by  certain  individuals.  I  happen  to 
be  fortunate  enough  not  to  be  a  General  Organizer  but  Manager  of  the  Joint  Board, 
and  1  am  more  free  to  discuss  it.  I  say  that  instead  of  bringing  in  a  resolution  that 
organizers,  because  they  are  paid,  should  not  be  on  the  G.  E.  B.,  you  get  busy  and 
recommend  organizers  to  the  G.  E.  B.  to  organize  t!?e  industry  throughout  the  country. 
You  will  by  that  be  doing  the  organization  more  good  than  by  taking  the  good  man, 
the  man  willing  to  do  work,  and  putting  him  aside,  because  he  is  a  paid  <> 
of  the  organization  and  a  G.  E.  B.  member.  Today  it  seems  that  there  is  something 
s  not  honorable.  I  assure  you  that  I  will  not  hold  an  office  in  any 
organization  that  is  not  considered  honorable.  I  happened  to  be  in  Boston  a  year  or 
two  ago.  The  Boston  delegates  know  what  we  found  there.  I  was  with  them  for 
four  or  f:  .  I  lived  with  them.  It  was  the  most  critical  time.  Did  the 

Boston  members  find  anything  wrong  because  I  was  a  direct  representative  of  the 
General  Office  and  also  a  General  Executive  Board  member? 


President   HILLMAN:     The    time    is    up.     (Great    Applause) 

VOICE:     I  move  that  we  extend  him  five  minutes  more.     (Applause) 

President  HILLMAN:     Is  there  any  objection? 

There  was  no  objection,  and  the  motion  was  carried. 

Delegate  WOLF:  I  am  not  here  to  agitate  for  It  because  I  am  a  G.  E.  B.  member. 
I  am  not  interested  in  it  from  that  point  of  view.  Having  had  actual  experience 
in  the  G.  E.  B.,  I  know  that  there  are  people  on  the  Board  today,  and  there  may  be 
people  on  the  Board  after  this  convention  adjourns,  who  will  have  to  be  forced 
to  become  paid  officials  of  the  General  Office,  not  because  we  want  it,  but  because 
we  cannot  get  enough  outside  to  do  tbe  work  that  is  necessary.  We  have  officials 
with  us  today  who  are  representing  the  New  York  Joint  Board,  and  Brother  Hillman 
and  Brother  Schlossberg  pleaded  with  them— "Accept  the  position  as  an  organizer; 
we  need  you.  we  must  have  you."  Th»  y  were  not  willing  at  all  to  do  it,  and  they 
have  not  done  it.  They  did  not  plead  with  them  because  they  liked  them.  They 
pleaded  with  them  because  they  knew  that  they  needed  them  and  they  must  have 
thorn.  What  would  become  of  a  good  man  who  is  on  the  Board  if  we  were  to  accept 
the  proposition  before  us  not  to  be  a  C.  E.  B.  member  because  he  is  a  paid  official? 



1  would  not  accept  the  beat  paid  organisershlp  for  the  O.K.  B.  1  would  rather 
remain  In  the  G.  B.  B.  and  not  be  an  organizer  than  remain  an  organizer  and  not 

9  Board.  •  ••  inherited.  1  think,  the  spirit  of  some  of  your 

You  don't   like   your   paid  officials        That   la   mighty    wrong.       The  Idea 

iple  are  wrong.    If  you  «p«*ak  for  democracy,  don't  take  my  right  of 
away  because  you  pay  me  wafts  -til.   I   have  as  much  right  to  be 

with   an  offlc»  general  organization  as   any  one  else,   whether  paid  or  not 

against  it.  not  because  I  say  so.  but  because  the  proposition  is  not  for  the  heat 
interests  of  the  organization.  (Great  applause). 

Delegate  WISE:     What   I   want  to  know  Is  this:    In  case  paid  omotolt  will  mot 

ve  Board,  will  that  stop  the  organizers  from  doing  their 

ire   great,    they    will    make    their    work    still    greater. 

Hui  the  thing  Is  this:  Some  of  us  are  afraid  that  we  will  not  be  able  to  have 
able  .si  Executive  Board.  Is  not  Miller  a  fit  man  to  bo  la  the 

General  Executive  Board  by  being  a  paid  official  in  the  local?  Is  not  Gold  an  able 
man?  Are  not  certain  men  of  Chicago  fit  to  be  on  the  Board?  Are  not  certain 
men  of  Hochestcr  fli  to  t  <loes  not  stop  the  work  of  the  gsjural 

organizers,  and  I  don't  see  why  they  are  afraid  of  It.  Brother  Wolf  asked  whether 
the  Board  of  Directors  does  not  approve  of  his  report.  They  do.  In  case  they  will 
disagree,  they  will  show  why  they  disagree.  You  always  must  bring  in  a  report. 
Delegate  Beet  man.  told  us  the  proportion  is  all  right  la  principle 

t>ut  not  in  pr.  of  Republicans  In  your  district  are  telling  you.  they  are 

Socialists   In    ,  but   they    w&nt   you   to   vole   for   the   Republican   Part- 

•ae  sny  crime  !n  tin-  resolution.  1  don't  see  where  it  will  take  away  the 
right  of  any  organizers  to  do  great  work  In  the  organization.  (Applause). 

Board  Member   ROsi  M:     It   is   rather  an   unpleasant  task  for  m«  to  get 

into  this  proposlth  ••  reason  that  1  am  one  that  is  affected,  but  I  am  taking 

•  •sMon  that  1  don't  expect  to  be  affected.      I  am  expecting 

to  work    •  ••    Sam   by   the   time  anything   like   this   may   go   into  effect,   and 

for  that  reason  I  think  1  can  speak  without  personal  motives.  I  want  to  say  first  that 
this  principle  of  no  organiser  being  on  the  General  Executive  Board  is  hailed  as  a 
radical  measure.  I  claim  It  Is  nothing  of  the  son.  The  reason  it  is  claimed  aa  a 
radical  measure  is  because  the  progressive  element  In  the  •  W..  la  their 

i>t  to  rid  the  organization  of  the  corrupt  leaders,  advocated  this  measure  aa  a 
means  of  gelling  rid  of  ihem.  Because  of  your  experience  In  the  United  Qsinsat 
Workers,  this  thing  has  been  Intn  -<i  the  A"»ftlgTnn«!+il  It  Is  one  of  the 

things  we  inherited  from  them.  snd.  unfortunately,  we  are  suffering  from  It  Tour 
B.  is  not  corrupt  and  this  measure  Is  not  necessary  now.  The  General 
Executive  Board  theoretically  is  supposed  to  be  composed  of  the  moat  able  la  our 
organization— mark  you.  theoretically,  i  say.  They  may  not  be.  but  they  are  sup- 
posed to  be.  By  the  very  rule  here,  you  will  deprive  your  moat  able  in  the 
zation.  doing  national  service  for  the  organ  rom  being  In  the 

ra  they  can  do  greater  service.    It  Is  all  right  to  come  here  and  say. 
ahou;  ;  ort  to  themselves  because  they  are  not  responsible.-    The 

are  responsible.  Let  any  G.  EL  B.  member  go  Into  a  locality  and  let  that 
Qnd  fault  with  him.  You  will  hear  It  quick  enough  In  the  country.  Protest*  will 
come  In.  He  Is  responsible  first  to  your  International  Officers,  your  President  and 
Secretary;  second  to  the  general  membership,  and  thai  is  true  with  every  G.  E  B. 
member  or  general  organizer.  Brother  Wolf  stated  It  well.  The  officers  hai 
way.  even  urn!  r  the  present  G.  E.  B.  In  a  national  situation  a  G.  E.  B. 
under  ihe  proposed  law  would  be  dummies.  They  could  noi  know  what  to 
on  throughout  the  country.  If  they  wished.  They  would  have  to 

President  and  the  Secretary  said.    By  your  action  you  would  make 
and    Secretary   absolute  autocrats   In   your   crgnnlzatlon.     Under   the 
lions,  your  Executive  Board  Is  composed  of  men  of  influence,  people  who  have 
element  of  control  in  the  organization,  whose  opinion  they  must  respect.    The 
way  your  Executive  Board  would  be  men  without  Influence  whom  your  ofioon 
choose  to  ignore  without  fearing  consequences, 

I  say  your  Executive  Board  should  be  composed  of  men  who  are  able  to 
who  understand  the  Intercuts  of  the  organization  in  the  true  sense  of  the 
Is  what  you  put  them  there  for.     You  put  them  there  to  he  men  of 

IVP  no  influence,  your  organization  will  have  no  )e«d<»rsh!| 
ship  In  your  organization.     It  Is  all  right  to  talk  of  democracy, 
not    necessarily    spell    the    death    of   democracy.     In    democratic 
must   have  leaders,  as   well   aa  any  other  organisation,   if   you    are   to  get 



and  be  successful.  Vote  down  this  resolution,  because  you  want  the  best  that  is  in 
your  organization  on  the  Executive  Board.  And  1  say  it  not  for  personal  reasons. 
I  don't  expect  to  serve  as  organizer  for  the  reason  stated.  (Applause) 

Delegate  POLAK:  The  only  argument  that  was  given  for  the  majority 
was  that  there  will  be  discrimination  against  the  organizers.  I  say  that  the  purpose 
of  this  resolution  is  not  to  discriminate  against  the  organizers,  but  not  to  give 
too  much  ito  one  hand.  I  think  we  all  agree  that  there  should  not  be  too 

much   power   in   one   hand.       You   all    remember    we   criticize   the    United    Ga 
Workers.    Not  only  did  we  criticise  the  persons  who  took  the  positions  as  orga 

the  Garment  Workers,  we  also  criticized  the  constitution,  which  served  the 
officers  and  we,  therefore,  changed  the  constitution.  I  don't  see  where  the  organi- 
sation will  be  at  a  disadvantage  by  changing  this  point  of  the  constitution. 

Delegate  CRYSTAL:     The   Baltimore  organization  has  also  introduced   a  re. 
tion  like  the  one  of  Local  2.     1  know  that  the  Baltimore  organization  has  absolutely 
no  fault  to   find    with   the   present  General   Executive   Board.    There   is   no   question 

rsonalities  as  far  as  the  members  of  the  General  Executive  Board  ar< 
cerned.  If  anyone  says  that  this  resolution  was  brought  in  on  account  of  dislike 
of  some  men  on  the  G.  E.  13.,  he  insults  the  organization  that  submitted  the  resolution. 
I  feel  that  this  resolution  is  absolutely  pure.  There  are  absolutely  no  personalities 
Involved  in  it.  I  feel  when  a  General  Organizer  accepts  his  job,  he  should  n<>:  in- 
promised  a  place  on  the  General  Executive  Board.  Brother  Cohen  made  a  correct 
statement  He  feels  that,  even  though  he  would  be  deprived  from  membership  in 
the  G.  B.  B.,  this  resolution  ought  to  be  accepted.  And  I  think  we  ought  to  accept 
it  No  General  Organizers  should  be  placed  on  the  General  Executive  Board.  You 
are  just  simply  monopolizing;  you  are  just  simply  putting  a  gate  down  in  the 
front  of  the  working  class;  just  stating  to  the  rank  and  file  that  you  cannot  go  a 
step  further.  "We,  the  organizers,  must  be  the  General  Executive  Board  members, 
and  you  cannot  be,  because  you  are  not  capable  and  cannot  even  get  the  oppor- 
tunity to  learn."  (Great  applause) 

Delegate  LEDERMAN:  I  do  favor  the  Minority  Report,  and  I  will  give  you  a 
few  of  my  reasons.  Delegate  lieckerman  says  that  a  man  that  is  in  the  shop  is 
not  as  capable  to  represent  us  in  the  General  Executive  Board  as  a  man  that  is  a 
Geneml  Organizer.  1  don't  agree  with  him.  I  think  that  a  man  who  works  at  the 
machine,  a  man  who  gives  away  his  days  and  nights  for  the  organization  and  for 
the  people  in  the  shops,  can  represent  the  people  on  the  General  Executive  Board 
just  as  good  as  any  organizer  who  represents  them  right  now.  This  is  my  opinion, 
Brother  President.  Brother  Wolf  tells  us  that  there  is  a  question  of  honor.  Why 
not  give  a  little  bit  of  honor  to  the  people  who  work  in  the  shops,  and  give  up 
their  days  and  nights,  and  are  willing  to  represent  the  organization.  (Applause) 

legate  GOLDSTEIN  of  Philadelphia:  The  reason  that  the  Amalgamated  u 
a  success  Is  that  it  gave  the  people  exactly  the  right  principles,  exactly  the  right 
thing  that  did  the  people  good.  That  is  why  they  succeeded  in  getting  the  people 
with  them.  That  is  why  they  succeeded  in  forming  this  organization,  of  which 
we  are  all  proud.  As  far  as  the  General  Board  is  concerned,  I  say  that  even  If 
you  have  a  Board  of  the  rank  and  file,  not  of  general  organisers,  you  are  not  sure 
whether  the  people  who  will  be  elected  on  the  General  Executive  Board  will  not 
act  in  the  manner  which  you  are  opposing  now. 

Delegate  DIAMOND:  I  say  that  the  General  Executive  Board,  the  officers  that 
you  have  right  now,  are  the  best  that  can  be  gotten.  If  you  would  not  have  these, 
I  don't  think  that  we  would  have  succeeded  as  much  as  we  have.  Some  of  the 
delegates  are  afraid  that  there  will  come  a  time  when  the  General  Executive  Board 
with  the  officers  will  control  everything.  We  will  have  to  come  to  an  Amalgamated 
convention  as  we  did  in  Nashville.  I  am  not  afraid  of  that,  although  I  was  a 
delegate  to  the  Nashville  convention.  I  can  see  the  spirit  in  the  Amalgamated,  and 
I  am  not  afraid  that  this  will  ever  come.  I  believe  that  every  individual  here  has 
a  right  to  run  for  the  G.  E.  B.  All  of  us  have  a  right  to  run  for  anything.  We  are 
all  members  of  the  Amalgamated.  Let  every  one  have  a  right  to  run  and  let  the 
referendum  vote  decide.  Why  are  you  afraid?  Why  do  you  have  to  come  with 
this  to  a  convention  at  all?  I  believe  that  every  one  of  us  has  a  right  to  be  a 
candidate  and  you  should  not  be  afraid  of  it. 

Board  Member  LEVIN:  During  the  entire  discussion  on  the  resolution  before 
us,  we  heard  a  great  deal  about  democracy.  I  am  just  as  much  an  advocate  of 



as  anybody  else,  but  I  don't  like  to  deprive  any 
democracy   which   we  desire  for  the   body  as  a   whole.    The 

••  laws  depriving  individuals  of  the   benefits  of  democracy,  you 
very  principle  of  democracy.    The  advocates  of  the  resolution  urge  it 
years  ago  in  Nashville  we  found  It  ni pases ry  to  revolt     Are   we 
conditions  now  as  we  faced  in  Nsshville?    In  Naahville  a  group  of 
there   to   legislate   and   denied   duly    elected   delegates    the   right    to 
Olothlng    workers.    That    was    the   actual    situation    in    Nashville.     In 
convention  would  have  elected  the  General  Executive  Board  and  the 
large  would  not  have  anything  to  say.    Are  we  under  the 
No.    This  convention   nominates  members   for   the  General   Executive 
the  members  at  large  vote  on  thorn  by  referendum.    By  taking  away  the  right  of 

ocause  they  are  paid  officers,  you  are  committing  a  grave  tmjoj 
the   first   place,   let   us  see  who  are  the  General   Officers?    Who  are   the 

rs?    Who  are  the  paid  officials?    As  it  has  been  stated  here,  the  host 
the  shops  are  chosen  to  represent  thorn.    Then  It  Is  the  Inagisiait  of  the 
they  make  their  selections.    And  good  people  have  ambition,  honor,  aad  'pride. 
Whoa  you  offend  their  pride  they  will  refuse  to  serve.    We  want  no  member  of  the 
Amalgamated    to    be    deprived    of    bis    rights,    because    his    rights    are    your    right* 

Delegate  BLUGERMAN:     Mr.  Chairman.  1  wish  to  speak  for  the  minority.    Some 

or  the  delegate*  are  afraid  that  If  the  minority  resolution  is  pnani  there  will 
nobody  on  the  General  Executive  Board.  Ii  seems  to  mo  that  they  are 
impression  that  besides  a  half  dosen  or  a  dosen  organisers,  or  two  dosea  on 
there  will  not  be  enough  intelligent  men  in  the  different  cities  to  be  on  the 
Executive  Board.  They  forget  that  in  every  town  we  have 
of  various  boards,  secretaries,  presidents,  executive  board 
are  active  and  study  the  conditions  in  the  factory  and  ouuide  of  the  factory  la 
their  town  and  ouuide  of  their  town;  and  it  seems  to  me  that  some  of  the  mem  sen 
forget  there  will  always  be  a  few  more  members  suitable  and  eligible  for  the  G.  E.  B. 
outside  of  those  few  of  the  General  Executive  Board  who  may  he  elected  as  General 
Organisers  And  then,  why  go  to  the  extreme?  Don't  you  really  think  thai  you 
nd  enough  men  In  New  York  and  Chicago  and  other  places  besides  those  few 
organizers  who  will  be  on  the  General  Executive  Board  aad  not  play  the  role  of 
dummies?  Don't  you  think  that  th*  Amalgamated— among  the  one 
men  and  women  organised,  will  find  half  a  dosea  men  who  wfll  act  on  the 
Executive  Board  not  as  dummies?  AnU.  mind  you.  I  am  not  prejudiced 
paid  officials.  I  am  a  paid  official  myself,  that  is.  local,  and  I  weald  net 
becoming  a  paid  official  of  the  General  Office, 

Delegate  WOLF:     That   is   a  good   hint.     (Laughter) 

Delegat.  ontinulng):     Bo  I  say   1  have  no 

paid  official,  but  at  the  same  time  1  think  that  if  I  should  be  a 
or   wo  should  have  another  two  dosen  or  three  dosea  of  us,  we   still 
plenty  of  level  headed  men  to  be  on  the  General  Board  and  judge 
are   doing.    In    conclusion.   Mr.   Chairman,   do   yon   think    the   < 
be  outside  of  the  G.  E.  R  will  cease  serving  the  Amalgamated?    As 
they  will  be  able  always  to  be  In  touch  with  the  General  Executive 
will   always   be  able  to  be  present   at   the   General   Executive   Board 
enlighten  It  whenever  necessary     (Applaues) 

Delegate   MILLER:     I    believe   that   this   resolution    la   the   result    of 
It  I.  the  result  of  the  absolute  failure  to  realise  the  cause  of  the  extet 
Amalgamated.     I  want  to  ask  the  delegates,  why  Is  It  that  in  every  other 
we  consider  ourselves  radicals,  but  when  It  comes  to  this  proposition  we  only 

It  superficially,  and  we  don't   wsnt   to  go  down   radically  and   try   to  tad  oat  the 
real  cause.    I  say  that   It   is  not  true  that   the  cause  of  the  esiintlihmont  of  the 

Amalgamated  was  the  fact  that  this  man  or  that  man  waa  mot  honest  or  was 
thing  else.    I  say  that  th*  cause  of  the  existence  of  the  amalgaaated  todaj 
that  the  United  Garment  Workers  reprtsentsd  everything  that  was  dark,  everything 
that   waa  reactionary   la   the  American  Labor   movement,  aad   the   Amalgamated   SB 
representing  something  which  is  absolutely  the  reverie  of  what  the  United 

-era  was.    This  is  the  cause  of  the  existence  of  the  Amalgamated.    I  say 
no  matter  how  many  laws  we  wfll  •aha,  they  will  not  result  la  aaythim*. 
that   the  people  who  have  Introduced  the   resolution 


that  If  we  had  not  the  support  of  the  gallery  in  Nashville  that  the  Amalgamated 
would  not  have  been  in  existence.  I  deny  this.  I  say,  whether  we  would  have  been 
seated  or  not,  the  Amalgamated  would  have  been  here  today,  because  of  the  fact 
that  the  United  Gacment  Workers  was  proceeding  from  the  premise  that  the 
tailors  could  not  be  organized.  And  even  if  we  would  have  been  seated  in  Nashville. 
the  Amalgamated  would  have  been  here  even  if  not  under  this  name,  because  we 
represent  In  the  American  Labor  movement  something  that  was  told  to  you  for  four 
consecutive  days  here.  You  have  been  listening  to  speechet .  and  every  one  of  the 
speakers  emphasised  this  very  fact,  that  we  are  something  new  in  the  American 
Labor  movement.  And  if  we  are  new  in  the  American  Labor  movement,  i 
believe  we  should  create  walls,  Chinese  walls,  around  ourselves  out  of  fear  of 
our  own  existence.  I  say  that  this  resolution  is  the  result  of  a  misconception.  It 
Is  the  result  of  the  fa.  we  don't  know  the  causes  of  our  organization  today. 

Brother  Goodman  is  afraid  that  we  will  have  to  rebuild  the  Amalgamated,     if  i 
of  the  same  opinion  I  would  perhaps  vote  for  the  minority,  but   because  I  believe 
in  the  strength,  because  I  believe  in  the  historic  mission  that  the  Amalgamated  has 
to  perform.  I  am  not  afraid  of  a  general  organizer,  who  is  doing  the  work  for  the 
Amalgamated,  on   the  General  Executive   U  nplause) 

Secretary  SCHLOSSBERG:  I  hope  you  all  realize  that  what  we  are  discussing 
now  is  only  the  right  of  a  general  organizer  to  be  a  candidate  for  the  G.  E.  B.  This 
does  not  mean  that  the  G.  E.  B.  must  consist  of  organizers  to  the  exclusion  of 
non-organizers.  It  only  means  that  the  organizer  has  the  same  right  to  a  nomination 
as  the  member  who  is  not  an  organizer.  A  number  of  delegates  in  opposition  to 
the  majority  report — that  is,  those  opposing  the  right  of  the  General  Organizer 
to  run  for  the  G.  E.  B.  membership — ,  emphasized  the  fact  that  we  are  all  perfectly 
satisfied  and  highly  pleased  with  the  work  of  the  General  Executive  Board  until 
now,  but  we  don't  know  what  they  might  do  later.  I  heard  a  story  of  a  man  who 
suddenly  turned  upon  his  child  and  shouted  at  him  to  shut  up!  "Why,  I  am  not 
saying  anything,"  protested  the  child  in  amazement.  "But  you  might,"  said  the 
enraged  father.  (Laughter) 

You  are  perfectly  pleased  with  what  the  General  Executive  Board  has  done  for 
the  organization  in  the  cour&e  of  three  and  a  half  years,  and  you  agree  that  they 
have  proven  their  efficiency  to  your  full  satisfaction.  After  three  and  a  half  years 
you  turn  on  tham  and  say.  "We  don't  want  you  because  you  might  prove  wrong." 

Our  experience  with  the  United  Garment  Workers  is  being  referred  to.  We 
had  to  fight  the  administration  because  the  General  Executive  Board  was  composed 
of  General  Organizers.  My  friends,  you  don't  know  what  you  are  fighting,  if  you 
think  that  that  was  what  you  fought.  The  General  Executive  Board  of  the  former 
n  was  against  the  interests  of  the  members,  not  because  it  was  composed 
of  General  Organizers,  but  because  it  was  not  elected  by  anybody,  was  not  respon- 
sible to  anybody,  and  the  rank  and  file  could  not  exercise  any  control  over  it.  The 
same  was  true  as  regards  the  President  and  the  Secretary.  Yet  you  propose  to 
leave  the  President  and  the  Secretary  on  the  General  Executive  Board,  while  the 
President  and  the  Secretary  are  the  ones  that  have  real  power,  and  the  General 
Executive  Board  members  come  to  meetings  only  once  in  three  months,  and  some- 
times only  once  in  six  months.  Their  power  is  very  limited.  You  are  putting 
the  lock  on  the  wrong  door.  We  have  now  a  system  of  election  which  makes  a 
repetition  of  the  former  experience  impossible.  The  General  Executive  Board  is 
elected  by  the  membership.  Any  member,  who  after  his  election  proves  to  be 
unfit  to  serve  on  the  General  Executive  Board,  may  be  withdrawn  by  a  motion 
initiated  by  the  membership,  or  charges  may  be  preferred  by  them  and  properly 
tried.  If  found  guilty  he  is  excluded  from  the  General  Executive  Board  and  some- 
body else  is  elected  in  his  place.  You  have  that  system,  the  very  thing  tha 
asked  for  three  years  ago.  and  did  not  get,  which  was  the  cause  of  the  split 
in  1914. 

Remember  also  this,  that  there  is  no  rule  that  any  organization  may  adopt  that 
will  protect  it  from  crooks,  so  long  as  the  proper  spirit  is  not  there.  If  the 
members  have  not  sufficient  intelligence  and  the  proper  spirit  to  watch  the  interests 
of  their  organization,  to  keep  their  eyes  open  upon  the  activity  of  their  officers, 
you  may  adopt  all  the  rules  you  wish,  and  none  of  them  will  be  of  any  avail,  because 
the  officers  will  do  just  as  they  please,  whichever  way  they  may  be  elected,  or 
whatever  section  of  the  organization  they  may  come  from.  Do  you  know  that  as  a 
matter  of  fact  we  have  no  constitution  today?  Did  it  ever  occur  to  you?  Do 



you   know   that   the  constitution  that   we  have  has  not  been  printed   hsoiisi   it   to 

no  constitution?      Yet  all  of  us  agree  that  we  have 

of  us  agree  that  we  have  made  a  great  sac  peas,  and  some  of 

minority  report  said  that  we  have  la  these  2  1-2  years  achieved 

organizations  have  in  2ft  years. 

My  friends,   it   to   not   the  constitution   that   will   win   strikes  far  yon.  or   win 

shorter   hours   for  you.   or  keei  eanlsatfen   logetb.  the  spirit   of   the 

organisation  that  keeps  the  organisation  alive,  that  keeps  the  membership  wid*avakn 

and  keeps  the  organisers  and   the  General  Officers  and  all  represents  tit  as  of  the 

•n    conscious   of    the  u    everything    they   do   to    watched    and    to 

being  subjected  to  the  sen  he  membership,  whether  It  to  done  in  a  formal 

legal    manner,   or   Informal   and    illegal    manner        U    U    this    that   keeps   ovr 

organisation  intact  and  keeps  it  itrong.    If  you  want  to  provide  yourself  with  *  rule 

now  for  the  future,  how  can  you  tell  juit  what  might  be  required  a  year  from  now? 

ay  be  that  this  very  rule.  If  you  will  accept  It  now.  will  be  the  very 
that  will  play  Into  the  bands  of  crooks?  You  don't  know  what  conspiracy 
be  formed  and  in  what  way  this  rule  might  be  played. 

U  has  already  been  pointed  out  that  the  power  really  remains  with  the 
officers,  and   .  !>e  membership  of  the  O.  E.   B.  to 

people  who  are  not  In  a  position  to  follow  up  the  work,  the  detailed  work  of  the 
organization,  day  In  and  day  out.  you  will  simply  leave  It  to  the  General  Officers. 
If  they  choose  to  make  use  of  the  opportunity  to  turn  the  G.  E.  B.  into  a  blind  tool. 
They  will  be  a  group  of  people  who  will  have  to  take  the  word  of  the  General 
Officers  and  say  "Yes"  or  "No"  according  to  the  wishes  of  thoss 

Let  me  remind  you  of  one  little  thing  that  I  think  ought  to 
for   all   labor   organisations.    In    France.   I    am    told,   the   words   "Liberty. 
Fraternity"    are    inscribed    over    the    portals   of    every    prison.     Ask    • 
those  prisons  what  liberty,  equality  and  fraternity   they   enjoy.    The 
beautiful,  but  It  has  no  meaning  at  all  for  the  people  Inside,  ixcept 
We  have  had  demands  at  the  Rochester  convention,  we  have  had 
convention,  and   we  will  continue  having  demands  st  later 
organizers,   for  a   larger   representation   of   women   and   a 
and  more  effective  organisation  of   women.       We  have   been   working   hard,   trying 
to  find  proper  persons  fit  to  serve  as  organizers  for  women.      We  have  one  rapes 
tentative  of  the   women  on  the  General   Executive   Board.       That   represents ( 
also  acting   In    the   capacity   of  General   Organiser.       1    mention    this   one    member 
because  she  happens  to  be  the  only  woman  member  of  the  General  Executive 
snd  at  present  the  only  womsn  organiser.    But  I  ask  you  to  forget  the 
Think  of  the  situation.    We  have  been  trying  hard  to  get  more  organisers  A 
women.       You   know    that    the   women   are   backward   in   organisation.       Yon 
that  we  have  still  a  great  deal  to  do  in  order  to  educate  the  women  to  s 
where  they   will   be  able  to  take  care  of  their  Interests,  where  they   will 
to  furnish  organisers.    If  this  resolution  to  passed,  it  would  mean  that  any 
a  position  to  be  elected  on  the  G.  E.  B.  would  not  be  eligible  for 
ship  Aould  deprive  the  women  in  our  industry,  you  deprive  th» 

of  an  opportunity  of  having  someone  to  serve  ss  a  woman  or-  .. 

Let  me  point  out  one  more  thing:     It  has  been  said  here  thai  we  have 
the  prejudice  against  officers  from  the  former  organization.    It  waa  perfectly 
for   such    ,  to   exist   there:    the   average  officer   was   against    the 

of  the  membership.  That  prejudice  we  carried  along  with  us.  It  Is  about  time  far 
us  to  be  freed  from  It 

You  wish   to  deprive  a  General  Organiser  of  the  opportunity   to  serve  9*  tan 
ral  Executive  Board,  because  an  organiser.  If  made  a  member  of  the 
Executive  Board,  would  have  a  right  to  paaa  upon  his  own  work       Yon  do. 
leave   the   gate  open    for   local   officers   to   serve   on   the   General    Bxecvttve 

give  so  little  consideration  to  this  mstter  thst  yon  dont  realise  that  the 
work  of  the  General  Executive  Board  does  not  consist  mainly  la  controlling  tan 
work  of  the  general  organisers.  That  to  a  very  small  part  of  the  activity  of  the 
General  Executive  Board.  The  General  Officers,  bet' 
exercising  such  control,  day  In  and  day  out.  When  the  General 
meets,  it  has  very  little  to  do  with  the  work  of  the 

••   Board   concerns   Itself   mainly   with   the;  work   of 

That  constitutes  the  bulk  of  our  work.  We  take  up  Chicago:  we  take  op  New  York, 
Philadelphia.  Boston.  Montreal  and  Toronto  at  our  Board  smttnts  Yon 

given  an  opportunity  to  the  local  officers,  by  allowing  them  to  serve  en  the  O.  B.  B, 


to  pass  upon  their  own  work  at  the  General  Executive  Board  meetings,  the  local 
officers  who  compose  the  bulk  of  the  organization  staff,  and  you  want  to  deprive 
the  general  organizers  of  the  opportunity  to  serve,  though  their  share  of  the  work 
calls  only  for  a  small  fraction  of  the  attention  of  the  General  Executive  Board.  You 
are  doing  the  very  opposite  of  what  you  intend  to  do.  You  take  the  work  from  the 
hands  of  the  general  organizers  for  one  reason  and  you  give  i  of 

local   organizers  who  will  exercise   it   and   must,   with   the   best  Ise 

it  just  in  the  very  way  that  you  don't  want  the  General  Organizers  to  exercise  it. 

Looking  at  the  question  from  every  angle,  I  say  brothers  and  sisters — we  have 
equal  suffrage  in  this  organization — we  have  made  our  experiment;  our  experiment 
has  worked;  all  of  you  have  testified  to  the  efficiency  of  the  General  Executive 
Board,  to  the  effectiveness  of  its  work;  there  is  no  immediate  reason,  nothing  that 
we  can  see  that  will  improve  the  ell  of  the  organization  by  depriving  the 

general  organizers  of  an  opportunity  to  run  for  G.  E.  B.  membership.  Don't  make 
changes  now  that  are  not  called  for.  We  make  changes  as  we  go  along  and  as 
conditions  require.  Conditions,  you  will  all  admit,  those  who  favor  the  minority 
report,  do  not  call  for  the  change  just  now.  Let  us  go  right  ahead;  let  us  not 
lose  a  good  man,  if  he  is  a  General  Organizer  and  if  the  rank  and  file  wish  to  have 
him  on  the  General  Executive  Board,  because  he  will  be  an  addition  and  a 
strengthening  of  the  General  Executive  Board.  Let  us  not  deprive  the  membership 
of  the  benefit  of  his  cervices.  And  if  there  is  a  good  man  on  the  General  Execir 
Board  who  is  not  a  general  organizer,  and  who  may  happen  to  meet  the  require- 
ments of  the  organization,  who  may  happen  to  fit  in  better  than  others,  let  the 
General  Office  have  its  hands  free  to  call  for  that  man's  services  if  he  is  willing 
to  serve.  If  any  general  organizer  is  not  wanted  on  the  G.  E.  B.,  let  the  member- 
ship decide  it  by  the  referendum  vote.  The  great  success  of  our  organization  was 
made  by  the  very  fact  that  we  have  removed  all  restraints,  that  we  have  abolished 
all  red  tape,  that  we  have  gone  right  ahead  and  worked,  that  we  have  not  stopped 
here  and  there  and  looked  into  the  little  book  to  see  if  there  is  a  comma  after 
one  word  or  a  semi-colon  after  another  word,  and  tried  to  find  out  from  some 
supreme  court  what  the  interpretation  of  this  or  that  might  be.  We  looked  at  our 
policies;  we  looked  at  the  requirements  of  the  situation;  we  looked  at  the  spirit  of 
the  membership;  with  that  we  worked;  with  that  we  built  up  our  organization  and 
attained  success. 

make  no  change  now  when  conditions  are  such  that  we  don't  know  what 
we  might  be  called  upon  to  do  tomorrow.  Conditions  all  over  the  world  are 
such  that  something  might  happen  tomorrow,  as  a  result  of  the  present  situation, 
that  might  call  for  the  fullest  services  and  co-operation  of  the  greatest  and  of  the 
humblest  in  our  organization.  Put  no  hindrance  in  the  way  of  anybody.  We  built 
up  a  wonderful  spirit.  We  have  shown  it  most  particularly  in  the  course  of  this 
convention.  Let  us  do  nothing  that  shall  chill  our  spirit.  Let  us  go  ahead  as  we 
have  and  continue  our  successful  work.  (Great  applause) 

President  HILLMAN:  I  think  that  there  was  enough  discussion  on  this  question, 
but  I  do  feel  that  I  would  disappoint  some  of  the  delegates  .speaking  for  the  minority, 
if  I  would  not  express  my  opinion  at  this  time.  You  wish,  those  of  you  who  support 
the  minority,  to  insure  and  safeguard  democracy.  Democracy  must  be  protected, 
and  in  this  grave  hour  you  bring  the  resolution  that  no  man  who  is  fit  to  be  a 
general  organizer  must  be  permitted  to  run.  1-  :'.ie  members  elect  him.  Democracy 
must  be  protected  against  itself— a  new  kind  of  democracy — democracy  by  elimina- 
tion. Eliminate  these  people,  and  the  other  people,  and  then  we  can  trust  democracy 
to  have  Its  way.  Those  are  very  old  policies,  but  they  are  new  at  labor  conventions, 
and  they  sound  strange  at  a  convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of 

Let  us  compare.  There  are  organizations  that  have  those  rules  in  the  clothing 
industry.  The  Journeymen  Tailors'  Union  of  Ametica  has  that  rule.  Every 
member  of  the  Board  works  in  the  shop, — nay,  not  only  in  the  shop,  he  works  in 
his  bed  room.  And  then  they  come  once  a  month,  not  in  three  months,  to  lay  out 
the  policies  for  the  organization.  I  beg  to  submit  to  you  delegates,  the  record  of  our 
organization  and  compare  it  with  the  record  of  the  Journeymen  Tailors'  Union. 
I  think  it  is  not  a  question  of  the  great  danger  confronting  us.  There  are  only 
three  members  on  the  Board  who  are  on  the  staff  as  general  organizers,  and  whether 
or  not  you  place  fortifications  around  the  election  of  General  Executive  Board 
members  so  that  those  people  or  a  few  more  who  may  be  nominated,  cannot 
be  elected,  the  organization  Is  going  to  -survive.  But  the  organization  will  be 



guided  by  A  new  spirit,  the  tptrlt  of  potty  poUtica,  the  spirit  of  trying  to 
ourselves  against  merit. 

Mr  friends.  I  am  ft  believer  la  itmoenc?.  I  believe  with  all  its  faults,  wfta 
all  iti  mistakes.  It  is  much  better  than  autocracy.  But  democracy,  la  order  to 
saocoed.  moat  be  efficient.  It  matt  pot  be  hampered  by  all  KliKlf  of  petty  rules  aad 
regulations.  You  are  not  going  to  guard  the  organisation  by  thia  add  H  toes!  rule, 

•>^fly  of  you  haow  about  the  rulea  of  our  organisation? 
In  tho  organisation.  1  tubmii.  1  don't   know  all  the  rulea,       1  don't 

I    ,!„ 

1  am  not  tryiag  here  to  sway 
will  have  no  I 

of  the  organisation      fHttgi1*r  >  believe  that  oar  organiiaiioa  to 
sjipriosloa  of  democracy  at  work,  and  It  la  because  tho  officers  of  the 
have  a  groat  deal  of  power,  snd  you  cannot  prevent  mea  of  ability  in 

r.  because,  unless  they  do  that,  tho 
it  should  make.      The  office 
to  come  in.      A  delegate  asks. 
Give  us  those  men,  if  they  are  there! 

say  that  every  other  able  man  must  not  run.  so  that  those  five  or  six 
Into  the  ottos.      We  have  made  progress   because  wo  have  power.      Wo  have  a 

But  we  also  have  the  _ 
ibled  has  the  right  and  power  to  look  back  on  oar 

a  are  created  not  to  give  five  or  ate  mea  a 
"Can't  we  find  In  the  shop  six  or  seven  mear 
!  Nominate  them!  Don't  make  a  rale  aad 

>e  officers  should  serve  or  not 

My  friends.  I  will  go  further  and  say  that,  from  what  I  know  of  the 

organisation,  they  would  never  servo  if  •  *•  that  they  are 

i  he    membership.     Why    make    these    rules?     Why    play   at 
we  have  a  real  democracy  at  work? 

We  have  been  making  many  attempts  to  got  mea  oa  oar  staff.  And  lot  mo 
you.  delegates,  that  it  Is  not  necessary  for  a  man  to  be  first  oa  the  General 
Board  In  order  to  get  on  the  staff.  We  are  making  no  promisee  to  the 
Board  members  that  they  must  get  on  the  staff.  Out  of  a  staff  of  over  thirty 
toon,  three  are  serving  on  the  Board  by  virtue  of  their  election,  by  virtue  of  nothing 
else  but  the  fact  that  the  membership  at  large  electd  them.  Way.  delegates.  If  you 
are  so  convinced,  why  not  go  to  the  membership  when  the  vote  takes  place  aad  too 
them  not  to  vote  for  those  people,  because  they  are  general  organisers?  Why 
make  a  rule?  Why  establish  a  law  that  we  cannot  enforce  even  If  we  want  to? 

My  friends.  1  say  we  have  dons  well.  We  have  done  wen  not  bscemi  of  the 
General  Executive  Board.  We  have  done  well  because  there  was  the  reeJ  pro- 
gressive spirit  In  our  organisation.  Because  we  were  not  playing  at  dsmoeracy. 
because  we  were  exercising  democracy.  And  1  do  hope  that  the  dologitat  will  take 
this  proposition  In  the  same  spirit  and  permit  the  membership  at  large  to  vote  la? 
those  whom  they  think  are  best  fit  to  administer  the  alga  osloii  hi  oar  iMjiilailisa 
I  thank  you.  (Applause.) 

We  will  vote  right  from  the  beginning  by  the  raising  of  haads       The  vote  to 

AVI      ttiA      SWL  i  •„»-•  Jd  aj      »A«h^h.M* 

uu   in*  aiinomy  rwporv. 

Delegate  GOODMAN:     I  move  that  we  vote  by  roll  call. 
The  motion  was  carried. 
President   HILLMAN:       The  vote   Is   on 
organisers  should  be  permuted  to  run  for 
The  roll  call  vote  was  as  follows: 




Jos,  Poaalal 


New  York  City  . .  David 





?•      New   York   City 

4.    New   York  City 


Alex  Cohen 
Morris  Goldin 
L.  Nirenberg 
L.  Revayle 
S.    Weinsteln 


A.   Beckerman 
J.  P.  Friedman 


Harry  Jacobson 
Meyer  Senter 

hicago,    111.    . . 
7.     Brooklyn,    N.    Y 

8.    New    York    city 

t.    New  York  City 
10.    New   York   City 

N'ew   York   City 
N'ew  York  City 

15.    Baltimore,    Md. 
16      New    York   Cii 

19.  New  York  City 

24.  Newark,   N    .1 

30.  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

36.  Baltimore,    Md. 

318.  Chicago,    111.    . 

39.  Chicago,    III. 

.Nathan  Sosnick 
David  Weiss 

•w   York  City 
>w   York   City 

51.  Baltimore,    Md. 

52.  Baltimore,    Md. 

64.  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

65.  New  York  City 

58.  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

59.  Baltimore,    Md. 

.Aaron   Feldman 

.Bennie  Bernstein 
Harry  Crystal 
Sarah   Katzen 

los.    Newman 

Frank  Dvorak 
.Frank  Vaitukaltis 
John  Zubauch 

.Wm.  Cernowsky 
.Bennie  Hurowitz 

Stephan  Skala 
Isador  Axelrod 
Louis  Berger 

Hyman   Goldoft 
Abr.   Miller 
D.  Nirenberg 

A.  A.   Silverman 
Louis   Feinberg 
Louis  Adler 
Sam   Katz 
Philip  Waldman 

Sam  Leder 
Bennie  Horowitz 
Jacob  Gutterman 
S.  Riger 
Sam  Scheir 

Morris  Goldstein 
M.  Nitzberg 
Sam  Stein 
Louis  Zuckerman 
Max  Yudelowitz 

Eugene    Bucci 
Philip    Berkowitz 
Julius  Powers 

one-half   each 

Morris  Zafran 

W.  Wybraniec 

Bennie    Branzal 

A.  N.   Fisher 
D.  Goldberg 
Rubin  Morse 
Mary    Resbeck 
T.   Uzarski 

Hyman  Novodvor 

B.  Weiss 
D.  Isaac 
Louis  Shapiro 
.T     Yelowitz 
Philip  De  Luca 
Ulisse  De  Dominicis 

Harry   Bender 



ulcaco.    III. 
43     NOT   York  Clt 


Md      ..Frank  J    Harlot 
71    »taolHyt»  via 

74.    Philadelphia.  Pa  Harry 

I*.    BrookJ)  Frank  MarroB* 

Brooklyn.  N     « 

.land.  Ohio    ..victor  FnriBUB 
Maltlmore.    Md.    ..Harry  Btaom 

Morris  Blrkln 
116     Montreal.  Canada  A.  Walls 

Malllmore.    Md.     ..Harry    Newetadt 

Max  Roaliuky 
110.     Ixmiati 
ISt.     Philadelphia.    Pa 
lit.    Philadelphia.    Pa. 

Philadelphia.    Pa. 

Philadelphia.    Pa. 

Brooklyn.  N    Y    ..Harry  Taylor 

PfcfladofehUL    Pa, 

Cfctaaco.    Ill Morrli    Rahlnowlu 

iso  Boston.  Mass.   . 

is:  * 'hirajto.    ill Joa.  Goldman 

lit.  Philadelphia.   Pa.   .Loah  Gal  bin 

ISC  Now  York  City   .iMorrls  Adlnaky 

Joa.  Gold 
Bam  Llpttln 
Jacob  Pollack 
U7      Ni  w    York   City      -Emma  Shapiro  Morris  Cunt 

IS*.     New    York  City 
1C!.     Nrw    York 

ItS      Brooklyn.   N     Y 
1€?      Monir-al.    Canada 
ICf.     New   York   < 

Wormter.    Maaa. 
175.    Brooklyn.  N    Y.  . 

Harry    Rabte 

.Harry  N.  Greenbtrf 


Mamie  Saatora 

.  . 

178.     New    York    < 
ISC  ork  City 

Harris   Y 
207.    Woodbine,  N  Qlastr 

90f .     MontnMil.    Canada  F.  Witt* 

Brooklyn.  N.  Y.    .  .Sol  Friedman 

Brooklyn.  Harry  Kaluthkin 




215.    Brooklyn,  N.  Y.   ..Max  Alexander 
Jack  Perelman 

218.    Baltimore,  Md.   ... 

230.    Baltimore,  Md.    . .  .John  Drasel 

241.     Baltimore,  Md.   ...Sam  Bassin 
Abe  Sykea 

244.    New  York  City    . 

247.  Baltimore   Md.    ... 

248.  New  York  City    .. 

249.  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

259.     Brooklyn,  N.  Y.   ..Louis  Brodsky 

B.  Jackson 
262.     Brooklyn,  N.  Y.    .. 

t*9.    Chicago,    111 Peter   Galskls 

277.    Montreal,   Canada 
280.    New   York   City 

J.  B.  Rochester    

J.  B.  Boston     

J.  B.  Chicago    

J.  B.  New   York    ....      Wm.  Druhln 
J.  B.  New    York    Chi 

Clothing  Trade    . . . 

J.  B.  Toronto     Jas.  Blugerman 

Phlla.  District  Council 
Baltimore  District 

Council    No.    3.. 




John  J.  Dcnkevlcz 

B.  Goldsholl 
Morris  Fisher 

Sam  Flicker 

Henry   Dozzo 
P.  Monat 

D.  Wolf 

J.   J.    Young 

E.  Rahkln 
Lorenzo  De  Maria 
Jacob  J.  Levin 
Lazarus   Marcovltz 
Hyman  Isovltz 

Harry   Cohen 
N.  Bunln 



Max   Steinberg 
Sam  Drabkln 

Thomas  Frlsa 

Hyman  Blumberg 

Sam'l  Zorn,  Local  1,  Boston 
J.  S.  Potofsky,  Local  144,  Chicago 


Secretary  SCHLOSSBERG:  The  vote  is:  For  the  minority  report  62;  against  96; 
9  absentees  and  2  not  voting.  (Applause.) 

President  HILLMAN:  The  motion  to  accept  the  minority  report  has  been  lost 
All  in  favor  that  the  majority  report  shall  prevail  will  signify  by  saying  Aye. 

This  was  carried 

President  HILLMAN:  Before  adjourning  I  wish  to  announce  that  Resolution 
No.  27,  Introduced  by  Local  2,  has  been  withdrawn. 


R/esolved,  that  wherever  editors  of  our  official  organs  take  the  liberty  to  express 
their  personal  opinions  on  questions  not  pertaining  to  our  organization  in  the  editorial 
columns  of  our  organs,  that  they  do  it  in  their  own  names  and  not  in  the  name  of 
the  organization,  which  the  organ  represents. 

OF  TAILORS,  LOCAL  2,  A.  C.  W.  OF  A, 
J.  Goodman,  Chairman. 
Harry  Schepps,  Secretary. 

Secretary  Schlossberg  read  the  following  greetings  to  the  convention: 


New  York.  May  17.  iflf. 

Best  wishes  for  euccess  of  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  Hope  oar 
requests  will  be  granted. 


Brooklyn.  N.  Y.  May  If.  Iflf. 

Our  greetings  to  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the  Amalgimated  Clothing 
Work.  r«  of  America.  May  success  he  yours.  The  two  thousand  members  of  Local 
fff.  Veatmakers'  Union  of  Brooklyn,  are  impatient  for  the  forty-four  hour  week,  and 
hope  that  the  neit  convention  of  the  Amalgamated  will  record  our  having  won  UUs 


New  York.  May  17.  If  If. 
ooccss  in  all  your  •ndertal 

Accept  ear  heartiest  congratulations.    Wish  you  success  in  all  your 

New    York.    May    17.    Iflf. 

May  your  deliberations  contribute  to  the  continued  betterment  of  the 

of  labor  and  wages  In  the  clothing  Industry  and  to  the  growth  of  labor  solidarity 


and  might,  for  the  reconstruction  of  the  world  on  the  basis 

which  the  Amalgamated  has  made  the  underlying  principles  of  Its 


M.  Zaritsky.   Secretary. 

Baltimore.   May   17.   Iflf. 

We  congratulate  you  upon  the  spirit  of  the  contention  and  wish  you  socoese  I 
the  future. 


The  session  waa  adjourned  at  5:35  P.M. 


Ninth  Session 

Saturday  Morning,  May   18,  1918. 
The   meeting   was   called   to   order   at   9:30   AJaf. 

By  Harry  Cohen,  Chairman. 

RESOLUTION   NO.   56.    ON   THE    USE   OF   FOREIGN    LANGUAGES,    BY    LOCAL    ?,. 

Whereas,  our  organization  is  composed  of  members  of  various  nationalities,  and 
Whereas,  delegates   attending   our    convention    are    not    always    able    to    express 
their  thoughts  otherwise  than  in  their  own  tongue,  and 

Whereas,  this  hinders  many  of  the  active  and  experienced  men  from  participating 
in  the  deliberations  of  the  convention  and  giving  us  the  benefit  of  their  experience, 
therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  that  the  delegates  should  have  the  right  to  express  their  opinions  in 
their  mother  tongue  and  same  should  be  interpreted  in  English  to  the  delegates  of 
the  convention. 

LOCAL  3,  A.  C.  W.  OF 
A.  Cohen. 
S.  Weinstein. 
M.  Goldin. 
L.  Revayel. 
L.  Nirenberg. 

The  committee  recommends  non-concurrence. 

President  HILLMAN:  You  have  heard  the  report  of  the  committee.  The  com- 
mittee recommends  non-concurrence  with  the  resolution  and  moves  the  adoption 
of  its  report. 

Delegate  WEINSTEIN  of  Local  3:  I  believe  that  those  who  cannot  speak  in 
the  English  language  should  have  the  right  to  speak  in  the  language  in  which  they 
can  make  themselves  understood. 

Delegate  DVORAK  of  Local  52:  I  am  absolutely  opposed  to  this  because,  if  you 
have  twenty-five  people  speaking  different  languages,  nobody  would  understand  any- 
thing. If  anybody  here,  for  instance,  spoke  Bohemian,  none  would  understand  him. 

Delegate  REVAVKL  of  Local  3:  Yesterday  afternoon  we  talked  a  whole  lot 
about  democracy,  but  when  it  comes  to  a  convention  where  40  or  50  per  cent  of.  the 
delegates  are  able  to  express  their  opinions  only  in  their  own  languages,  why  should 
they  not  be  able  to  do  so? 

I  should  myself  like  to  see  that  only  one  language  used,  but  at  the  same  time 
there  are  many  men  who  are  able  to  express  their  views  only  in  a  foreign  language. 
Therefore  we  recommend  this  resolution  to  this  convention.  I  ask  you  delegates  to 
consider  it  thoroughly.  If  the  Amalgamated  claims  that  it  is  a  democratic  organization, 
this  should  be  adopted  in  order  that  we  should  be  able  to  express  ourselves  in  the 
languages  we  know  best. 

The  motion  recommending  non-concurrence  in  the  resolution  was  carried. 


Whereas,  machinery  is  being  introduced  in  our  industry  more  frequently  now 
than  ever  before,  and 

Whereas,  with  the  introduction  of  this  new  machinery  an  overwhelming  curtailment 
of  employment  of  our  members  is  being  brought  about,  causing  suffering  for  our 
members  and  also  for  our  organization,  therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  that  this  Third  Biennial  Convention  go  on  record  in  favor  of  curtailing 



the  hours  of  labor  In  proportion  to  the  Introduction  of  such  new  mnaiieij  If  the 
Introduction  of  this  new  machinery  will  only  apply  to  one  particular  branch  of  the 
trade,  the  hours  of  labor  for  that  particular  branch  ahould  be  reduced  proportionately 
thereby  safeguarding  our  members  from  lack  of  work 

LOCAL  J,  A,  C.  W.  OF  A, 

B.  Wetttteln. 

L.  Revajrel. 
L.  Nirenben. 

Committee  recommends  that  this  resolution  be  referred  to  the  G.  E.  B.  for  proper 

President  HILLJiAN:  The  recommendation  of  the  ^^MMiKtinr  is  then,  that  this 
matter  be  referred  to  the  Incoming  O.  B.  B.  together  with  a  committee  from  the 
Preasers'  Organizations  Involved.  In  order  that  this  matter  may  be  thoroughly  Investi- 
gated and  a  solution  sought.  Is  there  any  objection  to  the  recommendation? 

There  was  none,  and  the  recommendation  of  the  committee  was  unanimously 


Whereas,  the  Arrangements  Committee  of  District  Council  No.  3.  A.  C.  W.  of  A., 
has  In  a  very  effective  manner  looked  after  the  convenience  and  comfort  of  the  delegate*. 

Whereas,  special  efforts  were  made  by  the  Arrangements  Committee  to  entertain 
the  delegates  in  a  manner  most  satisfactory  to  the  delegates,  therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  that  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the  A.  C.  W.  fl 
Us  aincerest  thanks  and  appreciation  for  the  splendid  efforts  of  the 
alttee  of  District  Council  No.  3  to  entertain  the  delegates  and 
stay  in  the  city  of  Baltimore  most  pleasant  during  the  convention, 
will  surely  carry  pleasant  memories  of  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  held  in 

HAKKY  rmiEN.  Local  7. 
J.   P.  FRIEDMAN.   Local   4 
MEYER  8ENTBR.  Local    ;. 

H    IAOOB00M,   Local  4. 
The  committee  recommends  concurrence. 
This  was  unanimously  carried. 

President  H1LLMAN:  On  behalf  of  the  Convention  I  extend  the  thanks  of  the 
Convention  to  the  Arrangements  Committee  of  our  Baltimore  organization. 

Secretary  8CHLO88BERG:  Mr.  Chairman.  I  was  asked  by  a  member  of  the 
Committee  on  Resolutions,  of  which  Harry  Cohen  is  Chairman,  to  report  a  resolution 
that  he  vetoed,  and  that  they  adopted  over  his  veto.  Brother  Cohen  even  committed 
the  impropriety  of  tearing  up  the  resolution.  I  shall  read  it  to  you  as  well  aa  I  can 
from  this  mutilated  document 


Whereas,  Brother  Harry  Cohen.  Manager  of  the  Children's  Clothing  Trades  of 
New  York,  has  secured  a  flat  $4  increase  for  the  workers  of  this  branch  of  the  clothing 
Industry,  and 

Whereas,  this  was  done  without  a  strike  and  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  the 
Children's  CMothlng  Workers,  be  it,  therefore 

Resolved,    that   this   convention   expresses   its   gratitude  and   thanks   to 
Harry  Cohen  for  his  past  achievements,  and  wish  him  success  in  the  future. 

LOi  A    C.  W.  OP  A. 

Simon    Haas, 

The  resolution  was  approved. 



By  Abraham    Beckerman,  Chairman. 


Whereas,  a  great  number  of  our  members  are  being  drafted  for  service  In  the 
United  States  Army  and  Nary,  and 

Whereas,  Knowing  that  the  Bible  la  probably  the  only  kind  of  literature  that 
our  boys  are  getting,  be  it 

Resolved,  that  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  send  proper  literature  to  the  members  of  our 
organization  in  the  service. 

H.  TAYLOR,   Local   42. 
B.  INDYKE,  Local   161. 

The  committee  recommends  non-concurrence  in  this  resolution. 

Secretary  SCHLOSSBERG:  I  think  the  committee  should  have  recommended 
something  else,  instead  of  non-concurrence.  There  Is  a  mistake  in  the  substance  of 
the  resolution.  It  Is  not  quite  so  that  the  boys  in  the  Army  get  only  the  Bible.  They 
might  get  that  from  those  agencies  who  are  Interested  in  circulating  the  Bible,  but 
there  are  other  agencies  who  look  after  the  distribution  of  all  sorts  of  literature 
among  them.  In  our  own  press  we  published  an  appeal  from  the  Jewish  Welfare 
Board,  an  organization  that  was  formed  for  the  purpose  of  looking  after  the  comforts 
of  the  Jewish  soldiers.  They  have  asked  for  literature  of  all  sorts,  on  economics, 
physics,  religion,  sociology,  anything  at  all  that  any  individual  or  organization  desires 
to  send  for  the  purpose  of  distributing  among  the  soldiers.  I  understand  that  they 
do  not  confine  their  to  the  Jewish  soldiers,  but  they  are  really  non-sectarian. 

Everyone  of  us  has  an  opportunity  to  send  such  literature.  All  that  they  ask 
is  that  whatever  literature  is  sent  should  be  complete.  That  is,  if  there  is  a  set  of 
books  of  three,  don't  send  one;  either  send  the  complete  set,  or  if  you  send  one 
book,  see  that  that  book  is  complete  in  itself,  so  that  the  soldier  can  get  a  complete 

I  would  suggest  that  this  be  referred  to  the  General  Executive  Board,  because 
a  complete  system  will  be  worked  out  as  they  go  along  that  will  enable  everybody 
to  send  literature  to  anyone  in  the  army,  such  literature  as  you  want  them  to  read. 

The  recommendation  of  non-concurrence  would  mean  that  we  don't  want  to  send 
them  any  literature.  We  do  not  wish  to  leave  our  action  open  to  such  interpretation. 
I  therefore  suggest  that  this  be  referred  to  the  General  Executive  Board. 

Delegate  ZORN:     I  move  that  this  be  referred  to  the  G.  E.  B. 

The  amendment  was  unanimously  carried. 


Whereas,  The  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  is  a  progressive 
and  democratic  organization,  ocmmanding  respect  in  the  Labor  Movement,  and  its 
aim  is,  and  always  has  been,  to  educate  its  members,  because  only  an  organization 
that  has  an  educated  membership  can  successfully  conduct  the  struggles  that  a 
labor  organization  is  constantly  confronted  with,  therefore  be  it 

Resolved,  That  the  Third  Biennial  Convention,  at  the  Garden  Theatre,  Balti- 
more, Maryland,  instruct  the  Incoming  General  Officers  to  set  up  a  book  store  in 
the  General  Office  in  New  York  City,  and  be  it  further 

Resolved,  That  said  officers,  or  whoever  will  be  designated  by  them,  should 
order  books  and  pbamphlets  in  great  quantities,  so  as  to  enable  the  General  Officers 
to  sell  them  at  a  much  lower  cost  than  when  the  members  are  compelled  to  buy 
at  the  publishers'  retail  price,  and  be  it  also 

Resolved,  That  the  General  Office  sell  those  books  and  pamphlets  at  a  nominal 
cost  to  the  members  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America,  and  be  It 

Resolved,  That  a  liberal  supply  of  books  and  pamplets  should  at  all  times 
be  on  stock  at  the  General  Office  in  as  many  languages  as  there  are  nationalities 
represented  in  our  organization,  and  be  it  finally 



Resolved.  That  a  catalogue  constantly  appear  In  our  press  of  mil  the  books 
and  pamphlets  on  hand  at  the  General  Office,  with  the  name  of  the  book,  its  author, 
and  the  price. 

N.  naher. 

In  conjunction  with  thU  there  U  another  resolution  of  a  similar  nature.  That 
U  Resolu  53. 

RB80  >      M.     ON  I  i-:8     AND     READING     ROOMS     FOR     OUR 


Whereas,  an  increase  of  ten  cents  In  the  per  capita  to  our  General  Office 
has  been  voted  upon  by  oar  general  membership,  and. 

Whereas,  It  was  understood  that  this  raise  in  the  per  capita  should  be 
partly  for  educational  purposes,  and 

Whereas.  It  Is  Important  that  a  spiritual  atmosphere  should  be  created 
our  members  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  out  the  best  that  Is  In  them  therefore  be  It 

Resolved,  that  the  General  Office  stand  instructed  to  endeavor  to  the  beet 
of  their  ability  to  establish  libraries  and  reading  rooms  in  all  clothing  centers  where 
conditions  will  permit  so  ss  to  enable  our  members  to  enjoy  their  spare  time 
In  a  wholesome  atmosphere  among  their  fellow  workers.* 

LOCAL  3.   A.   C.   W.  OF 
A.  Cohen. 

S     \V.  !'.    '     '• 
M.    Go! 

L.  Neerenberg, 
L.  Revayel. 

The  committee  recommends  that  these  resolutions  be  concurred  in  and  referred 
to  the  Genera]  Executive  Board. 

These  resolutions  were  unanimously  adopted  with  the  recommendation  of  the 

RESOLUTION     NO.      40,     MORAL     AND      FINANCIAL      SUPPORT      FOR      TUB 

Whereas,  the  capitalist    press    has    consistently    distorted    or    suppressed    news 
relating  to  the  struggles  of  the  working  class;  and 

Whereas.    It   therefore   becomes   necessary   for   the   working    class    to   maintain 
an  organ  of  its  own  so  that  It  may  have  an  opportunity  to  express  its  views;  and 

Whereas,   the  New   York  Call   Is   the  only   dally   labor   paper   In   the   East,   and 
has  always  aided  and  faithfully  represented  the  Interests  of  the  working  class;  be  It 

Resolved,   that    we,   the   Amalgamated    Clothing    Workers    of   America,   in 
ventlon  at  Baltimore,  do  pledge  our  moral  and  financial  aid  in  Its  support 

A.  BBCKERMAN.  Local  4. 
J    FRIEDMAN,  Local  4. 
MEYER  8BNTER.   LocaH, 

PAUL  ARNONE.  Local  63. 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence, 

Delegate  RABKIN:    I  believe  that  Instead  of  -the  only  dally  paper.**  the 
lution  should  read  "the  only  dally  paper  in  the  English  language.** 
The  resolution  was  unanimously  adopted  as  corrected. 


ereas.  At  the  second  biennial  convention  of  the  Amalgamated  Clothing 
Workers  of  America,  held  In  Rochester.  N.  Y.,  May  1916.  It  was  resolved  that  a 
publication  in  the  Lithuanian  language  should  be  issued  by  our  organisation,  and 

oreas.  Thousands  of  our  members  speak  no  other  language  but  the  Lithu- 
anian. and.  with  no  publication  In  said  language  issued  by  our  organisation,  they 
are  deprived  of  a  very  valuable  source  of  education  and  information  about  the 



struggles   and  achievements,   the  aims  and  principles  of   the  Amalgamated   Clothing 
Workers  of  America,  and 

Whereas,  The  need  of  a  publication  in  the  Lithuanian  language  is  more 
imperative  now  than  ever  before,  be  it,  therefore, 

Resolved.  That  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  publish  not 
later  than  six  months  after  this  date  a  newspaper  in  the  Lithuanian  language, 
and  be  it  further 

Resolved.  That  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America  now  assemble -d 
at  its  third  biennial  convention  in  Baltimore,  Md.,  hereby  instruct  and  authorize  the 
General  Executive  Board  to  execute  this  resolution  as  adopted  for  the  best  interests 
of  our  organization. 

I.  Marcovlti,  U.  Lebovitz,  6.  Zorn,  J.  Blume,  N.  Biller,  I.  Takimo,  J.  Pennini, 
T.  Morelli.  U.  E.  Sher,  F.  Lerman,  D.  Oilman. 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence  and   reference  to  the  O.  E.   B. 

Delegate  ZOUBOWITZ:  The  other  nationalities  with  less  members  have  papers 
In  their  own  languages,  and  I  believe  we,  Lithuanians,  ought  to  have  a  papor  in 
our  language. 

Secretary    SCHLOSSBERG:     The   great   difficulty    with    the    Lithuanian   paper   is 
that  it  seems  to  be  almost  impossible  to  get  an  editor.       It  was  just  as  impossible 
to  get  an  organizer.      We  have  until  now  been  unsuccessful  in  getting  a  competent 
man  to  edit  a  Lithuanian  paper  for  our  members.       The  General  Office  has  ;i 
been  aware  of  the  necessity  of  a   Lithuanian   paper.       We   have   not   forgot t 
and  we  have  not  given  it  up.      As  soon  as  it  will  be  possible,  arrangements  for  a 
Lithuanian  paper  will  be  made.       But  the  Lithuanians  must  make  it  their  business 
to  help  the  General  Office  in  bringing  this  about. 

President  HILLMAN:  At  our  General  Executive  Board  meetings  we  have  decided 
time  and  again  to  issue  a  Lithuanian  paper,  but,  unfortunately,  we  could  not  find  the 
proper  man  to  edit  a  paper.  This  resolution  will  instruct  the  incoming  G.  E.  B. 
to  make  further  efforts  for  the  issuance  of  a  Lithuanian  paper. 

This  resolution  was  unanimously  carried. 

RESOLUTION       NO.       44,       ON    EDUCATIONAL       WORK       IN       CANADA,       BY 

Taking  into  consideration  the  necessity  of  extensive  cultural  activity  atnongst 
Amalgamated  members  in  Montreal,  we  decided  to  demand  that  this  convention  assign 
a  certain  amount  of  money  for  educational  work  in  Canada,  and  to  organize  lecture 
tours  for  the  discussion  of  trade  union  problems  and  workingmen's  politics. 

F.  White,  Local  209, 
A.  Wells,  Local   116, 
E.   Rabkin,    Local    277. 

With  this  there  was  also  a  communication  from  the  Rand  School  of  Social 
Science,  offering  to  co-operate  with  us  in  work  of  the  nature  asked  for  by  the 
brothers  in  Canada.  A  representative  of  the  Rand  School  was  also  present  at  the 
committee  meeting  and  suggested  starting  different  classes — correspondence  classes 
for  members  throughout  the  country.  We  decided  to  couple  the  letter  of  Algernon 
Lee  and  the  statement  of  the  Rand  School  together  with  Resolution  No.  44  and  refer 
them  to  the  General  Executive  Board,  concurring  with  the  general  idea  of  spreading 
education  among  the  members. 

This  recommendation  of  the  committee  was  unanimously  adopted. 

At  this  point  Board  Member  Levin  of  Chicago  took  the  Chair. 

Delegate  BECKERMAN:  There  is  a  Jewish  letter  here,  from  the  Kropotkin 
Society,  asking  for  co-operation.  The  committee  decided  to  refer  it  to  the  General 
Executive  Board. 

The  suggestion  of  the  committee  was  unanimously  adopted. 

Delegate  BECKERMAN:  We  have  here  a  resolution  which  was  handed  in  too 
late  for  our  consideration. 


Whereas,  members  of  the   A.  C.  W.  of  A.,  at  the  Second   Biennial  Convention 



in  Rochester,  adopted  a  resolution  to  educate  its  members  tnroegboot  the  country. 
Resolved,  tbat  $5,000  be  appropriated  for  the  above  moatioaed  purpose. 

LOCAU  It,  A.  C.  W.  OF  A.. 


Although  the  committee  baa  not  met.  it  seems  to  me  tbat 
similar  to  the  otber  resolutions  tbat  have  already  been  referred  to  the 
Executive  Board,  and  1  doo't  see  tbat  any  oiber  decision  can  be  made  on  ibis 
resolution,  eicept  to  couple  it  along  with  the  others  and  leave  the  whole  matter 
to  the  discretion  of  the  (J  E.  B. 

This  suggestion  was  unanimously  adopted. 

President  Hlllman  at  this  point  resumed  the  Chair. 

REPORT       OF       THE       COMMITTEE       ON       RESOLUTIONS 
By   Hsrry   Cohen 

RESOLUTION     NO.      87.     ON     THE     WHOLESALE      CLOTHING     CLERKS.      BY 

Whereas.  We.  the  Clothing  Clerks  of  the  wholesale  clothing  Industry,  numl 
1.000  workers  in  an  important  part  of  the  production  of  clothing,  are 
and  underpaid,  and  the  manufacturers  have  us  at  their  mercy,  can  do  as  they 
while  we  suffer  hardships  and  also  lack  of  organization; 

Whereas,    The    Wholesale   Clothing   Clerks'    Union.    Local    158.    baa   been 
lied  and  chartered  for  the  past  eight  months; 

Whereas,  Our  members,  as  a  part  of  the  clothing  industry,  are  beginning  to  see 
the  li. 

Whereas.  We  now  have  a  reliable  and  active  nucleus  to  build  up  a  strong 
organization;  be  it 

Resolved.    That    this    Convention    of    the    Amalgamated    Clothing    Workers    of 

..•a  call  on  the  New   York  Joint  Board  and  the  Joint  Board  of  the  Children's 

Clothing  Trades  to  seat  aa  a  delegation  the  representatives  of  our  organization. 

Be  It  Resolved.  That  in  future  the  Wholesale  Clothing  Clerks'  Union  be 
and  supported  morally  and  financially,  the  same  as  other  branches  of  the 

LOCAL  158.  A.  C.  W.  OF 

Harry    N.    Greenberg. 

The  Committee  recommends  that  it  be  refrred  to  the  New  York  Joint  Board. 
If  Local  158  should  be  dissatisfied  with  the  action  of  the  Joint  Board  it  may  appeal 
to  the  G.  E.  B. 

Delegate  GREENBERG:  The  question  has  been  before  the  G.  E.  B.  at  several 
sessions.  Our  organization  has  done  a  whole  lot  for  the  clothing  industry  at  various) 
times.  At  all  times  we  have  done  all  in  our  power  to  help  various  strikes  conducted 
in  New  York  City  by  different  organizations  in  the  clothing  Industry.  We  don't 
see  why  our  organization,  which  has  been  in  existence  since  January.  1916.  and 
chartered  for  the  past  eight  months,  should  not  get  any  support  from  the  A. 

<  a  local  union.  I  believe  we  should  b.  he  fu'.l  rights  and  full 

support,  the  same  as  other  locals  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  We  have  no  one  to  toll 
our  troubles  to.  On  various  occasions  we  have  co-operated  with  the  Cutters'  Union. 
We  want  to  go  out  and  try  to  accomplish  the  48  hours  that  you  men  are  baring 
today.  You  are  going  to  get  the  44  hours  in  the  very  near  future.  Let  the  Whole- 
sale Clothing  Clerks'  Union.  Local  158.  at  least  get  the  48  hours.  We  are  not 
looking  for  44.  but  give  us  48  hours  at  the  present  time. 

The  men  in  our  local  have  been  paying  dues  at  the  rate  of  SO  cents  a 

he  past  year.  We  are  not  giving  them  any  support  They  are  actually 
for  nothing,  as  you  all  know  as  well  aa  I  do.  And  when  a  man  has  not  the 
of  an  organization  or  the  support  of  the  entire  industry,  he  is  going  to  lag  in  pay- 
ments and  drop  out  as  a  member.  But  if  be  seea  that  the  organization  baa  some 
power  stating  him  when  he  loses  his  position,  or  seea  that  be  gels  what  Is 

coming  to  him  aa  an  organization  man.  be  will  stick.  Therefore  I  urge  upo 
and  every  delegate  present  here  this  morning  to  pass  this  resolution  that  we 
have  representation  at  the  New  York  Joint  Board. 



Delegate  SILVERMAN,  Local  9:  I  believe  that  the  Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers 
of  America  Is  an  Industrial  organisation,  and  we  wish  to  see  all  branches  in  tho 
clothing  Industry  organized  under  the  banner  of  the  Amalgamated.  As  to  the 
organization  of  the  shipping  and  stock  clerks'  union  I  know  that  there  is  a  very  good 
element  In  that  organization,  always  ready  and  on  the  job,  whenever  there  is  work 
for  them  to  do.  1,  for  one,  cannot  see  why  the  New  York  Joint  Board  would  not 
seat  their  delegates  as  representatives  at  the  New  York  Joint  Board.  I  believe  that 
we  should  give  a  chance  to  the  Shipping  Clerks'  Union  to  have  their  represent;: 
at  the  Joint  Board,  and  take  up  their  business  with  the  New  York  Joint  Bo 
ever  they  have  some  business  to  be  taken  up.  I,  therefore,  move  to  amend  that 
the  Shipping  Clerks'  Union  be  permitted  to  be  represented  at  the  New  York  Joint 
Board  as  are  other  branches  of  this  Industry. 

President  HILLMAN:  I  wish  to  say  to  the  delegates  that  it  Is  all  very  well 
to  come  before  the  convention  and  make  a  plea,  but  it  cannot  be  expected  of  the 
delegates  to  acquaint  themselves  In  five  minutes  time  with  all  the  bodies  of  the 
organization.  We  have  dealt  with  this  question  for  months.  This  Wholesale  ( 
Organization  came  time  and  again  before  the  G.  E.  B..  assuring  tl><  c.  E.  B.  that 
they  will  raise  no  issue  In  the  market  if  a  charter  Is  granted  until  the  organization 
to  ready  for  It.  We  are  an  industrial  organization,  but  that  does  not  mean  as  yet 
that  we  must  sacrifice  our  existing  organizations  by  undertaking  tasks  for  which 
we  are  not  ready. 

I  believe  It  is  unfair  for  the  movers  of  the  resolution  to  .put  it  up  to  the  con 
tion.  without  giving  the  convention  the  opportunity  to  acquaint  itself  with  all  the 
facts.  There  Is  the  New  York  Joint  Board.  The  Wholesale  Clerks'  Union  can  at 
any  time  come  to  the  New  York  Joint  Board  and  lay  its  case  before  them.  There 
Is  the  General  Organization.  If  they  have  any  grievance,  they  may  come  before  the 
General  Organization  and  lay  it  before  them.  The  whole  matter  is  not  as  simple 
as  It  may  appear.  I  do  hope  that  the  delegates  will  concur  with  the  recommendation 
of  the  Committee,  because,  after  all,  the  New  York  delegation  may  act  on  it  in  New 
York  City  if  they  feel  that  some  wrong  should  be  righted. 

The  recommendation  of  the  committee  was  unanimously  adopted. 


Whereas,  a  very  great  number  of  the  members  of  the  Socialist  Party  of  the 
United  States  have  rendered  efficient  and  valuable  service  to  the  national  and  local 
organizations  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.,  in  the  hard  struggles  the  clothing  workers  went 
through,  and 

Whereas,  the  organizations  of  the  Socialist  Party  acted  In  close  harmony  with 
the  wishes  of  the  organizations  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  in  drafting  legislative  measures 
to  be  introduced  in  various  Legislatures  of  the  states  through  the  elected  officials 
of  the  Socialist  Party,  and 

Whereas,  the  Socialist  Party  as  part  of  the  Workers'  International  stands  for 
a  constructive  program  of  social  readjustment  and  reconstruction  to  take  place 
upon  the  conclusion  of  the  war,  and 

Whereas,  such  program  is  entirely  in  accord  with  the  repeated  views  of  the 
A.  C.  W.  of  A.  on  the  same  subject,  be  it,  therefore, 

Resolved,  that  the  Third  Biennial  Convention  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.  expresses  Us 
full  sympathy  with  the  work  of  the  individual  socialists  and  organizations  tending  to 
bring  about  such  readjustment  of  social  conditions  that  would  meet  with  the  trend 
of  the  world's  progress  toward  a  state  of  society  where  labor  will  be  fully  emancipated 
and  class  prejudice  and  oppression  will  exist  no  longer. 

The  committee  recommends  concurrence  with  the  resolution,  and  moves  Us 

This  was  unanimously  carried. 

Secretary  Schlossberg  at  this  point  took  the  Chair. 



By  Chairman   Alex   Cohen 


Whereas,  at  the  last  convention  of  the  A.  C.  W.  of  A.,  a  resolution  was  adopted 
that  the  New  York  Joint  Board  and  the  Children's  Clothing  Trades  Joint  Board  be 
emerged  in  one  Joint  Board,  therefore  be  It 

that  ibis  convention  order  the  carrying  out  of  the  dedsiesj  of  the  last 

The  committee  reports  concurrence  with  this  resolution 

Delegate  GOLD:  I  was  instructed  by  my  local  union  to  take  op  this 
here  and  present  this  resolution.  Two  years  ago  we  submitted  a  similar 
which  pessed  the  convention,  and  up  to  the  present  time  the)  resolution  Is  still  on 
paper.  We  find  It  more  necessary  now  than  two  years  ago.  especially  because  of 
the  uniform  clothing.  The  manufacturers  of  New  York  realize  that  it  Is  to  their 
advantage  to  have  one  Joint  Board,  and  they  have  merged  Into  one.  We  also  find 
that  In  order  to  benefit  our  members  in  New  York  more  than  we  have  up  to  the 
present  time.  It  will  be  necessary  to  have  one  Joint  Board.  Therefore  we  ask  this 
convention  and  the  General  Executive  Board  to  see  that  the  resolution  of  two 
years  ago.  passed  at  the  Rochester  Convention,  be  carried  out. 

A   point  of  information.     May   I  be  Informed   If  a 
resolution  of  that  kind  was  passed  two  years  ago? 

ilnnan  SCKLOSSBERG:      Yes,  to  bring  the  two  Joint   Boards  of  New  York 

Delegate  I  would  like  to  know  If  they  met  at  any  time. 

Delegate  GOLD      I  can  say  that  they  did. 

Delegate  COUKN       I  beg  to  differ. 

Chairman  SCHLOSS  You  have  heard  the  answer. 

Delegate  GOODMAN:     This  is  a  very  Important  question.     We  have  started  to 

the  small  local  unions  and  we  did  not  meet  with  success  on  account  of  this. 

said,  we  cannot  unite  our  local  unions  while  our  central  bodies  are  not  united. 

The  manufacturers  had  two  separate  bodies,  and  now  they  are  uniting.     Before)  we 

could  not  see  it  so  clearly.    The  fact  that  the  manufacturers'  associations  have  com- 

.  has  proven  it  to  them.    Therefore  I  think  that  this  resolution  Is  in  place. 

Delegate  Ml  l  don't  know  whether  a  decision  of  this  convention  will  bring 

about  more  close  unity  of  the  two  Joint  Boards,  but  I  wish  the  delegates,  particularly 
the  New  York  delegates,  would  consider  this  proposition  from  an  organization  stand- 
point. I  believe  that  we  are  suffering  in  New  York  ICty  very  much  on  account  of 
having  these  here  two  kingdoms:  the  Child  rens*  Jacket  Makers'  Joint  Board  OB  one 
side  and  the  New  York  Joint  Board  on  the  other  side.  When  we  had  the  District 
Council,  the  Childrens*  Jacket  Makers'  Locals  were  united  with  the  locals  of  the  men's 
clothing  workers.  Now.  since  we  organized  the  New  York  Joint  Board,  we  are 
absolutely  separated  from  the  Children's  Clothing  Workers.  In  New  York  City  we 
had  the  First  of  May  demonstration,  which,  in  my  opinion,  was  one  of  the  most 
glorious  achievements  of  our  organization.  Although  we  had  about  10.000  of  our 
members  present,  we  could  have  had  many  thousands  more,  many  turned  back  because 
of  lack  of  space,  if  the  Children's  Clothing  Workers  would  have  also  p&  : 

In  the  everyday  routine  work  we  frequently  come  in  conflict  with  each  other.  I 
believe  it  is  high  time  for  this  convention  to  come  out  definitely  and  urge  both  Joint 
Boards  to  unite.  I  believe  that  when  we  will  do  that  we  will  have  one  of  the  most 
powerful,  one  of  the  most  efficient  central  bodies  in  New  York  City. 

Chairman  8CHLO8SBBRG:  Delegates.  1  want  to  call  your  attention  to  one 
thing.  We  have  shown  in  this  convention  the  efficiency  of  democracy.  Now  the  most